Alignment: Overall Summary

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten materials reviewed partially meet the criteria for alignment to standards and research-based practices for foundational skills instruction.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction for letter identification of all 26 letters. Materials do not explicitly teach the letters q and x. Additionally, it is unclear if both lowercase and uppercase letters are included in instruction. No instruction for letter formation is included in instructional materials.  Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books.

Materials provide frequent opportunities students to engage in phonological awareness activities across the phonological awareness hierarchy; however, explicit instruction of counting syllables is not evident.

Materials provide practice of each newly taught sound (phoneme) and sound pattern and provide a variety of multimodal/multisensory activities for student practice. Materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling. Materials include explicit instruction of all grade-level phonics standards through the use of the "Large Group" and "Small Group" manuals; however, reading of complete words is limited to calling on students during "Large Group" instruction which may not provide opportunities for all students to read complete words and in "Small Group" a student may be in a level below grade-level, which may not provide opportunities for all students to decode grade-level words. Materials provide explicit modeling provided by the teacher and peer-to-peer feedback on accuracy to build towards automaticity. Materials provide teachers with guidance to assist students with confirmation reading or self-correct errors in the "Flip and Assist Manual;" however, limited opportunities are provided to read emergent-level texts for purpose and understanding.

See Rating Scale Understanding Gateways

Alignment

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Partially Meets Expectations

Gateway 1:

Standards and Research-Based Practices

0
28
50
58
41
50-58
Meets Expectations
29-49
Partially Meets Expectations
0-28
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 2:

Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

0
24
44
50
38
44-50
Meets Expectations
25-43
Partially Meets Expectations
0-24
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway One

Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction

Partially Meets Expectations

+
-
Gateway One Details

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten materials reviewed partially meet the criteria for alignment to standards and research-based practices for foundational skills instruction.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction for letter identification of all 26 letters. Materials do not explicitly teach the letters q and x. Additionally, it is unclear if both lowercase and uppercase letters are included in instruction.

Materials do not meet the criteria for materials embed letter identification practice in meaningful print use. Materials also do not provide directions for proper letter formation are not provided.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books.

Materials meet the criteria for materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness; however, explicit instruction of counting syllables is not evident.

Materials meet the criteria for materials provide practice of each newly taught sound (phoneme) and sound pattern and provide a variety of multimodal/multisensory activities for student practice.

Materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling. Materials include explicit instruction of all grade-level phonics standards through the use of the "Large Group" and "Small Group" manuals; however, reading of complete words is limited to calling on students during "Large Group" instruction which may not provide opportunities for all students to read complete words. Materials provide opportunities for students to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity. Materials provide explicit modeling provided by the teacher and peer-to-peer feedback on accuracy to build towards automaticity. Materials provide teachers with guidance to assist students with confirmation reading or self-correct errors in the "Flip and Assist Manual;" however, limited opportunities are provided to read emergent-level texts for purpose and understanding.

Criterion 1a - 1b

Materials and instruction provide embedded support with general concepts of print, and systematic and explicit instruction and practice for letter recognition.
3/10
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten partially meets the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction for letter identification of all 26 letters. Materials do not explicitly teach the letters q and x. Additionally, it is unclear if both lowercase and uppercase letters are included in instruction. Materials do not meet the criteria for materials embed letter identification practice in meaningful print use. Materials also do not provide directions for proper letter formation are not provided. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books (K-1) and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters.

Indicator 1a

Letter Identification
0/0

Indicator 1a.i

Materials provide explicit instruction for letter identification of all 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase) (K).
1/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction for letter identification of all 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase). (K)

Although all letters are used in the "ABC Point and Sing Practice" for letter identification, q and x are not explicitly taught in the Kindergarten materials provided. While the instruction for letter identification for 24 letters is isolated, systematic, and explicit, and includes making the associated sounds, describing the lips and tongue while making the sound, choosing a picture of the mouth shape, spelling the sound (to create one-to-one correspondence), and assigning the sound to a group type (explosive, squeezer, special sound), it is not clear if both lowercase and uppercase letters are included in instruction. The letters with explicit instruction provided are introduced and reviewed within a 31-week timeframe.

Materials do not contain isolated, systematic and explicit instruction for all 26 letters (recognize and name uppercase and lowercase).

  • Students have opportunities to recognize and name most upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
    • In the "Large Group Manual," Table of Contents, pages xii-xiii, the order of consonant introduction is provided for the teacher. The letters q and x are not listed on these pages.
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 17, the materials recommend the teacher “utilize common letter/sound activities found in basal programs and other teacher resources using the letter -m.”
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 134, students learn about the /z/ sound. As part of the lesson the teacher tells students, “The letter we need for /z/ is the letter -z. I need a helper sitting up straight and tall with eyes up here to point and sing to -z on our ABC chart. (Have a student point and sing to -z, then choose the letter -z from the three letters and place it under the picture.).”
    • In the Kindergarten "Reproducibles Manual," although there is one page that provides a visual for an uppercase and lowercase Yy, all other lists of letters and materials include lowercase letters and no uppercase letters.

There is a defined sequence for letter instruction to be completed in a reasonable time frame over the school year. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages xii-xiii, the Table of Contents outlines which consonants and vowels are taught.
  • In the "Flip & Assist," page 4, letters are introduced in pools: Pool 1 includes m, n, f, v, p, b, a; Pool 2 includes t, d, c, k, g, i; Pool 3 includes s, z, j, u; Pool 4 includes l, r, o; Pool 5 includes w, h, y, e.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 48, the materials state, “PTR introduces the consonant and vowel sounds in five ‘sound pools’:"
    • M, n, f, v, p, b, a.
    • T, d, c, k, g, i.
    • S, z, j, u.
    • L, r, o.
    • W, h, y, e.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 48, the teacher is directed to, “Weigh moving on at a quicker pace against a slower one in which mastery and ‘over-learning’ to the point of automaticity occurs. This solid foundation can prevent confusions.”

Indicator 1a.ii

Materials engage students in sufficient practice of letter identification.(K)
1/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials engage students in sufficient practice of letter identification.

The Kindergarten Pathways to Reading materials provide students with opportunities to practice letter identification. Letter sounds and names are practiced daily during Weeks 1-31. Routines such as "ABC Point and Sing" are used consistently during Weeks 1-26. "Letters in a Cup," "Wild Horses," and "Cross the River" are utilized throughout the program. Although x and q are incorporated into the "ABC Point and Sing" routine, the letters x and q are not the focus of any lessons. While students have practice identifying and naming x and q during the "ABC Point and Sing" routine, there are no other opportunities to practice identifying these letters in isolation.

Materials provide students with frequent opportunities to engage in practice identifying all 26 letters; however, practice identifying uppercase letters is limited. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-6, letters q and x are not listed in the "Quarterly Literacy Plan." Letters q and x are in the pool of words in the Kindergarten "Reproducibles-Letter Naming Cards.” It is not clear when students learn how to identify these letters.
  • In the"Large Group Manual,"page 51, students learn about the /p/ sound. As part of the lesson the teacher tells students, “The letter we need for /p/ is the letter -p. I need a helper sitting up straight and tall with eyes up here to point and sing our way to -p on our ABC chart.”

Materials provide opportunities to engage in practice locating all 26 letters; however, practice locating uppercase letters is limited. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 11, students locate letters during the “ABC Point and Sing” routine. The routine is used during Weeks 1-26.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 48, it states, “When a letter is reviewed or used in a phonics activity have the students in addition to the letter’s sound and letter name also describe the mouth action and point to its picture."

Materials provide opportunities to engage in naming all 26 letters; however, naming uppercase letters is limited.

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 164, when completing the "ABC Point and Sing" routine, the teacher is prompted to “Vary use of the lower and upper case sides. Review the name of R and L and one other consonant of choice.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 59, students play “Prove It.” Student #1 picks a letter from the cup and tells Student #2 the name of the letter. Student #2 finds the letter on the ABC chart, places a marker on the chart, and states, “Prove It.” Student #2 says the ABCs while moving the letter along with the marker. If the letter is correct, the student circles the letter with crayon.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 57-58, during "Letter Naming Lesson 2," the teacher places letters m, n, f, v, p, b, and a in random order on the segment and white board, and students name the letters as quickly as they can, “I want you to name each of these letters as quickly as you can. Let’s pretend they’re a bridge across a river. Let’s see if you can get to the other side. The rest of you watch and listen, because I’m going to ask you to name them too. Everybody ready with their eyes?”

Indicator 1a.iii

Materials embed letter identification practice in meaningful print use.(K)
0/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten do not meet the criteria for materials embed letter identification practice in meaningful print use.

A"Literacy Station" activity provides opportunities for students to utilize magazines to locate words that contain letters being instructed on during a given week. However, it is unclear whether students are intentionally looking for upper- or lowercase letters. Teachers are referred to utilize outside sources, such as basals, on a regular basis for phonics games and activities.

Materials do not contain a variety of tasks/activities that apply letter identification and naming of all 26 uppercase letters to meaningful print use (e.g., initial letter of a child’s name, environmental print, letter assortments, alphabet books, shared writing). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 17, teachers are referred to outside sources for meaningful print activities, “Utilize common letter/sound activities found in basal programs and other teacher resources using the letter -m. (i.e., stories, songs, poems, alliteration, etc.) Include in the activities a description of the mouth action and use of the mouth picture.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 34, teachers are referred to outside sources to review the letter n, “Utilize phonics games and activities from any source.”

Materials do not contain a variety of tasks/activities that apply letter identification and naming of all 26 lowercase letters to meaningful print use (e.g., initial letter of a child’s name, environmental print, letter assortments, alphabet books, shared writing). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 41, the "Literacy Station" provides the opportunity for students to locate words that begin with the review letters in magazines. However, it is unclear whether students are naming uppercase or lowercase letters.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 58, when reviewing letter names, instructions for a pocket letter activity is provided, “This is the letter that was tricky for you. Now it’s your ‘pocket letter’. You can carry this around and practice it. (Station idea: Students can also make a yarn necklace with their letter/s on it. Students who didn’t have a tricky letter can choose their favorite letter. Alert staff and students to ask each other frequently what their letter is.)."

Indicator 1a.iv

Materials provide explicit instruction to print and to practice forming the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase).(K-1)
0/2
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten do not meet the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction to print and to practice the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase).

In the Pathways to Reading "Large Group Manual," the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" includes a "Handwriting" segment and indicates that letter formation, directionality, and spacing will be taught daily for the first two quarters; however, materials do not provide explicit instruction in the manuals. The materials provide students with letter writing opportunities; however, directions for proper letter formation are not provided.

Materials include some directions for the teacher concerning how to explain and model how to correctly form each of the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase):

  • Students have opportunities to print many upper- and lowercase letters:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, the "Quarterly Overviews" indicate that "Handwriting" is allotted 15 minutes each day.
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 17, under instructions for teaching the consonant m, materials state, “Practice printing the letter.” The materials do not include explicit instructions on how students form the letter.
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 47, the teacher introduces the "Writing Station" to students, “This week we will be learning how to work in another station. This is our "Writing Station" where we will practice writing letters, words and making stories….” The teacher models, “I will practice writing my first name. Notice how neatly I am writing. I am using straight lines and curved lines, etc. I begin with a capital and the rest of my letters are lower case.”

Materials include limited opportunities for students to practice forming all of the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase):

  • It is not clear in the "Teacher Manuals" whether the letters to be formed are uppercase or lowercase.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," pages 7-8, students practice “Shadow Writing” to form vowels. Students, “say the name of the letter as [they] write it.”

Materials include limited opportunities for students to practice forming letters using multimodal and/or multisensory methods. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Folder," page 7, the teacher introduces "Shadow Writing" to assist with imaging and learning "Vowel Town" spelling. The teacher tells students, “With your finger shadow write the letter -o on the desk (or table top). Say the name of the letter as you write it. That will help you remember what you write even better.”

Indicator 1b

Materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books (K-1) and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters. (K-early Grade 1)
1/2
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books (K-1), and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters (K-early Grade 1).

Lessons include minimal lessons about print concepts. Although decodable books and leveled books are recommended, specific lessons providing a connection between books and print concepts are not provided in the materials. There are no teacher or student books included in the materials. The materials provide cumulative reviews of letter identification during "ABC Point and Sing." Cumulative reviews of print concepts and printing letters are not included.

Materials do not include sufficient and explicit instruction for all students about the organization of print concepts (e.g., follow words left to right, spoken words correlate sequences of letters, letter spacing):

  • Students have limited opportunities to recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 98, students practice spelling the word vat. “(Sound leader’s name) you’re our sound leader. What’s the first sound in the word ‘vat’?” “Can you put the letter that’s needed for the /v/ sound on the first sound dot?”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 17, the teacher uses an arrow that has a green circle and a red triangle as its end points to illustrate where a word begins and ends. “Tell the student that when you make the first sound of the word your mouth will be over the green circle. When you make the last sound of the word your mouth will be over the red triangle.”

Materials do not include lessons, tasks, and questions for all students about the organization of print concepts (e.g., follow words left to right, spoken words correlate sequences of letters, letter spacing).

Materials do not include a variety of physical books (e.g., teacher-guided, such as big books) that are suitable for the teaching of print concepts:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 57, the materials state that students should read from “decodables or carefully chosen trade books.”

Materials do not include sufficient and explicit instruction about the organization of print concepts (e.g., follow words left to right, spoken words correlate sequences of letters, letter spacing) in the context of a book. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 179, students begin learning about reading in context on sentence strips and with decodable texts. Although the materials do not include student books, a thumbnail view of the eight page decodable text "Pam and Nan" is located on page 228 of the "Small Group Manual."
  • In the "Small Group Folder," page 2, the materials provide a list of books that align to the targeted letter or sounds in a week. The books are not included with the materials.

Materials do not include opportunities for students to engage in authentic practice using print concepts in the context of student books. No student books are present in the materials reviewed. The teacher is referred to outside sources for student books.

