Alignment: Overall Summary

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 materials reviewed partially meet the criteria for alignment to standards and research-based practices for foundational skills instruction.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters.

Materials meet the criteria for materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness activities; however, instruction in distinguishing vowel sounds is limited. When distinguishing vowel sounds, practice opportunities provided in the materials focus on written words rather than spoken words. Opportunities addressing identification of long or short vowels in words are presented through written words. Students have opportunities to segment single syllable words; however graphemes are added after each phoneme.

Materials meet the criteria for materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling. Materials include explicit instruction of all grade-level phonics standards through the use of the "Large Group and Small Group Manuals;" however, reading of complete words is limited to calling on students during "Large Group" instruction which may not provide opportunities for all students to read complete words. Students have frequent practice opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns. Materials provide systematic instruction and opportunities for students to practice high-frequency words through "Read Word and Spelling" activities. Students are provided with 200 sight words to study over the course of the school year. Materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context. Students have frequent opportunities to analyze word endings and syllables. Materials provide students with frequent opportunities to practice automaticity and accuracy with reading single words.

Materials partially meet the criteria for instructional opportunities are built into the materials for systematic, evidence-based, explicit instruction in fluency. Explicit instruction in rate is not included in the materials.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding. On-level texts included with the program are limited to weekly spelling paragraphs. While grade-level books are referenced in the materials, the books are not included in the program.

See Rating Scale Understanding Gateways

Alignment

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Partially Meets Expectations

Gateway 1:

Standards and Research-Based Practices

0
29
52
60
45
52-60
Meets Expectations
30-51
Partially Meets Expectations
0-29
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 2:

Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

0
25
46
52
37
46-52
Meets Expectations
26-45
Partially Meets Expectations
0-25
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway One

Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction

Partially Meets Expectations

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Gateway One Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 materials reviewed partially meet the criteria for alignment to standards and research-based practices for foundational skills instruction. Materials provide students with letter writing opportunities; however, directions for correct letter formation are not provided.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters.

Materials meet the criteria for materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness activities; however, instruction in distinguishing vowel sounds is limited. When distinguishing vowel sounds, practice opportunities provided in the materials focus on written words rather than spoken words. Opportunities addressing identification of long or short vowels in words are presented through written words. Students have opportunities to segment single syllable words; however graphemes are added after each phoneme.

Materials meet the criteria for materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling. Materials include explicit instruction of all grade-level phonics standards through the use of the "Large Group and Small Group Manuals;" however, reading of complete words is limited to calling on students during "Large Group" instruction which may not provide opportunities for all students to read complete words. Students have frequent practice opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns. Materials provide explicit systematic teacher modeling and instruction for encoding of phonics from sounds to letters and words in writing tasks. Materials provide systematic instruction and opportunities for students to practice high-frequency words through "Read Word and Spelling" activities. Students are provided with 200 sight words to study over the course of the school year. Materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context. Explicit instruction in word analysis is provided with sample dialogue. Students have frequent opportunities to analyze word endings and syllables. Materials provide students with frequent opportunities to practice automaticity and accuracy with reading single words.

Materials partially meet the criteria for instructional opportunities are built into the materials for systematic, evidence-based, explicit instruction in fluency. Explicit instruction in rate is not included in the materials.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding. On-level texts included with the program are limited to weekly spelling paragraphs. While grade-level books are referenced in the materials, the books are not included in the program.

Criterion 1a - 1b

Materials and instruction provide embedded support with general concepts of print, and systematic and explicit instruction and practice for letter recognition.
1/4
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-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 materials provide students with letter writing opportunities; however, directions for correct letter formation are not provided. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters.

Indicator 1a

Letter Identification
0/0

Indicator 1a.iv

Materials provide explicit instruction to print and to practice forming the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase).(K-1)
0/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction to print and to practice the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase).

In the Pathways to Reading, "Large Group Manual," the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" includes a "Handwriting" segment and indicates that letter formation, directionality, and spacing will be taught for the first two quarters; however, materials do not provide explicit instruction in the manuals. The materials provide students with letter writing opportunities; however, directions for correct letter formation are not provided.

Materials do not include frequent opportunities for students to practice forming all of the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase):

  • Explicit directions for forming all 26 letters are not provided.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 2, the "Quarterly Overview" lists "Handwriting" as “15-20 minutes (three times a week), Alternate with PTR large group.” Materials do not include resources or lesson plans for teaching handwriting. In the second quarter, the recommended time for handwriting is 15 minutes daily. "Handwriting" is not listed in the third or fourth quarter divisions of instructional time.

Materials include limited opportunities for students to practice forming letters using multimodal and/or multisensory methods:

  • In the Small Group Folder, page 7, the teacher introduces "Shadow Writing" to assist with imagining and learning "Vowel Town" spelling. The teacher tells students, “With your finger shadow write the letter -o on the desk (or tabletop). Say the name of the letter as you write it. That will help you remember what you write even better.” Materials do not provide directions for how to form letters.
  • In the Pathways to "Spelling Manual," page 11, students “finger spell” words to enhance their visual memory of the weekly spelling words.

Indicator 1b

Materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books (K-1) and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters. (K-early Grade 1)
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books (K-1), and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters (K-early Grade 1).

The Grade 1 materials provide some instructional support for general concepts of print. Although decodable books and leveled books from outside sources are recommended, specific lessons providing a connection between books and print concepts are not provided. Students periodically review identification of the letters of the alphabet. Instruction in printing letters is not included in the materials; therefore, review is not evident. Ending punctuation is taught. However, students learn about using correct punctuation to match the intended meaning of the sentence rather than punctuation as a feature to distinguish a sentence within connected text. The materials provide cumulative reviews of letter identification, especially at the beginning of the year; however, they do not provide cumulative reviews of print concepts or printing letters.

Materials include limited explicit instruction for all students about the organization of print concepts (e.g., recognize features of a sentence):

  • Students have limited opportunities to recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation):
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 182, the teacher writes four sentences on the board: “Look at this first sentence. I like dogs. Who is sitting up straight and tall with their eyes up here and can tell us what we call this dot at the end? Tell the students it’s a period and it means we just said something, we made a statement.” The lesson continues with question marks and exclamation points.