Materials contain periodic cumulative review opportunities for letter identification. Materials do not contain periodic cumulative review of print concepts or letter formation:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 98, students review the sound/letter association for the letters t, d, c, and k during Week 15.

Materials include students’ practice of previously learned print concepts, letter identification, and letter formation.

  • In the "Large Group manual," pages 2-5, the materials outline lessons for the vowels and consonants a, b, c, d, e, f, i, k, m, n, o, p, t, u, and v. All listed letters have 2 or more lessons listed. The consonants g, h, j, l, r, s, w, y, and z have one lesson, each, for identification and practice. Instruction for consonants q and x does not appear in the materials.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 164, the materials indicate the teacher should use "ABC Point and Sing" for Days 1, 2, and 5 as needed. The teacher is to, “Vary use of lower and upper case sides” to review the names of R, L and another letter of teacher choice.

Criterion 1c - 1e

Materials emphasize explicit, systematic instruction of researched-based and/or evidence-based phonological awareness.
10/12
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness; however, explicit instruction of counting syllables and adding individual sounds are not evident. Materials meet the criteria for materials provide practice of each newly taught sound (phoneme) and sound pattern and provide a variety of multimodal/multisensory activities for student practice.

Indicator 1c

Materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness activities during Kindergarten and early Grade 1.
4/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness activities through Kindergarten and Grade 1 grade.

Students have frequent opportunities to engage in phonological awareness practice during both small and whole group activities. Kindergarten materials provide phonological activities in the "Flip and Assist Manual" and in "the Advanced Oral PA Development Manual." "Flip and Assist" activities provide students opportunities to practice blending, stretching, and segmenting sounds. The teacher is provided with clear instructions to follow when teaching phonological awareness lessons. Activities are repeated throughout the course of the school year.

Materials include a variety of activities for phonological awareness. For example, the following is noted:

In the "Large Group Manual," page xii, the Table of Contents outlines segmenting activities that include: "Alliteration," "Name That Sound," "Arrest the Outlaw," "Give it the Test," "Head Shoulders," and "ARROW."

  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 6, the materials list three stretching word activities: "Bubble Gum Stretch," "Snail Slide," and "Spooky Words."
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 8, during "Snail Slide," the teacher is prompted to “discuss how slowly a snail moves and that it talks slowly too. Hold out one arm. With the opposite hand move the ‘snail’ slowly from the shoulder of the arm to the elbow and finally to the hand saying the word slowly without segmenting it…”

There are frequent opportunities for students to practice phonological awareness. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" includes phonemic awareness exercises daily through Quarter 3. "Segment and Write" and "Old/New Words" lessons continue through Quarter 4.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 136, students complete the "Head, Shoulders, Waist, and Clap" segmenting activity on Days 2 and 4. The teacher is instructed to “Hesitate a few seconds before saying the sounds to judge whether students are beginning to segment on their own. Call on individuals to segment a word. If s/he has difficulty simply do it with him/her.”
  • In "Advanced Oral PA Development," page 3, the "Whole Group Instructional Process" is described: “Advanced Oral PA can be taught during regular PTR whole group lessons as well as at any teachable moment. Several practice ideas include: group responses, alternate group responses with individual responses (2 words for the group/2 for the individual) or periodically call on a student to ‘earn his wings by flying through a list’.”

Indicator 1d

Materials provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness through systematic modeling across the K-1 grade band.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness through systematic modeling across the K-1 grade band.

Kindergarten materials provide activities with explicit instruction for phonological awareness activities in the "Flip and Assist Manual" and in the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual." Teacher instructions include a script that the teacher can read aloud to students to model new activities. The teacher is provided with examples of each skill and word lists to use when completing activities with students. Explicit instruction of counting syllables is not evident.

Materials provide the teacher with systematic, explicit modeling for instruction in syllables, sounds (phonemes), and spoken words. For example, the following is noted:

  • Materials include explicit instruction for students to recognize and produce rhyming words:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 29, the teacher models rhyming the words sat and fat, “When two words end with the same chunk of sounds like /sat/ and /fat/ we say they are rhyming words. You grab and punch with me and notice how the words sound alike at the end when we punch.”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," pages 18-21, four activities for rhyming are listed: "Nursery Rhymes," "Grab and Punch," "Two by Two to the Zoo," and "Names that Sound the Same."
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 18, the teacher explains key concepts about rhyming, “Words rhyme when their ending rimes are composed of the same order of phonemes (not necessarily letters). For example the rime in float is /ote/ The rime in wrote is /ote/.”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 21, the materials provide rhyming words to use in rhyming activities.
  • Materials include explicit instruction for students to pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words. Opportunities for counting syllables are missed:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 9-10, during the "Martian Talk" for blending, students segment and blend sounds in words, the teacher instructions include physical movements, “Hold up three fingers close together and brush your other hand over the tops for the fingers as you say ‘dog’,” as well as verbal prompts, “...say by squishing the sounds he says back into a word.”
    • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development," page 5, students blend two syllable compound words. Words to segment, blend, and pronounce include: toothache, treetop, wishbone, barnyard, and bluebird.
  • Materials include explicit instruction for students to blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 29, the teacher models completing the "Grab and Punch Rhyming Activity." “My word is ‘sat’. I’m going to grab the first part of the word (Reach one hand out in front of you, make a grabbing motion as you say /s/ and pull the hand back to the chest) then punch the hand forward and say the ending of the word /at/! Ask the class to grab and punch with you.”
    • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 13, the teacher is given the following routine to follow, “Teacher: say s. (R) Bold underlined letter indicates to give the sound not the letter name. Teacher: Add am. (R) Teacher: When you say s with am what’s the word? (R)" The teacher is provided with 18 different word lists to use to complete this activity.
    • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 13, teacher directions include specific ways to model how to blend rime units with initial consonant sounds to form CVC words. “We will create small words by putting sounds together and you figure out the word. Tchr: Say /s/. (Place a 1 in. square.)...now say /at/. (Place a 3 in. square to right). Put them together (push two squares together). What’s the word?”
  • Materials include explicit instruction for students to isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. This does not include CVC words ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.
    • In the "Advanced Oral Language PA Development Manual," page 13, the teacher isolates /s/ and models adding /am/.
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 16, during the "Snail Chomp" activity the teacher explains to students that the snail wants to chomp off the last letter of the word hat because its yummy. The teacher is to model, “My snail friend is going to chomp and chew that last sound. Listen: stretch again. Segment off /t/. Say: /t/. Yummy, yummy /t/t. Gulp.”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 14, during "Head, Shoulders, Waist, and Clap," the teacher isolates each sound while doing a body motion for initial, medial, and vowel sounds. The teacher model states the following:
      • Teacher: We’re going to say the little sounds in words. There are 3 sounds in the word dog. Watch me. (Say /d/ and place your hands on your head. Say /o/ and place your hands on your shoulders. Say /g/ and place your hands on your waist.”
  • Materials include explicit instruction for students to substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 168, students practice changing sounds in words when completing "Old Word/New Word." “Let’s change this old word (man) into the new word (pan). Don’t make any changes yet. I’d like you to think aloud with me. Think about the new word (pan). (Student name) what’s the first sound in the new word (pan)? (R) ”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 40, the activity “Old Word/New Word” outlines six (6) steps for teachers to help students compare the phonemes in two words to identify the one different sound. For example, Step 4 on page 41: “(Student name) what sound went out? (Student name) what sound came in? Student assist: “If student can’t remember, ‘That’s ok. The old word was (bit) the new word is (bat). Which sound (went away/came in)?’”
    • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," pages 13-14, students are prompted to add a sound to make a new word: “Say /s/. Add /am/. What’s the word?”

Materials provide the teacher with examples for instruction in syllables, sounds (phonemes), and spoken words called for in grade-level standards. Opportunities to count syllables are missed.

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 76, when completing the "Martian Talk" activity, teachers are given the following example to use, “Our word is ‘fat’. The cat ate a lot and got fat. We say ‘fat’, but the sounds fall apart when our Martian friend tries to say them. Class, let’s say fat slowly for (student name) so (she) can notice the first sound that our Martian friend would say. (Lead the class or call on a student to stretch the word /f…...a…...t/).”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 83, during the consonant review, the teacher is prompted to “point to the mouth picture for -t and -d. Have the students make the sounds and describe the mouth action. Have a student identify the loud and whispery sounds. Say the words attached to the mouth pictures. Segment off the beginning sounds and have the students repeat after you. Example: /t/, /t/, /toe/. /d/, /d/, /dog/.”
  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 5, the teacher models blending two syllable words into compound words:
    • Teacher: Say...hot (R = response) Say dog. (R)
    • Teacher: Put hot and dog together. The new word is.

Indicator 1e

Materials provide practice of each newly taught sound (phoneme) and sound pattern across the K-1 band.
4/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials provide practice of each newly taught sound (phoneme) and sound pattern across the K-1 band.

Materials provide a variety of practice opportunities to build students’ phonological awareness. Multiple games and activities are located in the "Flip and Assist Manual" and in the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual." "Flip and Assist" activities are repeated numerous times throughout the "Large Group Manual." Multisensory activities include a "Head, Shoulder, Waist, and Clap" segmenting routine and the opportunity to see pictures of the way the mouth should look when making different sounds.

Materials provide ample opportunities for students to practice each new sound and sound pattern called for in grade-level standards. For example, the following is noted:

  • Students have opportunities to recognize and produce rhyming words:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 31, at the end of a lesson on rhyming words, students practice sound patterns. In “You’re a Poet and You Don’t Even Know It” students “Create a sentence in which many rhyming words can be used to fill in the blank. Tell the students they can make rhymes. That they are poets and they don’t even know it.” Example sentences for the teacher to use are provided such as, “The mice like _____.” and, “The cat ran up to a _____.”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 18, students engage in the activity “Grab and Punch” which asks them to recognize rhyming words by isolating the initial sound of CVC words (references grab) and comparing the endings (references punch).
  • Students have opportunities to count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words:
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 12, students play “A Hunting We Will Go!” Materials state: “Sing the following verse to the tune of The Farmer in the Dell. A hunting we will go. A hunting we will go. Let’s see what you can catch. A hunting we will go. Tell the class they catch an animal if they can figure out its name. Sing the above verse again then say: “Catch this animal: /c/, /a…t/. (onset rime) or /c/, /a/, /t/ (fully segmented). Get group responses, and then call on individuals.”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual", page 12, students blend sounds through the activity “Word Magic.” The teacher says a word, and students use a “wand” to put broken words back together.
  • Students have opportunities to blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words:
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 96, students learn to "Segment and Write." The teacher helps students segment the word fan. “Teacher: Let’s segment the word again and notice the last sound our Martian friend would say. Lead the students to stretch ‘fan’ again. Teacher: (Student #1) what is the last sound our Martian friend would say? (R: /n/)."
    • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 15, the teacher models blending onset and rime, "Teacher: We have another mystery word game. We will create small words by adding a sound to the beginning of a word part. Say ap. (place a 3in. square) (R) Teacher: Now add s at the beginning. (Place a 1 in square of a different color in front of ap.) Say s first. (Push two squares together) What's the word?" There are 12 different word lists to use with students to complete the activity multiple times.
  • Students have opportunities to isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.):
    • In the "Large and Small Group Manuals," students engage in "Segment and Write" activities daily beginning in Quarter 2.
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 96, students isolate and pronounce the middle sound of fan. “Teacher: There’s a sound missing in the middle of our word. Our Martian friend wants to see if we can figure it out. I’m going to use our arrow again. You’ll see me make the /f/ sound when my mouth is over this green arrow. You’ll see me make the /n/ sound at the end of this red dot. Watch carefully when my mouth is over this yellow line. Tell me if the sound you hear in the middle has my mouth looking smiley like this (smile as you would for /a/) or wide open like this (wide open as you would for /o/)."
    • In the "Small Group Manuel," page 100, students isolate and pronounce final sounds. “T: (Sound leader) what’s the last sound in the word (man)? (R)"
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 134, it states, “Here are some picture words that start with the /z/ sound. Feel your teeth together for /z/ when you say the words. (Say each word zipper, zoo, zebra.).” The teacher also asks students, “What other words can you think of that begin with /z…./?”
  • Students have opportunities to substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words. Opportunities to add individual sounds to simple, one syllable words are missed:
    • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 2, students complete the following activities with CVC words:
      • Lesson 5: Blend onset to form CVC word.
      • Lesson 6: Blend rime to form CVC word.
      • Lesson 7: Omit onset to form CVC word.
      • Lesson 8: Omit rime from CVC word.
      • Lesson 9: Substitute onset in CVC word.
      • Lesson 10: Substitute rime in CVC word.
    • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 21, students learn to substitute the first sound in CVC words to form new words. “Teacher: Say... charm. Teacher: Say charm, but change ch to f. What’s the word?”

Materials include a variety of multimodal/multisensory activities for student practice of phonological awareness:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 141, the teacher tells students to “Make the sound /ch/. Feel the air. (Model. Say /ch/. Hold hand close to mouth).” The teacher shows students pictures of the lips making the sound, “Here are two pictures. Which is a picture with fat lips and air exploding?”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 14, students practice phonological awareness through "Head, Shoulders, Waist, & Clap."
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 19, students practice phonological awareness through physical movement in activities such as "Grab & Punch."
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 20, students practice phonological awareness through oral word-play such as "Two by Two at the Zoo."

Criterion 1f - 1j

Materials emphasize explicit, systematic instruction of researched-based and/or evidence-based phonics.
16/20
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling. Materials include explicit instruction of all grade-level phonics standards through the use of the "Large Group" and "Small Group" manuals; however, reading of complete words is limited to calling on students during "Large Group" instruction which may not provide opportunities for all students to read complete words.

Indicator 1f

Materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling.

The Kindergarten materials provide teachers with sample dialogue to present explicit phonics instruction to students. The "Teacher Manuals" provide dialogue samples for repeated lessons or refer the teacher back to the introductory lesson. The online video library is referenced as a resource for teacher modeling in applicable lessons.

Materials contain explicit instructions for systematic and repeated teacher modeling of all grade level phonics standards. For example, the following is noted:

  • Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary sound or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 36-37, the process for teaching students new consonant sounds is provided:
      • The teacher makes the sound.
      • Describe the mouth action.
      • Choose a picture that matches mouth action.
      • Spell (Students point and sing to f on the ABC chart.).
      • Group the sound/letter based on the sound it makes.
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 37, the teacher teaches f/f/. The teacher states, “Let’s talk about a new sound today. Watch my mouth: /f.../. You make that sound. (R)…. The letter we need for /f/ is the letter -f.”
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 56, the teacher teaches b/b/. As part of the lesson, the teacher is instructed to, “Place 3 letters on the board” and tell students, “The letter we need for /b/ is the letter -b. I need a helper sitting up straight and tall with eyes up here to point and sing out way to -b on our ABC chart.” The teacher is also told, “(Have a student point and sing to -b, then chose the letter -b from the three letters and place it under the picture.).”
  • Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 64, the teacher discusses the short a, e, i, o, and u vowel sounds with students. The teacher is provided with clear instructions for introducing each letter, “Name the letter. Prove it by singing to it on the ABC chart. Ask, then tell the sound it represents. Describe the shape of the mouth when the sound is made. Use choice question, is the mouth smiling or wide open for this sound?” Start at the top of smile hill holding the letter to the side of each house as the vowel sounds are said. Do them in sets.”
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 194, during the "Vowel Review-Say It and Spot the Vowel" activity, the teacher is given the sample dialogue, “Let’s say our vowel town sounds. Listen and watch my mouth: /ee/, /i/, /e/, /ae/, /a/, /u/. Our wide open sound /o/. Our circle sound /oe/. Our taxi sounds /ie/, /ue/.” The teacher is advised to wait for student responses between vowel sets.
  • Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 83-87, students complete the "Old/New Word" routine. One of the objectives for this lesson is, “When comparing two words students can tell when sounds have been omitted, added or substituted.” The four words students spell are man, pan, pat, and at. The teacher states, “Let’s change pan to the new word pat. Help me compare sounds again. Think in your heads. What’s the first sound in pat? Is that the same sound as the first sound in this old word pan? Repeat the process to compare /a/ and /n/. Have the students determine that the -n needs to be replaced with the letter -t.”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," pages 40-41, the "Old Word/New Word" activity provides teachers with sample dialogue for all steps in the lesson. In step 1, “Let’s find the sounds in some words. (Student name) be our sound leader. Our word is (bit). There are (three) sounds in the word (bit).” In step 2 the teacher states, “You heard the sound. Now you can spell it.” In step 3, “Now let’s do Old Word/New Word. Push your letters together, and put them in the middle of your board. Change this old word (bit) into the new word (bat).” Sample dialogue is provided for steps four through six as well.

Lessons provide teachers with systematic and repeated instruction for students to hear, say, encode, and read each newly taught grade level phonics pattern. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 68, students review previously learned consonants, “Review sounds and mouth actions for m, n, f, v, p, b. Do one or two each review day. Point to a mouth picture. Call on a student to describe the mouth action and to give the sounds that go with the picture. Have the class say the names of the attached pictures that begin with the sound. Have the class say the first sound of a picture two times and then the picture name: /b/, /b/, /bat/.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 189, the teacher shows how to write the word game, sound-by-sound. The sound is stated. A student sound leader writes the sound on the board, while the students write the letter in the air.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 206, the materials provide sample dialogue for the teacher, “Screech is here to introduce an exciting new sound to you. Make this sound /sh/.” Later in the lesson the teacher tells students, “/sh/ is spelled with 2 letters. What two letters spell the /sh/ sound?” The teacher is then prompted to say, “Screech is here with his magic word bag. He has some words that begin with /sh/ and some that don’t. If the word begins with /sh/ we’ll write -s-h in the air.”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 31, the activity “Say It. Cover and Spell It” asks students to say the vowel sound after the teacher points to it. Then the student is asked to spell the sound.

Indicator 1g

Materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns and provide opportunities for students to review previously taught phonics skills.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns and provide opportunities for students to review previously taught phonics skills.

The materials provide opportunities to practice decoding skills over the course of the instructional sequence during "Large Group" and "Small Group" instruction for students' current level of foundational skills instruction; however, during "Large Group" instruction of grade-level decoding skills, all students may not be provided the opportunity to practice applying phonics skills. Since a student may be working in a small group that is not at grade-level, there is no guarantee that all students will have opportunities to apply grade-level phonics skills. Students practice reading different words with similar spellings. As the year progresses, sentence strips are utilized for students to practice reading complete words in sentences. Activities and games are repeated consistently throughout the manual and provide opportunities for students to practice and apply what they are learning.

Lessons provide students with some daily opportunities to decode (phonemes, onset and rime, and/or syllables) phonetically spelled words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 135, students practice reading single words. While the teacher is instructed to have Level 4 students read the words, the teacher is reminded to “Involve more students by asking one student to point to and say the vowel sound. Ask a second student to say the rime, a third to say the word. (/a/, /ap, /map/.) Model this as often as needed.”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 22, students engage in “Freeze & Match Vowel Hill” which asks them to select a short and long vowel letter (e.g., a, e, and a_e, ee) from a pile. Students then answer with one of the following responses:
    • “Can this vowel say its name?”
    • “Why (or Why not?)?”
    • “What is its sound?”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 135-138, students practice reading words from a "Word Reading List" (WRL). Students read three words independently and if the student needs to fix an error, there are notes for the student to follow.

Lessons provide students with daily opportunities for some students to read complete words by saying the entire word as a unit using newly taught phonics skills during "Large Group" and "Small Group" instruction. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 102, students practice reading sentence strips. The teacher is instructed to, “Choose a sentence strip. Call on a student to read the sentence strip.” The teacher is provided with numerous sentence strips to use when completing this activity. For example, “1. The man can nab the van.” “5. Pam has found a pan.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 125, during the "Read in Context" activity, students read by applying decoding skills. The teacher calls on a student to read a sentence strip assisting the student if the student has difficulty by asking, “What’s the vowel sound? What’s the word? What will you ask yourself to help you figure out this word?”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 131, during the "Old Word/New Word" activity, students use sound dots and letters to read words, substitute letters, and create new words. Words used for Days 2 and 4 are gab, tab, tub, sub, tag, tub, cub, and sub.

Materials contain daily opportunities for students to review previously learned grade-level phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 3, the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" for the Second Quarter indicates that students "Point and Sing" to the "ABC Chart" in Week 14 with a focus on c, k. Students practice letter sound mouth actions for c, k, and complete "Segment and Write" activities with Pool 1 and c, k letters. Students practice "Old Word/New Word" with Pool 1 letters.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 41, students review the consonants m, n and f by playing the game "Wild Horses." In this game, students try to say the consonant names as quickly as they can. If the student says the letters/sounds, “horses” are then caught. If the student does not say the letter/sound quickly enough, it is a free “horse.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 124, students review vowel letters and sounds. The teacher tells students, “I need someone sitting up straight and tall with eyes up here to tell the class the names of the five letters that are vowel letters.” After the vowel letters have been named, the teacher is instructed to tell students, “I need someone sitting up straight and tall to say those five sounds for us.”

Materials contain a variety of methods to promote students’ practice of previously taught grade level phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 4, included in the "Third Quarter Overview," materials state Consonant letters s, z, and j are introduced during Weeks 20-22 and reviewed in Weeks 23 and 24. "Segment and Write," "Old Word/New Word," "Read Words," and "Read in Context" activities include practice with the letters.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 129, teachers are instructed to complete a vowel review on Days 1-5 of the week. Materials provide four possible activities to use to complete the vowel review. One of these activities is "Say on Own" in which the teacher is instructed to “Call on an individual to say the vowel hill sounds independently. Assist as needed. (Refer to Flip and Assist/Say on own).”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 142, students independently decode words from the "Word Reading Cards." Students begin by reading the rime, then saying the word. When students correctly read the word, they are handed their word and practice reading the words as quickly as possible.

Indicator 1h

Materials provide frequent opportunities for students to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials promote frequent opportunities for students to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence.

Pathways to Reading materials provide students with opportunities to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence in both whole group and small group settings. The "Read in Context" routine provides students with frequent opportunities to read complete sentences. "Read in Context" sentences contain both decodable words and high-frequency words. The consistent routine includes teacher prompts to help students decode words by asking questions such as “What’s the vowel sound?” "Read in Context" is completed biweekly beginning in Week 15.

Materials provide explicit, systematic practice for decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 108, students practice reading sentence strips. Words with short a and short i are the focus of the sentence strips students read in this lesson. Sentence strips 28-41 include sentences such as, “28. The kid has a tan cat.” and “37. Tim is in the back of the van.” The teacher is provided with prompts to use to help students decode the sentences, “1. Student pauses on a word. Ask “What’s the vowel sound?” (R) “What’s the word?” 2. Does that make sense in the context of what you’re reading?” (R) 3. Later ask the student: “What will you ask yourself to help you figure out this word?” 4. Respond to decoding errors following Student Assist strategies.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 156, in the "Read in Context" lesson for Days 2 and 4 students use a sentence strip from numbers 78-84 to apply decoding strategies to words in a sentence. The teacher is to assist with decoding by asking the following questions: “What’s the vowel sound? What's the word? Does the word make sense in the context? What will you ask yourself to help you figure out this word?” The teacher is to assist students by responding to their decoding errors using the "Student Assist" strategies.
  • In the "Reproducibles," there are 165 sentence strips to use with Level 3 students in small group instruction and 50 "Xtend" sentence strips to use with Level 4 students in small group instruction. The sentence strips feature the targeted phonics pattern for each week:
    • Level 3 sentences 64-71, add -s: “64. Sam has fun in the sun; 65. The nuts are in the sack; 70. The pups sip form the big mug.”
    • Level 4 sentences, 26-30, add -ee: “27. Did they peel the skin off all the fresh beets?; 30. She will shave the sheep and then ship them home.”

Lessons provide students with frequent opportunities to decode words in a sentence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 3-5, the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" lists program opportunities to decode words in a sentence. In the second quarter students begin the "Read in Context" lesson in Weeks 15-17. In the third quarter students are given "Read in Context" lessons in Weeks 19-26. In the fourth quarter students are provided "Read in Context" lessons in Weeks 31-34.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 176, materials provide teachers with directions for setting up a "Sentence Strip Reading Center/Station." Students read sentence strips to a partner based on their reading level. The teacher is instructed to rotate the activities students complete with a focus on one of the following: imagery, phrasing, prosody, and word sorts.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 19, Levels 3 and 4, students use the sentence strips found in the "Reproducibles" during regular instruction (i.e., Days 4-6 of small group instruction).
  • In the "Small Group Folder," page 4, teachers are provided with a website to use for free downloadable books (e.g., A-Z Decodable Books) for students, textproject.org/beginningreads. Some of the books teachers are instructed to use from this Web site include the following: Level 3, Book 1 Too Hot!, Level 4, Book 1 It’s Time to Go, and Level 1, Book 1 Buns & Jam.

Indicator 1i

Materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns.

Materials provide students with regular opportunities to build, write, and manipulate sounds throughout the "Small Group" and "Large Group" manuals. Within the phonics routines, students practice writing the words and use magnetic letters to spell the words. Teacher instructions for these routines are clear and explicit:

The materials contain teacher-level instruction/modeling for building/manipulating/spelling and encoding words using common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns of phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 76, during the "Segment and Write" lesson for Days 1-5, students apply sound and letter associations for the new letter t and review previously introduced letters. “Follow the Segment and Write process (Flip and Assist)”. The class says the word slowly like a Martian as a student segments each sound and spells the word. The sound leader writes the word. The words provided for the five days are fat, tap, fit, tip, mat, bit, vat, and time.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 169, teachers are provided with instructions for students to complete the "Old Word/New Word" routine. “Pull a name and have that student begin Old/New. Place the name aside and call another name. That student makes a word change. Continue this process until the spell and read part of the list are completed. Bundle the sticks with names of students who didn’t get a turn and give them a turn next time. All consonants to date are reviewed in each list.” The teacher is provided with the two lists to use with students for the week. “List for Day 2: Spell - lap, lip, jip, tip; Read - top, lop, lap, lip, sip. List for Day 4: Spell - lug, lag, sag, sig; Read - jig, zig, zug, lug, lag.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 104, the materials script the process for the lesson, “What’s the first sound in cost? Show us one way to spell the /k/ sound. Show us another way to spell the /k/ sound.” (Teacher then introduces the Screech poster with c? Or k?)." Students practice writing the word clap after the teacher explains the rule.

Lessons provide students with daily opportunities to build/manipulate/spell, and encode words in isolation based on common and newly-taught phonics patterns. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 130, students complete the "Segment and Write" routine for the following words, “Day 1: sat, sun. Day 3: sop, sit. Day 5: sad, bet.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 199, during the "Segment and Write" practice for Days 1 and 3 with -y and o_e, students spell with -y as a consonant, and place the -e at the end. “Follow the Segment and Write guide in Flip and Assist.” The teacher selects a sound leader and a speller. The group is to "stretch the word." Students write the word at the end of the activity. The teacher places magnetic letters on the board for all vowels and consonants b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y, z along with three sound dots. The words to be used for practice both days include yam, yoke, yip, bone, yet, and hope.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 94-98, students are introduced to the "Segment and Write" routine during which students segment words into their individual sounds and manipulate the letters in order to build a word on the magnetic board.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 111, students use a marker on a whiteboard to write the sounds they hear in game.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 116, students complete the "Segment and Write" routine to spell the word sweet.

Indicator 1j

Materials provide application and encoding of phonics in activities and tasks. (mid K-Grade 2)
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials promote application and encoding of phonics in activities and tasks (mid K-Grade 2).