Materials include frequent, adequate lessons, tasks, and questions for all students about the organization of print concepts (e.g., recognize features of a sentence). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 181-183, the lesson focuses on ending punctuation. Students practice reading text with these various marks. “I’m going to put some punctuation marks at the end of our alphabet lines. Let’s have some fun and read the row of letters with that mark at the end. For example, what if I put a question mark at the end of this first row of letters? I would read it this way… a, b, c, d? I made my voice go up at the end.” The teacher is then instructed to, “Place various marks at the end of the a, b, c, d row and let students practice. Next, place the period, ! and ? at the end of the first three rows. On the fourth row place a comma after each letter with a period at the end. Have students practice with each other.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 185, students are questioned about the effect of punctuation marks when reading. Students select the emotion pop stick to correspond to the emotion conveyed by the example sentences.
  • In the "Pathways to Spelling Manual," page 165, the materials reference PowerPoint 4. Slide 2 of PowerPoint 4 provides the sentence, “The work was hard for her.” which gives students two tasks. Students first “Check punctuation. Beginning and end of sentence.” The second task is to “Check phrases. Say slowly to check the spelling.”

Materials do not include a variety of physical books (teacher-guided, such as big books) that are suitable for the teaching of print concepts. No books are included in the materials.

Materials do not include sufficient and explicit instruction about the organization of print concepts (e.g., recognize features of a sentence) in the context of a book. Students practice punctuation using sentence strips.

Materials do not include opportunities for students to engage in authentic practice using print concepts in the context of student books. Student books are not included in the program:

  • In the Small Group Folder, pages 3-4, student books that are recommended in Grade 1 include Power Readers, Saxon, High Noon Info-Mag, and High Noon Magic Belt Series. The recommended books are aligned to the "Read in Context" lessons for small group instruction.

Materials contain limited periodic cumulative review opportunities during which the teacher reminds students about previously learned grade-level print concepts, and letter identification. Materials do not contain periodic cumulative review of letter formation:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 77, teachers are instructed to use the consonant review activities as necessary. The lesson objective is that “Students can give the letter name, letter sound and speech action for the newest set of consonants: m, n, ng, and l, r.” The teacher is told to “Play the High-Low or Wild Horses game or another favorite game for review purposes. Determine if this type of practice is needed. "Segment and Write" teaches students to use sound/letter associations within the context of a word and may be sufficient practice.”

Materials include students’ practice of previously learned letter identification:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 10, teachers are provided with instructions for using the "ABC Point and Sing" routine. Teachers are told to use the chart in the following three situations, “1. Ask a student to find a letter in a group of letters. If the student is not able to identify the letter have him/her sing to it on the ABC chart. 2. Ask a student for the name of a letter. If the student doesn’t know the name of the letter have him/her sing to it on the ABC chart. 3. Assist a group of delayed students to learn letter names.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 45, students perform the "ABC Point and Sing" activity with the alphabet chart and review specific letter/sounds for p, b, t, d, c, k, g, f, v, and th.

Criterion 1c - 1e

Materials emphasize explicit, systematic instruction of researched-based and/or evidence-based phonological awareness.
8/12
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-
Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness activities; however, instruction in distinguishing vowel sounds is limited. When distinguishing vowel sounds, practice opportunities provided in the materials focus on written words rather than spoken words. Opportunities addressing identification of long or short vowels in words are presented through written words. Students have opportunities to segment single syllable words; however graphemes are added after each phoneme.

Indicator 1c

Materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness activities during Kindergarten and early Grade 1.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness activities through Kindergarten and early Grade 1.

The "Flip and Assist" manual provides the teacher with a variety of phonological awareness activities to use with students. "Flip and Assist" activities are incorporated throughout the "Small Group and Large Group Manuals." "Phonological Awareness" activities located in the "Flip and Assist Manual," and the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual" provide students with frequent opportunities in phonological awareness practice in both small and whole group activities with frequency.

Materials include a variety of activities for phonological awareness. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page vi, the Table of Contents provides a list of multisyllable lessons which include: "Count and Identify Syllables (using fingers in a palm to count syllables)."
  • In "Advanced Oral PA Development," Lesson 1," Two Syllable Compound Words Blend," the routine is as follows:
    • "Teacher: Say...hot (R = response) Say dog (R).
    • Teacher: Put hot and dog together. The new word is___.”
  • In "Advanced Oral PA Development," Lesson 22, "Substitute 2nd C in cCvc Word," the following routine follows:
    • "Teacher: Say (slip) (R).
    • Teacher: Say (slip), but change the (l) to (k). What’s the new word?"
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 5, the "Freeze and Match" activity provides students practice repeating vowel sounds after the teacher. For example, “Now I’ll say the next 3: /ae/, /a/, /u/. (Hand under chin.) You say them.”

There are daily opportunities for students to practice phonological awareness. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 43, students complete the "Freeze and Match" activity. “Now let’s freeze and match in sets. I’ll say a set of sounds and you say them. I’ll say them first. Are you ready? (Place your hand under your chin and say:) /ee/, /i/, /e/. You say them. (R)"
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 30, "Advanced Oral PA Development" is described for all 4 levels of lesson plans. “Provide Advanced Oral PA development during various times of the day- 5 minutes for each small group. Follow Advanced Oral PA booklet directions.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 52, "Vowel Practice," students complete the "Freeze and Match" activity. “Let’s Freeze and Match. I’ll say the first smile sound. I’ll freeze my mouth in that shape, you say the sound after me and freeze your mouth. Ready? Eyes up here.” Students continue to "Freeze and Match" with numerous vowel sounds including /ee/, /i/, /e/, /ae/, /a/, and /u/.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," "Start Up" page 2, the materials state, "Advanced Oral PA is to be used to practice on Days 1-6 either in small group or at another time for a minimum of five minutes."

Indicator 1d

Materials provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness through systematic modeling across the K-1 grade band.
2/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness through systematic modeling across the K-1 grade band.

Grade 1 materials provide activities with explicit instruction for phonological awareness activities in the "Large Group Manual," the "Flip and Assist Manual," and the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual." Teacher instructions include a script that the teacher can read aloud to students to model new activities. The teacher is provided with examples of each skill and word lists to use when completing activities with students. However, instruction in distinguishing vowel sounds is limited. When distinguishing vowel sounds, practice opportunities provided in the materials focus on written words rather than spoken words.