The Pathways to Reading Kindergarten materials provide explicit systematic teacher modeling and instruction encoding of phonics from sounds to letters and words in writing tasks. While students frequently complete "Segment and Write" activities with single words, the application of phonics to activities where students write phrases or complete sentences is not evident in the materials.

Materials include explicit, systematic teacher-level instruction of teacher modeling that demonstrates the use of phonics to encode sounds to letters and words in writing tasks. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 38, the teacher tells students there are three sounds in the word bit. The students give the teacher each sound and then are asked to write it. The teacher tells students how to spell the word if needed, “You spell the sound /b/ with a (-b).”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 116-117, students complete a "Segment and Write" lesson with the word sweet. As part of the lesson the teacher explains, “Two ee’s stick together,” “Screech is screeching and hollering, because the English language is so tricky. He wants you to know, that we are so right that -e almost always goes to the end of the word. But the two -ees are an exception. They are like identical twins. Identical twins are two kids that look exactly alike. They really like to stick together and do things together. So most of the time, the two -e’s will stay together on one sound dot. Sometimes they split up, but most of the time they will stick together.” Students then practice identifying and writing the sounds in the word sweet.

Lessons do not provide students with frequent activities and tasks to promote application of phonics as they encode words in sentences or in phrases based on common and newly taught phonics patterns.

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 159, students engage in "Segment and Write" during whole group instruction. Students practice with an -l emphasis. Words include: log, lap (Day 1); lid, lug (Day 3); and lot, lip (Day 5). While directions do call for, “two new students to again segment and this time write the word”, there is no evidence of activities where students are writing sentences or phrases.

Criterion 1k - 1m

Materials and instruction support students in learning and practicing regularly and irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
6/8
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and practice opportunities of high-frequency words to develop automaticity. In the Pathways to Reading "Large Group Manual," "Overview 25" of the first 100 "Fry Words" are introduced. Explicit teacher modeling of the spelling of each high-frequency word is not included in the materials. Students also do not have opportunities to write frequency words. Materials provide the teacher with explicit lessons on introduction to word analysis strategies of phoneme and grapheme recognition.

Indicator 1k

Materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and opportunities to practice reading of high-frequency words to develop automaticity.
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and practice opportunities of high-frequency words to develop automaticity.

In the Pathways to Reading "Large Group Manual Overview," 25 of the first 100 "Fry Words" are introduced. Explicit teacher modeling of the spelling of each high-frequency word is not included in the materials. Teachers are instructed to conduct a “Think Aloud”; however, materials do not provide guidance for the "Think Aloud." Students have frequent opportunities to practice high-frequency words over the course of the school year. High-frequency words are practiced on a daily basis and include a home to school connection. Students are provided with 25 high-frequency words to study over the course of the year.

Materials include systematic and explicit instruction of high-frequency words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual,"page 143, the teacher is prompted to “Choose a new word to highlight in read aloud stories. Add it to the door frame. Have students read the sight words when they go in and out of the door. Keep up the Olympics theme, invite coaches to practice and decide when to have judges visit. Coaches continue to work with a student and words 1-6 and 7-12 until they’re mastered and then begin words 13-18. Plan award ceremonies for each list learned. Use words in stations.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 139, during the "Introduction to Screech Words," which is used with "Snap and Map" card sets (i.e., first 100 high-frequency words), the teacher tells students the first word is a "Screech" word because it is tricky and not spelled the way it sounds. “This word is ‘of’. Who can tell us the sounds in the word ‘of’?” The teacher has students spell the word as it sounds then tells students it is a two-part cheater word. The teacher asks mapping questions, “What is the first letter of this word?” Then student reads the phrase, “(Student name) read the phrase with our Screech word.”

Materials include frequent opportunities for the teacher to model the spelling and reading of high-frequency words in isolation. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 24, teachers are provided with instructions for teaching sight words:
    • First six most frequently used sight words: the, of, and, a, to, in.
    • Preview materials to be read to the class. After doing a "Think Aloud," tell the students they are to help you find the sight words which they will study for several weeks. Each day tell them a new word. Have highlighting tape available to highlight the words as they are located. Pieces of highlighting tape may be made available and students can search on their own for the week’s sight words.
    • Post the words on the frame to the classroom door. Read the words to the students as they enter and leave the room. Eventually ask students to read them for you.
    • Introduce an activity called "Sight Word Olympics." This is an at-home connection used to motivate students to practice sight words. See "Reproducibles/Consonants."
    • If desired, add up to five additional words determined by your school, district or grade level.
      • In the "Large Group Manual," page 33, the teacher is referred to the introductory page 24 as they are to highlight words in literature, post practice words around the door, and engage in "Sight Word Olympics."

Students practice identifying and reading high-frequency words in isolation. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 24, teachers are provided with instructions for completing "Sight Word Olympics." The game is repeated both at home and at school. The activity is repeated numerous times throughout the school year. Teachers are instructed to have parents and older students help students learn their words. Some of the ideas teachers are provided with for practice include, “a. Students try to locate their words in books that they are ‘reading’ or that are being read to them. b. Students bring in things with their words highlighted. (Cereal boxes, children’s books, etc.) c. Students read their words to their coaches.“
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 137, during the "Paired Learning for Independent Word Reading Practice," either a "Word Reading List" (which includes some high-frequency words) or "SNAP" cards (consisting of the first 100 "Fry Words") are used. Students work in groups of two playing the roles of a "teacher" and a "student" and use a timer to quickly read the words. Student pairs use the following questions: “What’s the vowel? What’s the rime? What’s the word?” The "teacher" must agree with the "student." If the students do not agree, the word is placed in a red circle.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 142, students work independently to decode words and to read words accurately. The first time the teacher shows the student a word, the student reads the rime and says the word. The teacher hands the student the card back, and then the student is to "eyeball" the rime and read the word. The teacher says, “SNAP and hand back!” The student reads each word and hands the word card back to the teacher as quickly as possible.

Materials do not include a sufficient quantity of grade-appropriate, high-frequency words for students to make reading progress. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 141, teachers are provided with a list of 100 "Fry Words." These words however, are not required to be mastered, “Ensure students master the 25 words with asterisks. Consider student independent decoding abilities in determining how much time to devote to learning the full 100. They will be much easier to learn in first grade when students have more phonics information.”
  • In the "Reproducibles," "Sight Word Olympics," materials contain four word lists for students to study. The 25 words identified for Kindergarten include the following:
    • Word List #1-and, of, in, the, to, a
    • Word List #2-that, you, he, it, is, was
    • Word List #3-his, are, with, for, on, as
    • Word List #4-this, they, be, at, have, from, I

Indicator 1l

Materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences).
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences).

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten materials provide students with frequent opportunities for reading high-frequency words in context; however, opportunities for students to write high-frequency words are not evident.

Lessons provide students with frequent opportunities to read grade-level high-frequency words in a sentence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 102, on Days 2 and 4 students practice reading sentence strips. The teacher is prompted to “Choose a sentence strip. Call on a student to read the sentence strip.” Examples of sentences students may read include “2. Is the man in the van?” “5. Pam has a fan and a pan.” “21. Dan and I have a dip.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 131, students read a sentence strip from sentence strips 51-63. The teacher calls on a student to read the sentence strip. Sentence strips 51-63 include the high-frequency words: is, in, the, and, on, with, you, that, it, I, as, into, for, did.

Lessons do not provide students with frequent opportunities to write grade level high-frequency words in tasks, such as sentences, in order to promote automaticity in writing grade-appropriate, high-frequency words.

Materials provide repeated, explicit instruction in how to use student-friendly reference materials and resources, and reading high-frequency words (e.g., word cards, word lists, word ladders, student dictionaries). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 77, teachers are instructed to write sight words on cards and post them by the door, then, “Have students read the sight words when they go in and out of the door.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 174-175, students read sentence strips and categorize words by sorting them and placing them on the "Word Find Template." If the word is not spelled as it sounds, “It’s not playing fair!” and gets placed under Screech words. If the word is spelled phonetically, it is written under the corresponding vowel letter. “Complete the sentence reading, word-by-word.”
  • In the "Reproducibles," "Sight Word Olympics," four words lists are included for students to practice their sight words. Students read the word list three times with the words in a different order each time.

Indicator 1m

Materials explicitly teach word analysis strategies (e.g., phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis) based on the requirements of the standards and provide students with frequent practice opportunities to apply word analysis strategies.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials explicitly teach word analysis strategies (e.g., phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis) based on the requirements of the standards and provide frequent practice opportunities for students to apply word analysis strategies.

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten materials provide the teacher with explicit lessons on introduction to word analysis strategies of phoneme and grapheme recognition. Word analysis practice is found in the "Small and Large Group Manuals." In the "Flip and Assist Manual," the teacher is provided with additional support for students who may be struggling.

Materials contain frequent explicit instruction of word analysis strategies (e.g., phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 94, students practice reading single words. “T: (student name), what’s the vowel sound in this word? (R) T: Slide from the vowel sound to the end. (R) T: Now start again. Add this sound (Point to the first sound.) (R) T: What’s the word?”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 209-210, the teacher is given sample dialogue to introduce the /ch/ sound. The teacher is directed to use "Screech," and the "-h Brothers Chart." "/ch/ is spelled with two letters. What two letters spell the /ch/ sound?” The teacher reviews /th/ and /sh/ with the "-h Brothers Chart."

Materials contain frequent explicit instruction of word solving strategies to decode unfamiliar words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 102, the teacher is provided with questions to assist the student in decoding. “1. Student pauses on a word. Ask: 'What’s the vowel sound?' (R) 'What’s the word?' (R) 'Does that make sense to what your reading?' (R) 2. Later ask the student: 'What will you ask yourself to help you figure out this word?'"
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 205, students read words with sh, th, and long vowel words. The teacher is provided the directions, “Student #1-point to the -h brother in this word. Class thumbs up if you agree. Student #2 what’s the word? Use Student Assist with Flip and Assist Read Words.”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," pages 43-46, "Read Words," the teacher is provided with strategies to help students who are struggling to read words. For example, one phonics strategy is "Optional Sounds for -c and -g." The teacher is provided with numerous questions to aid the student in decoding, for example, “T: What sound are you thinking of for the (-g)? (R) T: What other sounds can -g have? (R) T: In this word it has the /g/ sound.”

Multiple and varied opportunities are provided over the course of the year for students to learn, practice, and apply word analysis strategies. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 106, students complete the "Climb the Ladder" activity. Students practice identifying vowels in words. “Scan the ladder for use with a Smart Board. Have students come up and circle the vowel in each word. Have one or two students climb the ladder by saying only the vowel sound in each word. Erase the circle around the vowel letters and have a student climb the ladder. Use Flip and Assist to aid in responding to errors or offering assistance.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 203, the "Week 32 Overview" indicates students being introduced to th on Day 1, reading words with th on Day 2, reading words with both th and sh on Days 4 and 5, and reading a sentence with th words on Day 5.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 137, students practice reading words with a partner. Partners take turns being the teacher and the student. The “teacher” asks the student the following questions about each word card, “1. What’s the vowel? 2. What’s the rime? 3. What’s the word?”

Criterion 1n - 1q

Materials and instruction support students in learning and practicing regularly and irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
6/8
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Criterion Rating Details

The Pathways to Reading, Kindergarten program meets the criteria for materials provide opportunities for students to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity. Materials provide explicit modeling provided by the teacher, and peer-to-peer feedback on accuracy to build towards automaticity. The Pathways to Reading materials provide teachers with guidance to assist students with confirmation reading or self-correct errors in the "Flip and Assist Manual;" however, limited opportunities are provided to read emergent-level texts for purpose and understanding.

Indicator 1n

Materials provide opportunities for students to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity in K and Grade 1.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials provide opportunities for students to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity in Kindergarten and Grade 1.

In Pathways to Reading materials, students have frequent opportunities to practice automaticity and accuracy with reading single words. The teacher is provided with clear, explicit instructions in the "Flip and Assist Manual," for helping students with different errors they make while reading words. The "Small Group Manual" contains a variety of activities for word reading practice. "Read in Context" lessons during "Large Group" instruction and "Small Group" instruction use sentence strips that include the daily/weekly phonics focus. Materials provide explicit modeling provided by the teacher and peer-to-peer feedback on accuracy to build towards automaticity.

Materials provide systematic and explicit instruction and practice in fluency by focusing on accuracy and automaticity in decoding. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 102, the teacher uses the sentence strips from the "Kindergarten Reproducibles" to model fluent reading. “Show the class phrases that influenced how you read the sentence. For example, with the sentence: The man can nab the van. Put large colored paper clips after the words “man” and “nab.” Tell the students these are parts of the sentence that are said together. It helps the reader to read like s/he talks. Model: ‘The man...can nab...the van.” Students echo-read using the same inflection.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 165-166, a student shares the sentence strip from the previous "Reading Club" practice. The teacher reviews the concept of reading the way we talk. The teacher reads sentences with and without phrasing. Students nod responding either yes or no to indicate whether phrasing has been used correctly. Students practice reading sentence strips in their "Reading Club."
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," pages 43-46, the teacher is directed to begin by asking, “What’s the vowel sound? (R) Read the vowel to the end (rime). (R) Start again (onset). (R) Is that a word you know? (R) For the remainder of words simply ask: What’s the word?” Based on student errors, the teacher is provided with strategies to help the student. For example, if the “Student starts to read the word by segmenting,” the teacher is instructed to say, “T: You’re pulling the sounds apart. You want to push them together. Read the vowel to the end (rime). (R) Start again (onset). (R) Keep your voice on. Model how to blend. May use the terms 'sing' the word, 'bubble gum stretch' the word. T: Did you pull those sounds apart or push them together? (R) Try again. T: Good job blending those sounds together. You said the word the way we talk.”

Materials provide opportunities for students in Kindergarten and Grade 1 to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 46, materials provide teachers with three options to practice reading words, "Read Words," "Flash Cards," "Word Reading Lists," and "SNAP and MAP" cards.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 137, students practice reading word lists with a partner. Students take turns being the teacher and the student. The “teacher” asks, “1) What’s the vowel? 2) What’s the rime? 3) What’s the word?” As part of the lesson the teacher is instructed to, “Tell the students that they are going to practice together to read words correctly. Their goal is to learn to read lists of words accurately and quickly. They will test themselves by trying to read their list in less than one second per word.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 142, students learn the "SNAP Read and Hand Back Practice Routine." In this routine, students practice reading words quickly. Initially students say the rime and then the word. Students progress to "eyeballing" the word, and reading the whole word.

Indicator 1q

Materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors (Grades 1-2) and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding.

The Pathways to Reading materials provide teachers with guidance to assist students with confirmation reading or self-correct errors in the "Flip and Assist Manual," Limited opportunities are provided to read emergent-level texts for purpose and understanding. Materials include 18 Reinforcement Readers that are decodable text. While students have opportunities to read these texts, lessons are vague and do not explicitly prompt students to read with purpose and understanding. Since objectives are not consistently provided, the purpose for lessons is not always clear. The steps the teacher follows for having students imagine the sentences are repetitive and do not vary throughout the school year. The emergent reading practice that is included with the program consists of sentence strips which are used in "Read in Context" lessons in both "Small Group" and "Large Group."

Some opportunities are provided over the course of the year for students to read emergent-reader texts for purpose and understanding. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 151, the two objectives listed for the lesson are, “Objective 1: Students apply decoding strategies to words forming a sentence. Objective 2: Students demonstrate the ability to image the meaning of a sentence.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 151, in a "Read in Context" lesson that uses sentence strips, the teacher helps students with imagery, “Ask students to describe their own images. “What do these words make you see?” Check that students are imaging by helping them to verbalize the image.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 162, objectives are not provided for the "Read in Context" lesson. Other instances of unclear purpose of the "Read in Context" Lesson include the following:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 169, no objectives are listed for the lesson.
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 202, no objectives are listed for the lesson.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 60, student texts to be used include the following:
    • A large number and variety of sentence strips are included in the "Reproducibles" and "WebFile."
    • "Reinforcement Readers"-available for purchase on the website
    • Suggested texts from an outside vendor available as an online subscription.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 171, in the "Read in Context: Prosody" lesson, the objectives state “Students learn that the context may convey emotions. Students learn how to convey emotions when reading orally by changing the voice.” Students work with sentence strips in this lesson.

Materials contain explicit directions and/or think-alouds for the teacher to model how to engage with a text to emphasize reading for purpose and understanding. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 102, in a "Read in Context" lesson that uses sentence strips, the teacher models using imagery, ‘“These words make a picture in my mind. I see a man. He’s taller than me and he’s dressed in black. The words ‘can nab the van’ make me picture him running to the van, looking around like he’s being sneaky, jumping in the van and driving off fast.”’
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 102, during "Read in Context," Days 2 and 4, the teacher uses sentence strips from the "Kindergarten Reproducibles" to ask students to verbalize what the sentence makes them see in their minds. Help students learn to use words that describe mental images:
    • What, size, shape, color? (e.g., It’s a fat, yellow duck about as big as a beagle.)
    • What’s the background you imagine? (e.g., grass and tees, walls and carpet, etc.)
    • How are you looking at the image: from the side, above, front, etc.? (e.g., The horse is walking away from me, and I see his tail and back legs.).
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 158-160, the lesson focuses on imagery using the sentence, “Pam has a fan and a pan.” The teacher models describing the image she has created in her mind, “I see a little girl about kindergarten age. She has black hair and is wearing red pants and a green shirt. She is holding a purple fan in her hand, one that you spread open and cool yourself with. She put her purple fan in a little silver pan and put it on her play stove.”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 43, during "Read Words," one of the goals is for students to self-correct blending and phonics errors. There are three degrees of "Assists" provided if a student pauses on a word:
    • *Most assistance: “What’s the vowel sound? (R) Read the vowel to the end (We call that the rime) (R). Start again. Add the consonant/s before the vowel (onset). Is that a word you know?”
    • *Moderate assistance: “What will you ask yourself first to help you figure out this word? (R: The vowel and rime.) What should you do next? Pull the sounds apart or push them together? What will you ask yourself last?”
    • *Least assistance: “I saw you stop and figure out that word. What were you thinking? How did you do that?”

Gateway Two

Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

Partially Meets Expectations

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Gateway Two Details

The Kindergarten Pathways to Reading program spans 36 weeks and content provided can reasonably be completed in a year based on the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" provided. Although recommended scripting is provided within lessons, specific times are not suggested for individual activities. Additionally, at times, components of the program are difficult to navigate and may need additional guidance. The "Teacher Preparation" section of the "Large Group Manual" provides an explanation of the scope and sequence for phonological awareness and phonics. Teachers are provided with research-based explanations for the hierarchy of phonological awareness and the phonics sequence. Decodable Readers included in the Pathways to Reading Package include 18 "Kindergarten Reinforcement Readers" that align to the phonics instruction and contain 25 high-frequency words. Lessons for decodable readers lack explicit instruction and teachers can choose to use another text that is not a part of the program materials.

The program partially meets the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts, letter recognition, and printing letters.

Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that genuinely measure student progress of phonological awareness and phonics. Sight words are assessed throughout the school year and beginning in the third nine weeks, nonsense word reading is a part of the assessment routine.

Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards. Materials also provide multiple opportunities for advanced students to investigate grade-level foundational skills at a greater depth. There is no reference to English Language Learners in the Pathways to Reading materials. The visual design of the website and teachers manuals are easy to read, and there are multiple teacher manuals utilized for lessons.

Criterion 2a - 2e

Materials are accompanied by a systematic, explicit, and research-based scope and sequence outlining the essential knowledge and skills that are taught in the program and the order in which they are presented. Scope and sequence should include phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, fluency, and print concepts.
18/20
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten materials meet the criteria for materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.

Accompanying online video tutorials are located on the Pathways to Reading website. The Kindergarten Pathways to Reading program spans 36 weeks and content provided can reasonably be completed in a year based on the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" provided. Although recommended scripting is provided within lessons, specific times are not suggested for individual activities. Additionally, at times, components of the program are difficult to navigate and may need additional guidance.

The "Teacher Preparation" section of the "Large Group Manual" provides an explanation of the scope and sequence for phonological awareness and phonics. Teachers are provided with research-based explanations for the hierarchy of phonological awareness and the phonics sequence in Kindergarten. Materials do not meet the criteria for materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the ELA/literacy program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.

Indicator 2a

Materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten Pathways to Reading meet the criteria for materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten manuals provide detailed lessons regarding how to present the foundational skill content to students. Materials are provided for whole group lessons in the "Large Group Manual." The "Small Group Manual" is used in conjunction with the Kindergarten "Small Group Folder" for documenting data for the small group lessons. The "Flip & Assist" book supports the "Small Group Manual" providing strategies along with possible student responses for help with remediation. "Reproducibles" are provided for whole and small group activities. Sample lessons are provided in the video clips to provide support and provide modeling for the teacher. While consistent routines and activities are used throughout the year, the layout of the "Kindergarten Large Group Instructor Manual" often necessitates flipping back and forth through pages during the daily lesson to find the lessons that correspond with each day.

Materials provide a well-defined, teacher resource (teacher edition, manual) for content presentation. For example, the following is noted:

  • There are multiple teacher manuals which include:
    • "Kindergarten Large Group."
    • "Kindergarten Small Group."
    • "Kindergarten Small Group Folder."
    • "Kindergarten Assessments."
    • "Kindergarten Flip & Assist."
    • "Kindergarten Advanced Oral PA Development."
    • "Kindergarten Reproducibles."
    • "Online Video Library for Teachers."
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 28, teachers are provided with the "Week 3 Overview" which lists the topics, days, and what lessons teachers should use on each day. Lessons are often repeated on multiple days. For example, “review n p. 34” is listed for Days 2-5.

The teacher resource contains detailed information and instructional routines that help the teacher to effectively implement all foundational skills content (i.e., phonological awareness, print concepts, letters, phonics, HFW, word analysis, decoding). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 7, the "Week 1 Overview" provides phonemic awareness exercises for Day 1 through Day 5. For example: "Bubble Gum Words," “Pretend a word is a piece of gum. Tell the students to put the word in their mouths and chew it up. Then grab the end of the words and str….tch it (say it slowly as the hand extends away from the body) like a piece of gum. For example: ‘/faaaaaaaaaaat/’.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 24, Directions for "Sight Word Olympics" is provided. “Tell the students that there are 25 (plus) words you want them to learn because they will need them every time they read and write.” When students are ready to “run the race”, they must read the words in less than 20 seconds.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 75, teachers are provided with instructions for introducing the /t/ sound. The chart is broken into five columns: "1. Make the Sound/Question, 2. Describe Choice Questions, 3. Choose a Picture, 4. Spell, and 5. Group Name list of Words." The column headers for teaching sounds are consistent throughout the manual.

Any technology pieces included provide support and guidance for the teacher and do not create an additional layer of complication around the materials. For example, the following is noted:

  • Videos are provided on the Pathways to Reading Website for teacher use. Topics addressed in the videos include fluency, and phonemic awareness. Videos provide demonstrations of a teacher working with students on the strategies taught in Pathways to Reading. For example, the following is noted:
    • There are consonant articulation practice videos for teachers such as “Introduction of Exploders: p/b, t/d, c, k/g, ch/j.”
    • Video lessons on how to build "Vowel Town" are designed for teachers and students to watch together. The materials state, “If you are nervous about building vowel town or if it is your first time to build it and you would like assistance this video set will provide the necessary support. Learn to say the vowel sounds along with your class!”
    • The online video library includes modeling of specific student activities such as the "Phonemic Awareness" exercises, video number 2 and "Old Word/New Word," video number 11.
  • Kindergarten "Reproducibles" and Kindergarten "Assessments Masters" are provided in digital form on the Pathways to Reading website.

Indicator 2b

Materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten Pathways to Reading meet the criteria for materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.

Lessons throughout the Kindergarten Pathways to Reading manuals contain explanations and examples of foundational skills being taught such as detailed annotations of phonological instruction, speech concepts, and further, suggestions for professional reading. The Kindergarten "Large Group Manual" contains a "Teacher Preparation" section that provides adult-level explanations of foundational skills concepts such as phonemic awareness exercises including blending, segmenting and rhyming, and phonics skills. The "Flip and Assist Manual" provides explanations and examples of foundational skills. Accompanying online video tutorials are located on the Pathways to Reading website. For example, the following is noted:

  • Complete, detailed adult-level explanations are provided for each foundational skill taught at the grade level. For example, the following is noted:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," Teacher Preparation Tab, page 1, “Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice that spoken words are comprised of smaller units of sound called phonemes.”
    • In the "Large Group Manual," Teacher Preparation Tab, page 4, voiced and unvoiced consonant sounds are explained. Voiced: “Vocal cords vibrate when the sound is made. Make the /z/ sound then the /s/ sound while hand rests on the front of the throat. The /z/ has a vibration because the voice is on.” Unvoiced: “Vibration is not felt for the unvoiced sound /s/. The sound is more like a whisper.”
    • In the "Large Group Manual," Teacher Preparation Tab, page 9, an explanation of how to make the /p/ sound is described. The teacher is given 6 detailed steps to complete for each sound: "1. Make the Sound, 2. Describe the Mouth Action, 3. Anchor with a Picture, 4. Spell, 5. Find the "Pal & Spell" and 6. Determine Loud/Whispery." Each step is detailed, for example, Step 2. Describe Mouth Action, states, “What part of your mouth makes the air explode the lips or the tongue? Circle one Lips Tongue.” At the bottom of the chart student assists are provided.

Detailed examples of the grade level foundational skill concepts are provided for the teacher. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 19, a detailed example of how to lead students in stretching sounds is provided, “Let’s stretch the word pig. Get your hands ready to stretch that bubblegum word. Get your lips ready for that first sound. Look at my mouth… (Have your lips pressed together in readiness to make the /p/ sound.) Let’s stretch it: /pi………….g/. (The /p/ cannot be stretched so the mouth action is held a few seconds and then the sound is said simultaneously with the vowel sound and the vowel is stretched to the end of the word.)”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," Teacher Preparation Tab, page 35, the teacher is provided with examples and rules for c and g similarities. For example, Guide #6 states, “When -c is followed by an -e, -i, or -y it always has the /s/ sound.” Examples are provided: cite, ice, cell. Guide #7 states, “When -g is followed by an -e, -i, or-y it may have the /j/ or /g/ sound.” Examples are provided: “get, geese, gem, gym.”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 18, "Things to Note!" explains the concept of onset and rhyme, “An onset in a one syllable word is all of the sounds that come before the vowel. A rime is the vowel and all of the sounds after it. For example in the word dog the /d/ is the onset and the /og/ is the rime. Words rhyme when their ending rimes are composed of the same order of phonemes (not necessarily letters). For example the rime in float is /ote/. The rime in wrote is /ote/.”

Indicator 2c

Foundational skills lessons are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing. Content can reasonably be completed within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for foundational skills lessons are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing. Content can reasonably be completed within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.

The Kindergarten Pathways to Reading program spans 36 weeks. The Pathways to Reading content provided can reasonably be completed in a year based on the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" provided. Instructions for breaking up the daily literacy block are provided for teachers. Lesson plan design utilizes teacher modeling and consistent instructional routines and activities. Kindergarten materials follow a continuum for phonemic awareness and phonics which includes short vowel sounds, basic consonants, consonant digraphs, and long vowels. Recommended times are provided for whole group, small groups, and supporting activities within the 2.5 hour literacy block. Although recommended scripting is provided within lessons, specific times are not suggested for individual activities. Additionally, due to many program components, the materials can be hard to navigate and need additional guidance.