Materials provide the teacher with systematic, explicit modeling for instruction in syllables, sounds (phonemes), and spoken words. For example, the following is noted:

  • Materials include explicit instruction for students to distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. Practice distinguishing between short and long vowel sounds could only be found in association with written words, for example, the following is noted:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 89, during the "Segment and Write" lesson, students give all of the sounds they hear in the word gate. When they arrive at the vowel sound, if they give the sound /a/, the teacher is to tell them to review "Vowel Town" to spot the correct way to spell the sound if it is a long vowel.
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 12, “I’m going to show you words. I don’t need you to read the word to me. I want you to spot the vowel and say its sound as quickly as you can. Be careful because many vowel sounds are spelled with two letters. Ready?”
    • In the Pathways to Reading Video “Old Word/New Word,” the teacher models changing the word Jake into Jack.
  • Materials include explicit instruction for students to orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends:
    • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 58, the teacher is given a dialogue which asks students to say cub and count the sounds in the word. The teacher asks students to add /l/ after the /k/ sound. Finally, the teacher models, “The new word is…(say the slowly as run finger under squares) /kl...u...b/.”
    • In the Pathways to Reading Video "Word Reading Lists Modeled with a First Grader," when the student is struggling with a word, the teacher asks, “Can you squeeze those sounds together?”
  • Materials include explicit instruction for students to isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 31, during the "Segment and Write" lesson the teacher is prompted to state, “We are going to practice finding the little sounds in words. Scientists call these sounds phonemes. For example, the word bag has 3 sounds /b/ /a/ /g/, /bag/.”
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 89, during the "Segment and Write" lesson for gate, the teacher is to, “Call a sound leader to the board. There are three sounds in the word gate. (Sound leader’s name) what’s the first sound in gate?” The teacher is to continue this process until all of the sounds are identified. After each sound, the teacher helps students spell the sound.
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 81, the "Segment and Write" lesson focuses on the word path. “Think about the word path. (Student’s name) there are three sounds in the word path. What’s the first sound in path? (R)" Students continue to identify the remaining two sounds in the word path.
  • Materials include explicit instruction for students to segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes):
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 93, the teacher is given instructions for helping students segment the word gate. “T: (Student name), be our sound leader. There are three sounds in the word gate. What’s the first sound in gate? St: /g/ T: What’s the next sound in the word gate? (R) T: How do we spell the /ae/ sound? (R) T: Is /ae/ one sound or two sounds? (R) T: So will a-e need two sound dots or one? (R) (Students place -a-e on one sound dot.) T: What’s the last sound? (R) T: Spell it.”
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 14, during "Segment and Write" the teacher is prompted to ask, “How many sounds do you think are in the word (bit)? Show me with your fingers. There are three sounds in the word (bit). (Student name) what’s the (first) sound?” The teacher continues asking all of the sounds in the word.
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 20, during the "Old Word/New Word" activity the teacher is prompted to tell students, “Let’s find the sound in some words. (Student name) be our sound leader. Our word is (bit). What is the first sound? What is the next sound in the word (bit)?” The student continues to name all of the sounds in the word. Students then change the old word to a new word, for example, bit into the new word bat.

Materials provide the teacher with examples for instruction in syllables, sounds (phonemes), and spoken words called for in grade-level standards. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 8, provides teachers with examples for instruction in syllables and sounds. Directions included for the teacher to introduce the lesson routine state, “Say...hotdog, but don't say dog. What’s left?” Several lists of words to use for the lesson are provided.
  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 30, the teacher gives the word nail and tells students to add s. “If we say s first we get s...nail.” The teacher is given the starter, “Say...lye. But say f first. What’s the new word?” Several lists of words to use for the lesson are provided.
  • In "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 58, the teacher instructions on blending c to form CCVC words:
    • "Teacher: Say…(cub) (R).
    • Teacher: Say…(cub), but after (k) say (l). What’s the new word?"

Indicator 1e

Materials provide practice of each newly taught sound (phoneme) and sound pattern across the K-1 band.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide practice of each newly taught sound (phoneme) and sound pattern across the K-1 band.

Materials provide a variety of practice opportunities to build students’ phonological awareness. Segmenting sounds and identifying sounds in words is evident in the program. There are blending lessons in the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual." Opportunities to identify short and long vowels in spoken words are not evident. Opportunities addressing identification of long or short vowels in words are presented through written words. Students have opportunities to segment single syllable words. However, graphemes are added after each phoneme. Students are provided with multisensory tools such as visuals when learning phonological awareness concepts.

Materials provide opportunities for students to practice each new sound and sound pattern called for in grade level standards. For example, the following items are noted:

  • Students have opportunities to distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words:
    • There were no examples of spoken single-syllable words where students distinguished vowel sounds. For example, the following is noted:
      • In the "Large Group Manual," page 176, students are shown a chart with words with long vowel sounds ending in -tion and words with short vowel sounds ending in -tion. The teacher explains why some of these words have short and long vowel sounds, “When the vowel is followed by just one consonant it usually wears its name hat.”
  • Students have opportunities to orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends:
    • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 58, students blend to form CCVC words such as adding /l/ to /k/ sound to create club. There are twelve additional lists provided to practice the blending.
  • Students have opportunities to isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words:
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 88, the "Segment and Write" lesson focuses on the word chop. The teacher guides students in completing the activity by asking questions such as, “What’s the last sound in chop?”
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 93, the "Segment and Write" lesson focuses on e. The teacher guides students in completing the activity by asking questions such as, “What’s the first sound in gate? What’s the next sound in the word gate?”
  • Students have opportunities to segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes) with letter associations after each sound is identified:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 105, the teacher tells students there are three sounds in the word fly. The students are asked to produce the first sound, then spell the letter, the next sound, then spell the letter, the last sound in the word and then spell the letter.
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 99, students complete the "Segment and Write" routine with the word whip. The teacher guides students through the process, asking questions such as, “T: (Student’s name) there are three sounds in the word whip. What’s the first sound? (R: /w/) T: We’ll come back and spell that sound in a second. What’s the second sound in whip? R) T: Put /i/ on the second sound dot. (Student places letter -i) T: What’s the last sound? (R) T: Put /p/ on the next sound dot. (R)"

Materials include a variety of multimodal/multisensory activities for student practice of phonological awareness. For example, the following is noted:

    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 27, students feel the air from their mouth as they make consonant sounds such as /k/, /g/, /f/, /v/, and /c/.
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 76, students “Look at this picture for the /l/ sound. Is the tongue up in the front of the mouth or in the back?” When learning about letter sounds, the teacher uses visuals of the way the mouth should look when making the sound.
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 3, students participate in "Freeze and Match." Students learn to make their mouth in the correct shape based on the vowel sound.

Criterion 1f - 1j

Materials emphasize explicit, systematic instruction of researched-based and/or evidence-based phonics.
18/20
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling. Materials include explicit instruction of all grade-level phonics standards through the use of the "Large Group," and "Small Group" manuals; however, reading of complete words is limited to calling on students during "Large Group" instruction which may not provide opportunities for all students to read complete words. Students have frequent practice opportunities to build/manipulate/spell, and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns. Materials provide explicit systematic teacher modeling and instruction for encoding of phonics from sounds, to letters and words in writing tasks.

Indicator 1f

Materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling.
4/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling.

Grade 1 materials provide teachers with sample dialogue to present explicit phonics instruction to students. Teachers are provided with instructions for teaching phonics and students have multiple practice opportunities with skills. Teacher Manuals continue to provide dialogue samples for repeated lessons or refer the teacher back to the introductory lesson. The online video library is referenced as a resource for teacher modeling in applicable lessons.

Materials contain explicit instructions for systematic and repeated teacher modeling of all grade level phonics standards. For example, the following is noted:

  • Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 50, the teacher explains a trick students can use to remember the th spelling. “/th/ is spelled with two letters. Here’s a trick to help you remember. Look at the -t. Think of the little line at the top as the letter sticking out its tongue the way we have to stick out our tongue to say the /th/ sound. There are four sounds that are spelled with two letters and the second letter is an -h. We can think of these as the -h brothers. -t-h is the rude brother that is always sticking out his what?.....(R)”
    • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 66-67, the teacher is given the following sample dialogue for the lesson steps, “Make the sound: /ch/. Feel the air. Does it explode or squeeze out of the mouth?”..../ch/ is a neat sound. It’s spelled with two letters -ch (show the letters). It’s one of the -h brothers. We have the -th brother sticking out his tongue. The -sh brother says ‘/sh.../ don’t wake the snake’. -ch is the sneezy brother. He’s always sneezing:/ch/, /ch/, /choo/.” The teacher is advised to trace the c quickly every time /ch/ is said.
  • Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words:
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 146-148, the teacher shows how to decode words using the following steps:
      • "ID the vowel sound.
      • Blend the vowel to the end.
      • Start again.
      • Identify the word.
      • Map (spell) the portion of the word requested.
      • Read the phrase or short sentence."
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 14, the teacher states, “How many sounds do you think are in the word (bit)? Show me with your fingers. There are (three) sounds in the word (bit). (Student name) what’s the (first) sound?” The teacher is to respond to and fix errors, if necessary. Modeling is provided to ask about the remainder of the sounds in the word bit. In step two, “You heard the sound. Now you can spell it.” Students spell the word with magnetic letters on sound dots.
  • Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds:
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 51, the teacher reviews -e at the end. “T: Hold up the letter -a. Place the letter -e after it. So if the letter -e comes up to this vowel what does he ask? (R: What’s your name.) T: What’s the name of this letter? (R: -a) T: So it would have to answer and say, “my name is /ae/.”
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 129, the teacher instructs on ea, ai, ay, oa. The teacher states, “Look at the e-a. They’re walking together. The first one gets to do the talking. See. His mouth is open and the other vowel is listening. What does the first vowel say?”
  • Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 145, during the multisyllable lesson “Eyeball Vowel Bump, Circle and Read”, the teacher is prompted to count and identify syllables in two words. The teacher tells students to "eyeball" vowels in the word. The teacher is directed to write faster on the board. “In your mind make the first vowel do the ‘vowel bump’. Did it bump into one or two consonants? Can your vowel have one of those consonants? Imagine you have a red pencil and you are drawing a circle around the first syllable.”
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 199, the teacher explains the importance of vowels in syllables. “Every word in the English language has a vowel sound in it. If there is just one vowel sound like in the word stay the word has just one syllable. A word with more than one vowel sound has more than one syllable. We call these words multi (write this on the board as you say it), syllable (write this as it is said.) words. Multi means more than one. So a multisyllable word is a word with more than one syllable. Just like every word has a vowel sound, every syllable will have a vowel sound.” The teacher then has students practice tapping out the number of syllables in words such as shadow and music. The teacher is provided with additional lists of two- and three-syllable words.
  • Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables:
    • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 205-206, the teacher writes the word frozen (written as fro zen) on the board. The teacher explains that the word has two syllables. The teacher puts a space between the syllables. The teacher instructs students to read each syllable and then blend the syllables.
    • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 28, the teacher asks students, “What will you ask yourself first to help you figure out this word? (R: How many vowels.) What should you do next? (R: Do the ‘vowel bump’. Say each syllable. Look for instant syllables.) What will you ask yourself last? (R) Is it a word I know?”
  • Read words with inflectional endings:
    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 157, the teacher writes the word shouting, “Look at each word in this list. Can you instantly find the ending -ing?” The teacher is prompted to have students notice double consonants. Words used in the lesson include dropping, grabbing, strapping, filling, plodding, and dragging.
    • In the "Small Group Manual," page 224, the teacher shows students how to read words with -er. The teacher reviews the endings -ing, -y, -ly. The teacher puts up runner, supper, flutter, spatter, and dinner and asks students what they see in the words. The teacher asks what students know about the ending.