Lesson plans utilize effective, research-based lesson plan design for early literacy instruction. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 1, the materials state, “PTR large group lessons provide systematic, explicit instruction for the development of phonemic awareness and phonics knowledge.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Presentation Tab," page 1, research is cited from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Research on Phonemic Awareness is provided, “Lack of phonemic awareness is a major obstacle for reading.”
  • On the Pathways to Reading Website, pathwaystoreading.com, teachers are informed, “PTR is grounded/focused in/on the five components of the reading process identified through the research of the National Reading Panel and the National Reading Council: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension.”

The effective lesson design structure includes both whole group and small group instruction. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, the "Division of Instructional Time" per quarter allots 2.5 hours for literacy instruction. "Large Group" consists of 15 minutes in Quarter One and 15-20 minutes daily 3-5 times, as needed, in Quarters Two, Three, and Four. Small group instruction begins with 15 minutes in Quarter One and moves to 45-80 minutes in Quarters Two through Four.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 75, students learn about the /t/ sound. In Step 1, the teacher is prompted to tell students, “Our new sound this week is /t/. Make that sound and feel the air. (Model. Say /t/. Hold hand close to mouth.).”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 59, when students are learning to play a letter naming partner game, the teacher is instructed to, “Model with a pair of students. Students work together as teacher coaches, observes and takes notes.”

The pacing of each component of daily lessons plans is clear and appropriate. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 1, “PTR suggests 2.5 hours of literacy instruction that includes: decoding, comprehension, writing, penmanship.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 2, the following recommendations are provided for Quarter One:
    • "PTR Large Group:" 15-20 minutes daily.
    • "Comprehension Large Group:" 15 minutes daily.
    • "Handwriting:" 15 minutes daily.
    • "Writing:" 10-15 minutes daily.
    • "Small Group Preparation:" 15 minutes daily.
    • Other basal, reader’s workshop or guided reading activities: up to 70 minutes daily.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 6, a sample "Classroom Schedule" is provided with an hour and ten minutes of stations and "Pathways to Reading" (i.e., 10 minutes for whole group and three 20 minute sessions for small groups). The materials suggest "Writing" for 35 minutes and "Readers Workshop" for an hour.

The suggested amount of time and expectations for maximum student understanding of all foundational skill content (i.e., phonological awareness, print concepts, letters, phonics, HFW, word analysis, decoding) can reasonably be completed in one school year and should not require modifications. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-4, the quarterly outlines for the program list a total of 36 weeks of instruction.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, a "Quarterly Lesson Plan" is provided which indicates letter consonant sounds beginning Week 1 with letter M and ending on Week 31 with letter Y.

Indicator 2d

Order of Skills
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Indicator 2d.i

Scope and sequence clearly delineate the sequence in which phonological awareness skills are to be taught, with a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy of phonemic awareness competence. (K-1)
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for scope and sequence clearly delineate the sequence in which phonological awareness skills are to be taught, with a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy of phonemic awareness competence.

Materials provide an evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy by which phonological awareness skills are introduced and taught. The "Large Group Manual" explains the expected hierarchy for teaching phonemic awareness. Lessons throughout the manual adhere to the phonemic awareness progression.

Materials contain a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy for teaching phonological awareness skills. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," pages 1-2, materials cite David Kilpatrick’s levels of phonological awareness (i.e., Basic Syllable, Onset Rime, Basic phoneme, and Advanced Phoneme) utilized in Kilpatrick’s, Phonological Awareness Screening Test (PAST). The PAST is administered by the program. “In order to use the Phonological Awareness Screening Test (PAST) as a measure of growth, the sequence of PRT Oral PA lessons mirror the sequence of levels used in the test.”

Materials contain a phonemic awareness sequence of instruction and practice based on the expected hierarchy. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 3, a "Student Skill Progression Chart" is provided. Under, "Progressions of Phonemic Awareness Skills World of Sound," the following steps are listed: “Student learns 1. to say words slowly, 2. to blend sounds into a spoken word, 3. to segment off the first or last sound from a cvc word, 4. to segment a cvc word into its three phonemes, and 5. to hold and compare the sounds in two words to determine when a sound is added, omitted or the order of sounds is shifted.”

Materials have a cohesive sequence of phonemic awareness instruction based on the expected hierarchy to build toward students’ application of the skills.

  • In the "Addendum," Kindergarten, "PTR Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Continuum," the following hierarchy is outlined:
    • Stretch, blend, segment.
    • Begin/end/rhyming/alliteration.
    • Segment/blend-manipulate CVC.
    • Segment/blend-manipulate CCVC/CVCC.
  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," Lesson 1, students learn to blend two syllable compound words. In Lesson 5, students blend onset to rime to create CVC words. In Lesson 10, students substitute sounds in a CVC rime.

Indicator 2d.ii

Scope and sequence clearly delineate an intentional sequence in which phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear explanation for the order of the sequence.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for scope and sequence clearly delineate an intentional sequence in which phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear explanation for the order of the sequence.

Materials provide a scope and sequence for the order in which phonics skills are taught. Research is cited in the Kindergarten "Large Group Manual" in the section located behind the "Teacher Preparation Tab." The "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation" pages outline the patterns or phonics generalizations that will be taught.

Materials clearly delineate a scope and sequence with a cohesive, intentional sequence of phonics instruction and practice to build toward application of skills. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 32, the teacher is provided with a table that lists the order of consonant and vowel introduction:
    • Pool 1-Consonants-m, n, f, v, p, b, Vowel a
    • Pool 2-Consonants-t, d, c, k, g, Vowel i
    • Pool 3-Consonants-s, z, j, Vowel u
    • Pool 4-Consonants-l, r, Vowel o
    • Pool 5-Consonants-w, h, y, Vowel e
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 66, the materials provide the "Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Continuum." The Phonics sequence listed for Kindergarten is: short vowels (a, e, i, o, u), basic consonants (b, c, d, f, g, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y, z), consonant digraphs (th, sh, ch, wh, ng), and long vowels (a_e, ee, i_e, o_e, u_e).

Materials have a clear research-based explanation for the order of the phonics sequence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 1, research on phonemic awareness states, “Explicit instruction in phonemic awareness combined with explicit instruction in sound/spelling correspondences for kindergarten children was more powerful than instruction in sound-spelling correspondences alone and more powerful than language activities in improving reading skills.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 45, research states, “A skilled reader is able to read familiar words accurately and quickly because all of the letters have been secured in memory. In contrast, a weak reader reads words less accurately and more slowly and may even misread similarly spelled words such as short, shirt, and sheet because only some of the letters are connected to phonemes in memory. Words remain poorly connected when readers habitually guess words from partial letters and contextual cues without analyzing how all of the letters in spellings match up to phonemes in pronunciations.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 45, the researcher Linnea Ehri’s theory on reading fluency is referenced to explain the progression of readers: “phonetic stage of reading (one in which they attend to each sound in a word) in order to reach a more advanced stage of reading in which words are decoded by parts (i.e., /d/, /ent/, rather than /d/, /e/, /n/, /t/).”
    • Ehri, 1995. Stages of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal of Research in Reading, 18, 116-125.

Phonics instruction is based on high utility patterns and/or common phonics generalizations. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," pages 33-37, materials outline the patterns or phonics generalizations that will be taught:
    • Many of the generalizations are high utility such as #1, ck added to the end of words with 1-letter vowel (e.g., tack, pack, luck) (page 33), and #11, the versatility and many sounds of letter y (page 37).
    • Some of them initially appear to be of lower utility such as #5 (page 35), “When Two Vowels Go Walking,” however, this generalization is only applied for vowels that are not on the "Vowel Town" diagram including ai, ay, ea, oa.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," page 3, the "Kindergarten Placement Guide" lists "Segment and Write Xtend," "Old Word/New Word Xtend," and "Word Reading List Xtend," which include the concepts: c or k, th, a_e, o_e, sh, ee, ch, i_e, u_e, and wh.

Patterns and generalizations are carefully selected to provide a meaningful and manageable number of phonics patterns and common generalizations for students to learn deeply. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, in the "Quarterly Literacy Plan," Quarter 1, it lists "ABC" letter naming and consonant letter sounds introduced or reviewed weekly. In Quarters 2 and 3, "ABC" letter naming, consonant letter sounds, and vowels are listed with activities either introduced or reviewed weekly. Quarter 4 introduces digraphs th, ch, and wh, and e to end in "Segment and Write" activities introduced or reviewed weekly.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 66, the phonics continuum outlines the expectations for Kindergarten and includes stretching, blending, segmenting, rhyming/alliteration, as well as CVC and CCVC/CVCC segment/blend and manipulate for all short vowels, consonants, consonant digraphs, and long vowels.
  • In the Kindergarten "Small Group Folder," "Small Group Note Taking Cues," page 5, the "Old Word/New Word" lesson uses the following focus cues:
    • "C? K? = chose c or k at the beginning.
    • -ck = at the end; -e to the end.
    • -e = -e to the end.
    • 2 ee’s = stick together.
    • c/e, i, y = c as /s/ when followed by the letters e, i, or y.
    • -ge = /j/ at the end is always spelled -ge.
    • -dge = add defender d if comes after 1 letter vowel.
    • -tch = add defender t if comes after 1 letter vowel.
    • 2 VGW = 2 vowels go walking combinations of ai, ay, ea, oa.
    • -ay, -ow, -aw = when last in a word spelling of /ae/, as in say, /ow/ as in cow or snow, and /au/ as in saw or claw."

Indicator 2e

Materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the Foundational Skills program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten Pathways to Reading do not meet the criteria for materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the ELA/literacy program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.

Kindergarten materials provide school administrators with website access to videos of model lessons. There is minimal evidence of informing all stakeholders about the Foundational Skills program and minimal suggestions for how stakeholders can help support student progress and achievement. Parent resources are minimal, and when evident, lack clarity.

Materials that contain jargon-free resources and processes to inform all stakeholders about foundational skills taught at school are not evident.

In the "Reproducibles" packet, there is a parent letter about "Sight Word and Letter Olympics" that provides parents with consonants and sight words to practice with their child at home. Parts of the letter include, “We have four sets of letters we want to name and give a sound to very quickly! I’ll practice with you at home and my buddy in school.” “I’ll also be limbering up and getting ready for my sight word race! These are words that I will memorize...and that’s hard work! But, I know I can do it if I work out! Here are the four word lists that I will learn. I’ll earn rewards for this race too! I’ve circle the lists that I’m in training for.”

Materials do not provide stakeholders with strategies and activities for practicing phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, fluency, and print concepts that will support students in progress towards and achievement of grade-level, foundational skills standards.

The Pathways to Reading website provides school administrators with a, “Video tour of some clips used to assist with learning the PTR Strategies.” The videos include modeled lessons.

Resources for parents and students to practice strategies are not included in the materials.

Criterion 2f - 2f.ii

Program includes work with decodables in K and Grade 1, and as needed in Grade 2, following the grade-level scope and sequence to address both securing phonics.
4/8
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Criterion Rating Details

Decodable Readers included in the Pathways to Reading Package include 18 "Kindergarten Reinforcement Readers" that align to the phonics instruction and contain 25 high-frequency words. Lessons for decodable readers lack explicit instruction and teachers can choose to use another text that is not a part of the program materials.

Indicator 2f

Aligned Decodable Texts
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Indicator 2f.i

Materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence.

Decodable readers are included in the Pathways to Reading Package include 18 "Kindergarten Reinforcement Readers" that align to the programs scope and sequence of phonics instruction; however, the lessons included for the use of the decodable readers are vague and lack explicit instruction. Students have opportunities to read sentence strips that contain phonics skills they are currently working on mastering, but the sentence strips are not connected texts.

Materials include decodable texts to address securing phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • Decodable readers included with the program. Reinforcement Readers include 18 decodable stories that align to the scope and sequence of phonics instruction. In the "Small Group Reading Folder," suggested for-purchase decodable texts are referenced alongside lessons from Reading A-Z, but these are not included with the program.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," suggested free decodable texts are referenced from the Text Project, but these books are not included with the program.

Decodable texts that contain grade-level phonics skills aligned to the program’s scope and sequence are not included with the program.

  • Decodable readers are included in the program, include the following item description: “Designed for use with PTR ‘Read in Context’ strategy as one of the student’s earliest, independent decodable books! A set includes 6 individual books with a total of 18 stories. Buy 5 sets for small group instruction.”

Materials include minimal detailed lesson plans for repeated readings of decodable texts to address securing phonics skills.

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 179, materials provide a detailed lesson, “Intro to Decodable Book Genre.” However, a decodable book is not included. Teachers are told to use “A set of decodable and leveled books for students to compare.” The lesson directs the teacher to select "...a decodable book (choose based on the "Placement Guide"). This lesson is designed for Pam and Nan, from a PTR "Kindergarten Reinforcement Readers" (and “A level book - appropriate for the group’s reading abilities.” At the end of the lesson, the teacher tells students, “Read this story several times with a friend until the words are easy.”

Indicator 2f.ii

Materials include decodable texts with high-frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with high frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence.

Decodable readers include "Kindergarten Reinforcement Readers" that contain the 25 sight words that students focus on in Kindergarten; however, the lessons included for the use of the decodable readers are vague and lack explicit instruction. Students have the opportunity through "Read in Context" lessons to read sentence strips that contain sight words they are working on mastering. However, the sentence strips do not provide opportunities for reading high frequency words in connected text. Furthermore, materials and lessons are not explicit about which high-frequency words are the instructional focus for the corresponding sentence strips.

Materials include 18 decodable texts that utilize 25 high-frequency/irregularly spelled words.

  • According to the item description these “Books use decodable words aligned with Pathways to Reading five sound pools featuring the 25 most frequently used sight words.”
  • In the "Small Group Folder," suggested free decodable texts are referenced from the Text Project, but these books are not included with the program.

Decodable texts that contain grade-level high-frequency/irregularly spelled words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence are not included in the program.

  • “Kindergarten Reinforcement Readers” align to the scope and sequence of high-frequency word instruction and contain 25 high-frequency words.

Materials do not include detailed lesson plans for repeated readings of decodable texts to address securing high-frequency words/irregularly spelled words in context. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 3, materials state that students participate in the "Read in Context" activities beginning in Week 15. During "Read in Context," students read sentence strips that contain high-frequency words. The sentence strips do not provide opportunities for reading high-frequency words in connected text.

Criterion 2g - 2i.iii

Materials provide teachers resources and tools to collect ongoing data about student progress on the Standards. Materials also provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so that students demonstrate independence with grade-level standards.
16/22
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways for Reading Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts, letter recognition, and printing letters. Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that genuinely measure student progress of phonological awareness and phonics. Sight words are assessed throughout the school year and beginning in the third nine weeks, nonsense word reading is a part of the assessment routine. Materials partially meet the criteria for assessment materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized. Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards. Materials also provide multiple opportunities for advanced students to investigate grade-level foundational skills at a greater depth. There is no reference to English Language Learners in the Pathways to Reading materials.

Indicator 2g

Regular and Systematic Opportunities for Assessment
0/0

Indicator 2g.i

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts (K-1), letter recognition (K only), and printing letters (as indicated by the program scope and sequence) (K-1).
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways for Reading Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts (K-1), letter recognition (K only), and printing letters (as indicated by the program scope and sequence) (K-1).

The Kindergarten materials provide regular and systematic assessment opportunities for letter recognition in the "Assessment Manual." Rubrics for the assessments and information for the formation of small group placements are provided. Adjustments for helping students struggling with letter recognition are provided in the "Flip and Assist Manual." Assessments for print concepts and printing letters are not provided.

Materials do not regularly and systematically provide a variety of assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence of print concepts and printing letters, but materials do provide assessment of letter recognition. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-6, the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" delineates that students are to be assessed on "ABC" letter naming and consonant letter/sounds during Week 9, Week 18, Week 27, and again in Weeks 35-36.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 2, there are test descriptions for "One Minute Letter Naming- Upper Case," and "One Minute Letter Naming- Lower Case:"
    • "One Minute Letter Naming-Upper Case" is to be administered in: Fall, end of first 9 weeks, Winter, end of third 9 weeks, Spring.
    • "One Minute Letter Naming-Lower Case" is to be administered in: Fall, end of first 9 weeks, Winter, end of third 9 weeks, Spring.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 7, there is "Student Test Record A" sheet, which contains documentation of "Letter Naming-Upper Case," and "Letter Naming-Lower Case" for each testing time.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with no information concerning students’ current skills/level of understanding of print concepts and letter formation, but materials do provide information concerning students’ current skills/level of understanding of letter recognition. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 2, teachers are provided with instructions for giving the "One Minute Letter Naming-Upper Case," and "One Minute Letter Naming-Lower Case" assessments, “One on one administration. Students are given one minute to name as many capital and lower case letters as possible.” Although q and x are not included in the instructional sequence, all 26 letters of the alphabet are included on the assessment.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 6, materials include a rubric for "Letter Naming Test 1 and 2" along with a "Red Flag Rubric." There is the note: “Utilize Tests 1-3 fall rubric to help in the formation of small groups. Initially group students whose test profiles are most alike. Regroup as needed.”

Materials provide minimal support to teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in print concepts, letter recognition, and letter formation. For example, the following is noted:

  • The "Flip and Assist Manual" provides teachers with strategies for helping students who struggle with letter naming. For example, the following is noted:
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 3, “1. Determine where the student has difficulty. Practice saying the set of letters where the student gets off track or is incorrect.”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 3, “5. Assign helpers to practice singing with the student or make a recording for the student to listen to.”

Indicator 2g.ii

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonological awareness (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-1)
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that genuinely measure student progress of phonological awareness (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

Materials include an assessment schedule (baseline and quarterly) to assess phonological awareness using the Phonological Awareness Screening Test (PAST) by David Kilpatrick ©2010. Scoring expectations for the grade level are provided for the PAST. Materials provide assessment opportunities other than the PAST at the beginning of the year, at the end of the second nine weeks (winter), and at the end of the fourth nine weeks (spring). Teachers are provided with instructions for administering the PAST.

Materials regularly and systematically provide a variety of assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence in phonological awareness. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Kindergarten Assessments Manual," pages 21-24, it provides the Phonological Awareness Screening Test (PAST) exam which assesses phonological awareness. The teacher is to administer only levels D, E, F, and G.
  • In the "Kindergarten Assessments Manual," pages 21-24, materials provide scoring guidelines for the PAST which indicate the students approximate grade level, and a scoring of each level of phonological awareness (i.e., Basic Syllable, Onset-Rime, Basic Phonemes, and Advanced Phoneme levels).

Materials support teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in phonological awareness:

  • In the "Kindergarten Assessments Manual," page 5, the following information is provided: “Developmental guidelines are provided indicating which PA levels are expected to be mastered by the beginning, middle and ending grade levels. Students behind these norms should be provided additional oral PA exercises and additional PTR instruction.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 116, Week 18 is designated as an assessment week. The teacher is informed that if a, “Student has made little or no gains consider the following: Is the student offered small group instruction 4-5 times a week? Is the student asked to respond to questions frequently in small group and offered full student assist strategies? Does the student appear to have other learning issues such as weak language, poor memory, poor coordination? These may indicate learning problems. Does the student need further testing by school specialists to receive additional instruction?”
  • In the "Kindergarten Assessments Manual," page 17, after recording errors on the "Nonsense Word Assessment," the teacher is provided with instructional implications based on whether the errors were phonemic or phonics based. For example, the instructional implications for a weak phonemic awareness score (e.g., sounds added, omitted, or out of order) are for the teacher to, “Check that the student can easily segment three sounds. If the answer is yes, have the student do Old/New Word lists one on one with the teacher. Spell one or two words then switch to reading. Be certain to offer scaffolded responses to student errors in Segment and Write, Old/New Word and Read single Words.”
  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," pages 28-29 there is a "Basic Syllable Student Tracking Chart." “Write a + when a list is passed (9/10 correct, less than 3 second responses.), 2 plusses and the Lesson is completed (++)”.

Indicator 2g.iii

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonics in- and out-of-context (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonics (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

Pathways to Reading materials provide regular assessment opportunities to measure students’ progress in phonics over the course of the school year. Assessments include "Spell a Sound," "One Minute Letter Sound Identification," and "Word Spelling." The teacher is provided with note-taking cues to use during small groups to note student progress.

Materials provide resources and tools to collect ongoing data about students’ progress in phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 9-11, a "Student Response Form" along with a "Student Test Record" are provided for the "Spell a Sound Assessment". Students write letters for sounds. Twenty-three letter sounds are tested.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 25-28, the teacher is provided with forms to track both class data and individual student assessment data.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 29, the teacher is provided with instructions for using the "Excel Pathways Assessment Report." The Excel document provides a means for teachers to collect student data on assessments. “Enter data each period. Scores are color coded. Red = at risk. Orange and yellow = nearing target. Green = on target.” Group and individual reports are available.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," daily lesson trackers for each level (1-4) allow teachers to collect daily progress on specific phonics skills during instruction:
    • Level 3, Day 2, "Vowel Practice" and "Segment and Write" progress.
    • Level 3, Day 5, "Word Reading List," "Snap Words," and "Reading in Context."

Materials offer systematically implemented assessment opportunities to determine students’ progress in phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 1, general assessment information is provided for all tests given. A Rubric Interpretation for all tests is provided to determine 1-high risk, 2-at risk, 3-nearing target, 4-on target, 5-above target. The teacher is able to compare student data for each nine week period and should expect increases in rubric levels and scores to reflect increased phonics knowledge.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 8, in the "One Minute Letter Sound Identification," students are provided with 24 letters and tell the teacher the sounds of as many letters as they can.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 9, "Spell a Sound" is a test that is administered at the end of the second, third, and fourth quarters. This test assesses the 24 sounds that are taught. The letters x and q are not taught/assessed in Kindergarten.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 12, in the "Word Spelling" assessment, students spell words such as fan, dip, jug, and spot.

Multiple assessment opportunities are provided regularly for students to demonstrate progress toward mastery and independence with phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 1, the "Test Administration Timeline" indicates the "Spell a Sound" exam is to be given at the end of the second, third, and fourth nine week periods.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 8, "One Minute Letter Identification" is administered at the beginning of the school year and at the end of each quarter. However, if by the end of the first quarter students have achieved a rubric score of 4-5 on the assessment, the teacher does not reassess.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 9, "Spell a Sound Assessment" is administered at the end of the second, third, and fourth quarters.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information about students’ current skills/level of understanding of phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 9, teachers are provided with a rubric to use with the "Spell a Sound" assessment. If a student spells all 23 sounds correctly, the student would earn a rubric score of 5.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," Level 1, Day 1 and 2, students stretch and blend words. The teacher takes notes including whether the student is given clues or no clues to figure out the words.

Materials genuinely measure students’ progress to support teachers with instructional adjustments to help students make progress toward mastery in phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 172, after the teacher scores the assessments and records data onto the student summary form, the teacher should consider the following:
    • Is the student offered small group instruction 4-5 times a week?
    • Is the student asked to respond to questions frequently in small group and offered full student assist strategies?
    • Does the student appear to have other learning issues such as a weak language, poor memory, poor coordination? These may indicate multiple learning problems.
    • Does the student need further testing by a school specialist to receive additional instruction?
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 11, instructional demands are provided after the "Spell a Sound" test. Materials inform the teacher to provide students with daily small group instruction in Level 1 followed by Level 2 activities. Students practice using alliteration of sounds and then write the letters.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 14, at the end of the "Word Spelling Assessment," teachers are provided with "Instruction Demands" for both phonics and phonemic awareness. For phonics, the demands listed are: “Daily small group instruction. Weak vowels-more vowel practice with vowel hill. Vowel practices 1-3. Weak consonants-Levels 1 and 2 consonant practice. Segment and write with a smaller set of consonants until learned. Student is sound leader frequently.”

Indicator 2g.iv

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of word recognition and analysis (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of word recognition and analysis (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

In Pathways to Reading, sight words are assessed throughout the school year. Beginning in the third nine weeks, nonsense word reading is a part of the assessment routine. Based on a student’s performance on each test, teachers are provided with instructional implications.

Materials regularly and systematically provide a variety of assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence of word recognition (i.e., high-frequency words or irregularly spelled words) and analysis. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 24, the teacher is provided with instructions for completing the "Sight Word Olympics" assessments. “When students feel ready they can ‘run the race.’ They must be able to read the words in less than 20 seconds. If they are successful they can earn ‘medals.’” The teacher is provided with a list that breaks down how many words a student must read to earn medals, for example, bronze, silver, and gold.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 17, a nonsense word reading test is provided. The test is administered at the end of the third and fourth nine weeks. For example, after the third nine weeks students are assessed on the following words: naf, vit, mup, baz, sig, cuj, kiv, zam, juf, and dis.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 18-19, materials list the words that are tested. A previous nine week exam is administered again, if needed, in the following nine week period:
    • End of first nine weeks: the, of, a, to, and, in.
    • End of second nine weeks: is, was, you, that, he, it.
    • End of third nine weeks: for, are, as, with, his, on.
    • End of fourth nine weeks: they, at, have, from, be, this.
    • *Note: The word I has been omitted from the 25 most frequent words to have even numbers each quarter.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information concerning students’ current skills/level of understanding of word recognition and word analysis. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 18, materials provide a rubric for the "Sight Word Reading" test. The suggestions provided are daily small group instruction, listening to students read single words in context, provide students with full assist questioning, sending a sight word list home each quarter, and completing the "Sight Word Olympics" tasks.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 19, under the "Scoring" section, the teacher records the pronunciation of misread words. For example, if the word is=mis, materials state there is a phonemic awareness error. If the word am=an, materials state there is a phonics error.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 19, materials provided guidance for teachers about students’ scoring. For example, “At the end of the second nine weeks students read List 2. *Those who did not have a rubric score of 4 or 5 with List 1 read it again, then read list 2.”

Materials support teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in word recognition and word analysis. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 17, teachers are provided with instructional implications based on a student’s performance on the "Nonsense Word Reading Test:"
    • “Weak Phonemic Awareness Score: (Sounds added, omitted, out of order.) Check that the student can easily segment three sounds. If the answer is yes, have the student do Old/New Word lists one on one with the teacher. Spell one or two words then switch to reading. Be certain to offer scaffolded responses to student errors in Segment and Write, Old/New word and Read Single Words.”
    • “Weak Phonics Score: The pacing may have been too fast. Is the six-day rotational plan being followed in small group instruction? Is the placement guide being used? Do the students meet in small groups three to four times per week?”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 19, teachers are provided with instructional implications based on a student’s performance on the "Sight Word Test:"
    • “Poor recall of non-phonetic words (i.e., the, of, was, you, etc.) Does the student segment easily and can identify letters to match sounds? These are underlying skills that contribute to acquiring non-phonetic words. Is the six-day rotational plan being followed in small group instruction? Students need to context read frequently to aid the acquisition of a sight word base.”
    • “Weak Phonics Score (poor decoding of phonetic words (i.e., and, in, on) The pacing may have been too fast. Is the six-day rotational plan being followed in small group instruction? Is the Placement Guide being used? Do the students meet in small groups three to four times per week?”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 19, the instructional implications are categorized into two parts: “poor recall” or “weak phonics”. Materials include suggestions such as, “students need to context read frequently to aid the acquisition of a sight word base,” or “the pacing may have been too fast.”

Indicator 2h

Materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten partially meet the criteria for assessment materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.