Lessons provide teachers with systematic and repeated instruction for students to hear, say, encode, and read each newly taught grade-level phonics pattern. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 47, teachers “Review the concept of ‘What’s your name, -e as demonstrated in steps 4-6 on page 37.” Page 37 provided the teacher with sample dialogue, “Today we’re going to talk about how to spell these words. What are the names of the vowel letters in our alphabet?” “The letter -e is put at the end of vowels to make a vowel letter have a sound like its name.” The teacher reviews all of the long vowel sounds in the lesson and places letters next to each sound on the "Vowel Town Hill."
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 159, teachers are provided with strategies to use to help students practice reading multisyllable words, “Review multisyllable strategies for a couple of minutes each day. Find several decodable multisyllable words, double consonant words and words with the -ing ending from the "Think Aloud" or "Shared Reading" materials. Write these on the board. Think aloud to decode one from each category…..Apply this strategy to all reading materials encountered; social studies, magazines, leveled books, poetry, etc.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 133-134, the teacher says the word stray. The teacher goes through the sounds in the word and teaches there are three ways to spell /ae/. During "Segment and Write," the teacher helps students write the word stray.

Indicator 1g

Materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns and provide opportunities for students to review previously taught phonics skills.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns and provide opportunities for students to review previously taught phonics skills.

The materials provide opportunities to practice decoding skills over the course of the instructional sequence during "Small Group" instruction for students' current level of foundational skills instruction; however, during "Large Group" instruction of grade-level decoding skills, all students may not be provided the opportunity to practice applying phonics skills. Since a student may be working in a small group that is not at grade-level, there is no guarantee that all students will have opportunities to apply grade-level phonics skills.

When learning about vowel sounds, students had frequent opportunities to practice reading words with new vowel patterns. Vowel sounds and spelling patterns were also frequently reviewed over the course of the school year. Activities and games students learn are repeated consistently throughout the manual and allow students to practice and apply what they are learning.

Lessons provide students with some daily opportunities to decode (phonemes, onset and rime, and/or syllables) phonetically spelled words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 132-133, in a vowel review lesson on the rule, “Two Vowels Go Walking”, students practice reading words with this rule such as braid, faint, and say.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 147, students engage in "Read Single Words" using multisyllable practice in two or three syllable words. Word lists are provided or words can be from content areas such as math, science or social studies.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 149, the teacher reviews a word reading strategy with students and students practice reading from word lists. In applying the strategy, the student will “1. Tell us the vowel sound. 2. Tell us the rime. What part of the word is the rime? (R) 3. Tell us the onset. What part is the onset? (R) 4. Tell us the word.” (Later in the lesson, the teacher eliminates step 1.)

Lessons provide students with daily opportunities for some students to read complete words by saying the entire word as a unit using newly taught phonics skills during "Small Group" instruction; however, not all students read complete words during "Large Group" instruction. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 162, when teaching the -ed ending, the teacher is instructed to call on students to practice reading words with this ending. Some of the words students read include played, scooted, hooked, and hauled.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 166, when learning about the -er ending, students practice reading words such as ruler, driver, spider, and diner.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," "First Up Lesson Plan" documentation template (green) for Level 3, students Read Words using "SNAP" and "Map" cards for practice. Words contain phonics skills such as sh, ch, and long vowels such as ae, ee, ie, oe, and ue. Days 1, 2, and 3 reference "Read Words."

Materials contain daily opportunities for students to review previously learned grade-level phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 70, the materials include "Vowel Ladder" sets for practice: short vowels, long vowels with e, "Two Vowels Walking," "Vowel Buddies," "R Vowels," and "Ladder 6," and all vowels.
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 12, "Spot the Vowel," students practice quickly identifying the vowel sound in a word. “I’m going to show you some words. I don’t need you to read the word to me. I want you to spot the vowel and say its sound as quickly as you can. Be careful because many vowel sounds are spelled with two letters. Ready?”

Materials contain a variety of methods to promote students’ practice of previously taught grade-level phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 147, the "Multisyllable Review" lists activities that can be utilized such as students tapping out syllables, doing "Vowel Bump," "Circle and Read," or "eyeball" (looking for vowels), and reading the words.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 179, students practice multisyllabic words. The teacher is prompted to “Place multisyllable words chosen from "Think Aloud" or non-fiction books. Find words with the -ture ending and other instant syllables learned to date. Call on students to identify the tricky ending then read the word. Be prepared to provide multisyllable Student Assists. Image and write the endings in the air. Add to lists on the word wall.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 51-71, "Vowel Practice" exercises are listed: "Say on Own/Cover It," "Find it," "Cross the River," "Write Across the River," "Spot the Vowel with Spot with the Vowel Flashcards," and "Spot the Vowel with Ladders."

Indicator 1h

Materials provide frequent opportunities for students to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials promote frequent opportunities for students to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence.

Pathways to Reading materials provide students with opportunities to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence during "Small Group Read in Context" lessons and through "Pathway to Spelling" lessons. Students read sentences each week on Day 2 of the spelling routine. The "Read in Context" routine provides students with frequent opportunities to read complete sentences. "Read in Context" sentences contain both decodable words and high-frequency words. Students complete a sentence strip reading center on a regular basis.

Materials provide explicit, systematic practice for decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 178-180, in Lesson 4 "Phrasing and Practice with Sentence Strips," the teacher models reading the way they talk. The teacher gives the students a new sentence strip to read. Students read it to themselves first and place a paper clip on words they are unsure of. “Use the word reading strategy: What’s the vowel sound? Blend sounds into a word. Is that a word you know?” The teacher is told to, “Refer to Flip and Assist” to help students with decoding errors reading words.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 24, the teacher instructs on how to decode the spelling words. The teacher reads the first sentence of students Spelling Lesson 1, Day 2. The teacher informs students there are four spelling words in the sentence.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 187, the teacher guides students to complete a word sort activity with sentence strips. Students sort words from the sentence strips into two categories, “You have two categories of words. Screech words - words that aren’t spelled the way they sound, and one-letter vowel words.” The sentences that students sort words from are, “1. The pig got the cob from Ted.” and “The cat has a big cut. It has to go to the vet.