Pathways to Reading materials include a three-page, "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document. The standards alignment document lists "Reading Foundational Skills" standards with lessons and summative assessments that target each standard. While there is some guidance provided for standards alignment, alignment documentation is inconsistent. Some of the "Flip and Assist" activities used repeatedly throughout the program are aligned to standards, while others are not. Formative assessments that are used during daily "Small Group" instruction and tracked on the lesson plans through observational notes are not explicitly aligned to standards. Standards are not listed on any lessons in the teacher manuals. Individual assessment items located in the "Assessment Manual" do not contain standards; however, assessments are specific to skills. The assessments that are listed in the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document focus on one skill.

Materials include denotations of the standards being assessed in the formative assessments. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, ELA standard RF.K.2e is referenced for "Old Word/New Word" exercises in the "Flip and Assist Manual," and in the "Small Group Manual."
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, ELA standard RF.K.3b is referenced for work with "Vowel Hill and Xtend," "Vowel Hill" is located in the Kindergarten "Small Group Manual."

Materials include denotations of standards being assessed in the summative assessments. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, the materials list the following:
    • RF.K.3a: "Test 3-Letter Sound Identification," "Test 1 and 2-Letter Naming: Upper- and lower case," "Test 5-Spell a Sound," and "Test 6-Word Spelling" are all listed under this standard.
    • RF.K.3c: "Test 7-Sight Word Test" is listed under this standard.
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, the materials list the following:
    • RF.K.3: In "Tests 1 and 2- Letter Naming: upper- and lower case," "Test 1," and "Test 2" are administered at the end of the first, second, third, and fourth nine weeks period.
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, associated standards are not provided for Test 4, “Spell a Sound” or Test 8, “PAST”. All other tests in the "Assessment Manual" are included in the Standards Alignment Document.

Alignment documentation is not provided for tasks, questions, and assessment items. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, the publisher notes, “All strategies mentioned are embedded in all PTR manuals: "Large and Small Group" manuals, "Spelling" manuals, and "Flip and Assist Manual." Not all pages in all resources have been cited.”
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, the teacher locates the standard and the tasks associated with the standard. For example, "Flip and Assist" activities are aligned to standards:
    • RF.K.2e: "Old Word/New Word."
    • RF.K.2d: "Segment and Write."
    • RF.K.2a:"Rhyming."

Alignment documentation does not consistently contain specific standards correlated to lessons. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, materials state “All strategies mentioned are embedded in all PTR manuals: "Large and Small Group" manuals, "Spelling Manuals," and "Flip and Assist Manual." Not all pages in all resources have been cited.”
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, the following standard alignment is stated:
    • RF.K.3b: "Vowel Hill and Xtend", and Vowel Hill, found in the Kindergarten Small Group Manual in "Vowel Practice" Lessons meet this standard.
  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, the following standard alignment is stated:
    • RF.K.2d: This standard is cited in the "Small Group Manual," pages 134, and 139.

Indicator 2i

Differentiation for Instruction: Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so the content is accessible to all learners and supports them in meeting or exceeding grade-level standards.
0/0

Indicator 2i.i

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen in a language other than English with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.
0/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten do not meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen in a language other than English with extensive opportunities for reteaching meet or exceed grade-level standards.

There is no reference to English Language Learners in the Pathways to Reading materials.

Indicator 2i.ii

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade-level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.

In Pathways to Reading, a minimum of 60 minutes each day involves small group instruction based on four levels and grouping of students based on their specific needs. Small group lessons are provided in the "Small Group Manual" to begin by the middle of the first quarter. Lessons located in the "Small Group Manual" provide an opportunity for reteaching skills initially taught in a whole group setting. Students are assessed regularly in order to move between levels. "Student Assists" for students who are struggling are spread throughout lessons and provide teachers with tips to help students. The "Flip and Assist Manual" also provides ideas for teachers to use to help students who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level.

Materials provide opportunities for small group reteaching. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 4, the Introduction defines "Small Group Instruction" as 60 minutes. Kindergarten guidelines include the following:
    • Small group size of no more than 5.
    • Allow 20 minutes for each small group lesson and 5 minutes for transition.
    • Plan a minimum of 3 small groups daily.
    • An absolute minimum of 3 lessons per small group is required for students to learn skills basic to the reading process and to transfer those skills to context reading.
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 32, in Level 2, days 1 and 2, teachers use, "Follow Flip and Assist" directions on blue "Stretch and Blend" tabs.

Materials provide guidance to teachers for scaffolding and adapting lessons and activities to support students who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level in extensive opportunities to learn foundational skills at the grade-level standards. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 85-86, during "Vowel Practice Lesson 11," a "Student Assist" box is provided for the teacher. If the student can not recall the sound for a the teacher prompts, “Can you picture where this is on the Vowel Town. Is it in the top three smiles or the bottom three? Can you say the bottom three smile sounds from memory?”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 140, the lesson includes prompts for students who are struggling. For example: “Student reads the word incorrectly. 1. First get the student to read the word ‘the way it looks’. Respond to the error as if the word were phonetically correct. (Follow Flip and Assist).”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 7, teachers are provided with ideas to help students struggling to stretch words. Teacher prompts include, “When the arm is fully stretched and the last sound is pronounced, wiggle the hand at the end of the outstretched arm and ask: “What’s the last sound?” When the hand is closest to the mouth ask, “What’s the first sound we say when our hand is closest to our mouth?” It may be helpful to also note the articulation of the first sound. “What is the first sound that has my top teeth touching my bottom lip?”

Indicator 2i.iii

Materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade-level.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Kindergarten meet the criteria for materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level.

In Pathways to Reading, a minimum of 60 minutes each day involves small group instruction based on four levels and grouping of students based on their specific needs. Extension lessons are provided for students working above grade level through "Xtend" lessons and in the small group, Level 4 lessons. Students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level are provided activities that promote student independence. While Level 4 students receive fewer individualized teacher lessons in small groups, their daily and weekly activities advance to more reading of words and reading in context.

Materials provide multiple opportunities for advanced students to investigate grade-level foundational skills at a greater depth. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 19, "Small Group Instruction" is broken into four levels. The skills students work on mastering in Level 4 are more advanced than the Level 1 skills.
    • Level 1: "Stretch/Blend," "Letter Naming," "ABC Point/Sing."
    • Level 2: "Stretch/Blend," "Rhyme," "Letter Naming," "Segment and Write."
    • Level 3: "Vowel Practice," "Segment and Write," "Old/New Word," "Read Words," "Read in Context."
    • Level 4: "Xtend Vowel Town Practice," "Segment and Write," "Old/New Word," "Read Words," "Read in Context."
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 93, there are two "Segment and Write" lessons provided and there are 10 "Xtend and Teach" lessons listed.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 189, the teacher is provided with an explanation of the skills that will be taught at each level. For example, in "Xtend" Level 4, students will learn the consonant digraphs th, sh, ch, and wh. Students will also learn the long vowel spelling patterns: a_e, ee, i_e, o_e, and u_e.

There are no instances of advanced students simply doing more assignments than their classmates.

Criterion 2j - 2n

Materials support effective use of technology and visual design to enhance student learning. Digital materials are accessible and available in multiple platforms.
0/0
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Kindergarten materials meet the criteria for digital materials (either included as supplementary to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning, drawing attention to evidence and texts as appropriate. There are no adaptive or technological innovations for students provided by the program. Materials do not provide guidance or suggestions on how to customize the spelling in PowerPoints. Materials provided for students have visual designs which are engaging and not distracting. Although the visual design of the website and teachers manuals is easy to read, there are multiple teacher manuals utilized for lessons.

Indicator 2j

Digital materials (either included as a supplement to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.
0/0
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten meet the criteria for digital materials (either included as supplementary to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple, and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.

Digital materials, including instructional videos for teachers, assessment masters, and printables, are compatible with the internet browsers Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. The materials are compatible with Windows and Apple operating systems. Materials are accessible on an Amazon tablet and an iPhone.

The Pathways to Reading website is compatible with Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari, and Firefox. Materials also work on both an Apple and PC device.

Indicator 2k

Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning.
0/0
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten do not meet the criteria for materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning, drawing attention to evidence and texts as appropriate.

Materials on the website are for teachers to interact with rather than for students’ use. There are videoclips the teacher shows to the students. However, there are not opportunities for students to use the Website.

Opportunities for students to engage with technology are not included in the materials. Teachers can download instructional resources, for example, "Small Group Folders," "Decodable Books for Small Group Placement Guides," "Excel Pathways Assessment Report," "SNAP", and "Map Directions," "SMART Board Resources," "Reproducibles," and "Assessment Masters." There is a video library that provides guidance on enunciation of vowel sounds: “If you are nervous about building "Vowel Hill/Xtend Vowel Town", or if it is your first time to build it and you would like assistance this video set will provide the necessary support. Learn to say the vowel sounds along with your class!”

Indicator 2l

Digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.
0/0
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten do not meet the criteria for digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.

There are no adaptive or technological innovations for students provided by the program.

Indicator 2m

Materials can be easily customized for local use.
0/0
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten do not meet the criteria for materials can be easily customized for local use.

The digital materials do not meet the expectation that materials can be easily customized for local use because the "Assessments" and "Reproducibles" documents are PDFs and not editable or customizable.

Indicator 2n

The visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.
0/0
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Kindergarten do not meet the criteria for the visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.

Materials provided for students have visual designs which are engaging and not distracting. Although the visual design of the website and teacher manuals are easy to read, there are multiple teacher manuals utilized for individual lessons which prompt the teacher to gather lesson information from multiple sources. This could lead to inefficiencies and missing elements in lessons. There is a "Large Group Manual," a "Small Group Manual," a "Flip and Assist Manual", an "Advanced Oral PA Manual," and a "Kindergarten Small Group Folder." For a single lesson, a teacher has to navigate through several pages in the "Large Group Manual" with pages divided into the front section for lessons and the back section of the manual for teacher preparation and/or through several of the various manuals provided. There are inconsistent page numbers found in the "Small Group Manual."

Organization of the materials requires the teacher to navigate several manuals and the website to implement a lesson. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 59, the "Read Words" directions state, “Follow ‘Read Words’ Lesson 2 ‘Word Reading Strategy' with Word Reading List’s this manual pg. 175. (Use error assists in Flip & Assist orange ‘Read Words’ tab.)”

Organization of the materials is inconsistent. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Reproducibles," 217 loose-leaf pages are provided and are not organized in a binder or folder. Although the reproducibles are color-coded and organized into five sections, the pages are not numbered which makes it difficult to find resources.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," after page 173, some page numbers contain asterisks. For example, after page 173, 17* is found. This continues until page 187.
abc123

Additional Publication Details

Report Published Date: 08/06/2020

Report Edition: 2017

About Publishers Responses

All publishers are invited to provide an orientation to the educator-led team that will be reviewing their materials. The review teams also can ask publishers clarifying questions about their programs throughout the review process.

Once a review is complete, publishers have the opportunity to post a 1,500-word response to the educator report and a 1,500-word document that includes any background information or research on the instructional materials.

Please note: Beginning in spring 2020, reports developed by EdReports.org will be using an updated version of our review tools. View draft versions of our revised review criteria here.

Educator-Led Review Teams

Each report found on EdReports.org represents hundreds of hours of work by educator reviewers. Working in teams of 4-5, reviewers use educator-developed review tools, evidence guides, and key documents to thoroughly examine their sets of materials.

After receiving over 25 hours of training on the EdReports.org review tool and process, teams meet weekly over the course of several months to share evidence, come to consensus on scoring, and write the evidence that ultimately is shared on the website.

All team members look at every grade and indicator, ensuring that the entire team considers the program in full. The team lead and calibrator also meet in cross-team PLCs to ensure that the tool is being applied consistently among review teams. Final reports are the result of multiple educators analyzing every page, calibrating all findings, and reaching a unified conclusion.

Rubric Design

The EdReports.org’s rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of standards alignment to the fundamental design elements of the materials and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum as recommended by educators.

Advancing Through Gateways

  • Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators to move along the process. Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?
  • Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Key Terms Used throughout Review Rubric and Reports

  • Indicator Specific item that reviewers look for in materials.
  • Criterion Combination of all of the individual indicators for a single focus area.
  • Gateway Organizing feature of the evaluation rubric that combines criteria and prioritizes order for sequential review.
  • Alignment Rating Degree to which materials meet expectations for alignment, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.
  • Usability Degree to which materials are consistent with effective practices for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, and differentiated instruction.

ELA Foundational Skills Rubric and Evidence Guides

The ELA foundational skills review rubric identifies the criteria and indicators for high quality instructional materials. The rubric supports a sequential review process that reflect the importance of alignment to the standards then consider other high-quality attributes of curriculum as recommended by educators.

The ELA foundational skills rubric evaluates materials based on:

  • Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction
  • Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

The ELA Evidence Guides complement the rubrics by elaborating details for each indicator including the purpose of the indicator, information on how to collect evidence, guiding questions and discussion prompts, and scoring criteria.

NOTE: The ELA foundational skills rubric contains only two gateways. The structural pieces that we normally review as a part of Gateway 3 (e.g. differentiation) in our comprehensive reviews are critical to the success of a program, and are, therefore, interspersed and combined with other indicators in Gateway 2.

The ELA foundational skills rubric contains only two gateways: Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction (Gateway 1) and Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment (Gateway 2). The structural pieces that we normally review as a part of Gateway 3 (e.g. differentiation) in our comprehensive reviews are critical to the success of a program, and are, therefore, interspersed and combined with other indicators in Gateway 2.

The EdReports rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of alignment to college and career ready standards and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum, such as usability and design, as recommended by educators.

Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators (gateway 1) to move to the other gateways. 

Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment to the standards. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?

Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. 

In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Alignment and usability ratings are assigned based on how materials score on a series of criteria and indicators with reviewers providing supporting evidence to determine and substantiate each point awarded.

For ELA and math, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to college- and career-ready standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For science, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For all content areas, usability ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for effective practices (as outlined in the evaluation tool) for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, differentiated instruction, and effective technology use.

Math K-8

Math High School

ELA K-2

ELA 3-5

ELA 6-8


ELA High School

Science Middle School

X