Lessons provide students with frequent opportunities to decode words in a sentence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 170-197, materials outline the activities that students engage in to “read in context” during small group instruction using sentence strips:
    • "1. Imagery-Students read the sentences and draw pictures or write descriptions about what they see.
    • 2. Phrasing-Students highlight or cut sentences into phrases and practice reading the phrases.
    • 3. Prosody with punctuation marks-Students read to each other using various punctuation.
    • 4. Prosody with emotions-Students read sentence strips conveying different emotions.
    • 5. Words Sort-Students choose a sentence strip and sort the words according to different phonics patterns."
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 16, the teacher is to, “1) Read new spelling words and sentences. 2) Segment and spell words using PowerPoint Lesson 1 Take Home page. 3) Tape ‘Screech’ words to classroom door entry.” The teacher uses the sentence strips, “The big man had a fat cat,” and “His hand got cut on the can.”
  • In the "Reproducibles," there are 88 sentence strips provided for students’ weekly practice reading words in sentences. The words are aligned to the scope and sequence for the phonics continuum found in the "Large Group Manual."
  • In the "Reproducibles, the sentence strips correspond to the targeted phonics for the week. For example, sentences 55-64 focus on -r vowels. Sentences include: 56. "The girl wore her blue dress to church,” and 59. "I saw a lark up in the tree at the park,” and 62. "Norm got a sharp thorn in his leg.”

Indicator 1i

Materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to build/manipulate/spell, and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns.

Students have frequent opportunities over the course of the school year to write and build new words. Phonics practice is completed in the "Small Group, Large Group, and Spelling Manuals." Students write words using markers or magnetic letters on their whiteboards. Teacher instructions for these routines are clear. Instructional routines are consistent throughout the school year.

The materials contain teacher-level instruction/modeling for building/manipulating/spelling, and encoding words using common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns of phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 114, "Segment and Write" lesson 14 c/e, i, y, the teacher places the letters c, e, n, t in random order. The sample dialogue for the lesson prompts the teacher to say, “There are four sounds in the word cent. The word that I’m thinking of means one penny or cent. (Sound leader’s name) what’s the first sound in cent?” Once the student responds, the teacher says, “(Speller’s name) you hear the sound. Look at the letters you have for the word cent. Which letter to you think you’ll use? That’s right. We’ll use the letter -c.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 83, during a "Segment and Write" lesson that focuses on the word deck, the teacher explains how to spell /k/ at the end of a word. “When the /k/ is at the end of a word, right after a one letter vowel the letter -c is added. Some students like to think of the letter -c as a defender. It comes to defend little one letter vowels. We’ll think of it as defender -c.” Students write deck on their boards.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 142-143, during "Old/Word/New Word," students use magnetic letters to build bit, big, bag, bog.

Lessons provide students with daily opportunities to build/manipulate/spell, and encode words in isolation based on common and newly-taught phonics patterns. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 128-130, in the "Segment and Write" lesson, students are introduced to "Two Vowels Go Walking" alternatives of ea, ai, ay, and oa for the sounds /ee/, /ae/, and /oe/. Days 2-5 on page 132 review "Two Vowels Go Walking" (ea, ai, ay, oa) with the "Screech" poster.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 90-92, students complete the "Segment and Write" routine for the words song and sang. After discussing the sounds in each word, students use a white board and marker to write the words.

Indicator 1j

Materials provide application and encoding of phonics in activities and tasks. (mid K-Grade 2)
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials promote application and encoding of phonics in activities and tasks. (mid K-Grade 2)

Materials provide explicit systematic teacher modeling and instruction for encoding of phonics from sounds to letters and words in writing tasks. Students practice writing individual words using "Segment and Write." The materials provide opportunities to apply phonics skills to encode words in sentences or phrases in Pathways to Spelling lessons.

Materials include explicit, systematic teacher-level instruction of teacher modeling that demonstrates the use of phonics to encode sounds to letters and words in writing tasks. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 114, students complete the "Segment and Write" routine for the word cent. As part of the lesson, the teacher tells students, “Screech has a big time cool thing to let you know about -c. He found the secret to when -c gets to sound like /s/. When the letter -c is followed by the vowel letters -e, -i or -y (point to these on the poster) the letter -c will always, always stand for the /s/ sound. Cool huh?”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 148-149, materials provide explicit instruction to help students encode sounds in words. “Place the letters -g, -e, -m, -s in random order above the sound dots...say, ‘There are four sounds in the word gems. What’s the first sound in gems? You heard the sound. Look at the letters you laid out for the word gems. Which letter do you think you’ll use?’ … ‘The letter -g is a lot like the letter -c. It can stand for two sounds. Here’s our Screech poster. (Hold up the g/e, i y poster. Point to the -g with the /g/ at the end.) The sound we usually think of for it is the /g/ sound. However, it can also stand for the /j/ sound. (Point to the -g with the /j/ at the end.)” Students continue by generating a list of /j/ words into two columns: g = /j/ and j =/j/.
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 14, during "Segment and Write" in Step 2, the teacher tells students they have heard the sounds in bit, now they can spell it. If there is no response, the teacher is to tell the student, “You spell /b/ with a -b.” If the vowel is incorrect the teacher is to ask, “Can you picture where /e/ is on the Vowel Hill? Can you picture how it is spelled?”

Lessons provide students with frequent activities and tasks to promote application of phonics as they encode words in sentences or in phrases based on common and newly taught phonics patterns. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 8-11, during the weekly spelling routine students are provided with opportunities to encode words in sentences and phrases:
    • Day 1-Students read phrases that contain the week’s cheater words and then trace the cheater words.
    • Day 2-Students complete a writing activity using the week’s sentences, 1) Copy each sentence, 2) Circle the spelling words in it, 3) Draw an image of the sentence, and 4) Write another sentence to describe what could happen next.
    • Day 3-Instructions are provided for a "Picture My Sentence" activity. They generate a sentence using a spelling word or complete a starter sentence. They try to think of what they are seeing in their minds and then to use imagery words to describe it.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 93-94, students echo-read two sentences and then copy them into their "Screech and Me" workbooks. Students extend by adding another sentence.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 117, the teacher reminds students that -qu and -x are "Copycat" spellings using the sentence, “The queen wore her cape and crown.” The teacher asks students to show how many sounds are in queen, has the class or a student segment the word, and tells the class or a student to spell the sound. The teacher is then to “Tell students to write -q,-u on the first two lines for the sounds of /k/ and /w/.”

Criterion 1k - 1m

Materials and instruction support students in learning and practicing regularly and irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
8/8
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 materials provide systematic instruction and opportunities for students to practice high-frequency words through "Read Word and Spelling" activities. Students are provided with 200 sight words to study over the course of the school year. Materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context. Explicit instruction in word analysis is provided with sample dialogue. Students have frequent opportunities to analyze word endings and syllables.

Indicator 1k

Materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and opportunities to practice reading of high-frequency words to develop automaticity.
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and practice opportunities of high-frequency words to develop automaticity.

The Pathways to Reading materials contain consistent and explicit instructions for introducing and teaching the words to students. In addition to the practice students complete in the "Spelling Manual," students practice reading sight words through the "Sight Word Olympics" routine and during class when coming and going from the classroom with words posted on the doorframe. Students are provided with 200 sight words to study over the course of the school year. The materials provide systematic instruction and opportunities for students to practice high-frequency words through "Read, Word and Spelling" activities.

Materials include systematic and explicit instruction of irregularly spelled words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 14, teachers “Choose a few ‘cheater’ words to focus on each week. Preview materials to be read to the class. After doing a Think Aloud tell the students they are to help you find the sight words which they will study for several weeks. Have highlighting tape available to highlight the words as they are located. Pieces of highlighting tape may be made available and students can search in books on their own for the week’s sight words. Post the words on the frame to the classroom door. Read the words to the students as they enter and leave the room. Eventually ask students to read them for you.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 153, students are taken through the “Screech words (non-phonetic words)”, and practice identifying them. “This word has a Screech in the corner, do you know why? Well, Screech always shows up when we need some help with words. These words are tricky because one of the sounds in the word isn’t spelled the way you would think it should be...This word is ‘said’...what is the first sound in ‘said’? How is /s/ spelled? Look at this word. Is that how the first sound is spelled? What’s the 2nd sound in the word “said”? How is /e/ spelled? Is /e/ spelled with an -ed in the word, ‘said’? That’s the ‘cheater”’ part of this word. It isn’t spelled the way it should be. So it makes it harder for us to learn the word. What is this word again?”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 37, students follow a consistent routine when learning new words. Using a PowerPoint presentation, the teacher introduces the word. Students count the number of sounds, segment/spell the sounds in the word, and write the word. Finally, the teacher is instructed to have the “Class say slowly, image and write in picture box.”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 27, the teacher is given the sample dialogue, “You read that word just the way the letters should be read. But this word has a cheater part. The (a-i) doesn’t make the (/ae/) sound like you’d expect it to. The word is pronounced (/sed/). Let’s add that to the list of cheater words you’re learning.” The teacher is provided with the prompt, “Can you make the leap to the real words by thinking about how it’s used in the sentence?”

Materials include frequent opportunities for the teacher to model the spelling and reading of irregularly spelled words in isolation. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 109, the teacher is instructed in the PowerPoint: “Teacher read words. Teacher read sentences. Students echo read.” The PowerPoint corresponds with the spelling lesson in which the teacher reads the words he, be, she, go, no, sold, find, and most.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 66-68, Days 1-5 include high frequency words what, who, which, and when. The lesson begins with the teacher asking students two ways to spell the /w/ sound (/w/ and /wh/). Students segment and write the word list. Then students analyze the ‘cheater’ part of the words in the list, for example the /u/ for a in what.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 67, the teacher models how to segment and spell irregular words:
    • "Click for meaning of the word. See sentences on PP notes.
    • Class tells how many sounds in the word (PP click to C or C).
    • Class (or sound leader) says the first sound. (segmenting practice).
    • Class (or student) spells.
    • Class writes spelling on sound dots. (PP click).
    • Class says the word slowly and writes in the ‘picture box.’ (PP click)"

Students practice identifying and reading irregularly spelled words in isolation. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 154, student pairs work together through sets of Screech words:
    • The “teacher” covers the small phonetic word on front. Ask the “student” to read the word without seeing the phonetic spelling.
    • Then, the “teacher” uncovers the phonetic spelling and the “teacher” and “student” must agree that the word was read correctly.
    • The “teacher” then covers the word and asks the mapping questions on the back.
    • The “teacher” uncovers the word and the “teacher” and “student” check if the spelling provided was correct.
    • The “student” then reads the phrase on the back.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 157, students play "Slow and Go" to independently read several "SNAP" words. Students flip over words (3-4) and think about the onset/rime strategy to read the word. If they think it’s read correctly, they place it on the “Green for Go” circle. If they aren’t sure, they place it on the “Yellow for Slow” circle, and the teacher provides assistance. The teacher takes notes on students progress.
  • In the Reproducibles, "Sight Word Olympics," students practice sight words at home with parents, and at school with a partner. Students work towards reading their lists quickly and earn “medals” as they master each list.

Materials include a sufficient quantity of new grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words for students to make reading progress. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," Teacher Preparation Tab, pages 44-45, resources for "Single Word Reading" practice include a set of 200 high-frequency words ("SNAP" and "Map" cards). The words are sorted into sound pools: Pool 1-Short Vowels and Digraphs; Pool 2-Long Vowels; Pool 3 Buddy Vowels; Pool 4 -r Vowels; Pool 5-2 Vowels Walking; Multisyllables; Non-Phonetic.
  • In the Reproducibles, "Sight Word Olympics," students study 50 words each quarter to total 200 words over the course of the school year.

Indicator 1l

Materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences).
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences).

In Pathways to Reading, students have frequent opportunities over the course of the school year to read and write high-frequency words. High-frequency words are included on every weekly spelling test. Students practice writing high-frequency words both in isolation and in a sentence each week. Students have the opportunity to practice reading high-frequency words on the sentence strips that are used in different activities.

Lessons provide students with frequent opportunities to read grade level irregularly spelled words in a sentence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 187-188, students find words in sentence strips and organize them into two categories of words: "Screech" words-words that aren’t spelled the way they sound, and one-letter vowel words. The sentences students use to complete this activity are, “The pig got the cob from Ted,” and “The cat has a big cut. It has to go to the vet.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 189, the teacher is prompted to “Each week place the directions to one of the Sentence Strip activities in the station. Rotate these activities every week, or every three days, as desired. “

Lessons provide students with frequent opportunities to write grade-level, irregularly spelled words in tasks (such as sentences) in order to promote automaticity in writing grade level irregularly spelled words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 66-68, students work with high-frequency words which, when, what, and who. Students practice their words for the week. The practice sentences are “What can I get when I shop?” and “Who can rush and shut the pen?”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 95, when the words come and some are part of the list, students practice writing the words along with the rest of their spelling words. As part of the spelling practice, the teacher dictates the following two sentences, “Take some cake to the three men,” and “Will the lost cats come home?” The sentences for dictation are in PowerPoint Lesson 8, Day 3, Slide 3.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 109-110, students practice one letter long vowels “he, be, she, go , no, sold, and "Cheater" words “find, and most”:
    • Whole group:
      • "Spell mystery word ‘told' and review one-letter long vowels.
      • Echo read the sentences and words for the week.
      • Co-create mental imagery related to one or both sentences.
      • 'On the Spot' reading and spelling-Students read or spell Screech words as they enter or exit the classroom."
    • Independent:
      • "Copy sentences and circle spelling words.
      • Add a sentence with an additional thought to one of the week’s sentences.
      • Illustrate their images."

Materials provide repeated, explicit instruction in how to use student-friendly reference materials and resources, and reading irregularly spelled words (e.g., word cards, word lists, word ladders, student dictionaries). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," Appendix B, pages 40-41, "Take Home" Lesson 18, students practice their weekly words (girl, first, shirt, bird, third, twirl, write, change) using the repeated pattern:
    • "Students read the word in the list.
    • Spell each word by first identifying the number of 'sound dots' used by the word.
    • After students spell the word, the parent asks, 'Did you spell it right?' and has students self-correct.
    • If the word has a yellow letter (a tricky part) then the prompt is, 'This word has a tricky part. The word is _______. Picture the word in your mind and spell it for me.'
    • Additional: Read or spell each sentence and explain what the sentence means and the image it creates in the student's mind."
  • In the "Spelling Manual," pages 56-62, teachers are provided with high-frequency word flashcards. The teacher is instructed to, “Laminate and cut out. The cards are labeled by weeks. They are taped to the classroom doorway. Use the cards as directed each week.”
  • In the "Reproducibles," "Sight Word Olympics Word Lists," students are provided with sight word lists to study for each quarter.

Indicator 1m

Materials explicitly teach word analysis strategies (e.g., phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis) based on the requirements of the standards and provide students with frequent practice opportunities to apply word analysis strategies.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials explicitly teach word analysis strategies (phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis) based on the requirements of the standards and provide frequent practice opportunities for students to apply word analysis strategies.

In Pathways to Reading, explicit instruction in word analysis is provided with sample dialogue. Students have frequent opportunities to analyze word endings and syllables.

Materials contain frequent explicit instruction of word analysis strategies (phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis). For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 137, students play the "Name Hat Sound Hat" game to isolate and say each syllable in a two- or three-syllable word. “In multisyllable words if a vowel is spelled with one letter it gets to wear two hats. It might wear its sound hat like it usually does, or it might wear its special fancy name hat. When it wears its name hat, it doesn’t need an -e or another vowel to walk with it. Which hat is -o wearing in the word stony?”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 160, -ed is introduced on Day 2 and practiced on Days 3, 4, and 5.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 174-176, students are introduced to the suffix -tion. “The /sh/ sound is spelled with -t-i. The /e/ sound is spelled with -o.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 200, students practice counting and identifying the syllables in two- and three-syllable words. The teacher asks students questions such as, “T: Tap the syllables in the word____. (R) T: How many syllables are there? (R)” and, “T: If there are (two) syllables how many vowel sounds are there?”

Materials contain frequent explicit instruction of word solving strategies to decode unfamiliar words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 151-153, students learn the sound /j/ at the end of a word is -dge when preceded by a short vowel. “But Screech found that we can protect the one letter vowel by putting in a defender. (Place the letter -d in front of the -ge on the same sound dot.).”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 183, teachers review how to “make the leap” with multisyllable “cheater” words:
    • "First step: Read the way it looks.
    • Second step: Search our brains to think what words have some of the same parts. What could the word really be?
    • Third step: Think about how the word is used in a sentence or story."
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 147, the teacher introduces a word reading strategy to students, “1) Identify the vowel. 2) Read the vowel to the end. We call that the rime. 3) Start again. We go to the beginning of the word and add any consonants.”

Multiple and varied opportunities are provided over the course of the year for students to learn, practice, and apply word analysis strategies. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 222, students practice reading words with the instant syllables -y and -ly such as: plainly, burly, envy, and shady.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page v, "Read Words" lessons are provided and practiced. The lessons include: "Reading Strategy with SNAP and Map Words," "Word Reading" lists, "Independent Word Reading" practice, "Vocabulary from Text Word Reading Practice," "Read and Hand Back," and the "Slow and Go Practice Routine."
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 208, students study two syllable words. Students practice dividing words into syllables. Words students study include: number, after, under, over, paper, never, mother, and water.

Criterion 1n - 1q

Materials and instruction support students in learning and practicing regularly and irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
10/16
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 materials provide students with frequent opportunities to practice automaticity and accuracy with reading single words. Materials partially meet the criteria for instructional opportunities are built into the materials for systematic, evidence-based, explicit instruction in fluency. Explicit instruction in rate is not included in the materials.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding. On-level texts included with the program are limited to weekly spelling paragraphs. While grade-level books are referenced in the materials, the books are not included in the program.

Indicator 1n

Materials provide opportunities for students to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity in K and Grade 1.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials provide opportunities for students to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity in K and Grade 1.

In Pathways to Reading materials, students have frequent opportunities to practice automaticity and accuracy with reading single words. The teacher is provided with clear, explicit instructions in the "Flip and Assist Manual" for helping students with different errors they may make while reading words. The "Small Group Manual" contains a variety of activities for word reading practice. "Read in Context" lessons during "Large Group" instruction and "Small Group" instruction use sentence strips that include the daily/weekly phonics focus. Pathways to Spelling lessons include phonetic words, "Fry" words, and "Screech" words. Materials provide explicit modeling provided by the teacher and peer-to-peer feedback on accuracy to build towards automaticity.

Materials provide systematic and explicit instruction and practice in fluency by focusing on accuracy and automaticity in decoding. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 146-148, the teacher is provided with instructions for helping students read word lists. At the start of practice, students read the lists following the steps, “ID the vowel sound, read the rime, read the onset, read the word.” By the end of the lesson students are simply instructed to, “read the word.” The teacher provides specific feedback to each student to ensure accuracy.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 176-177, the teacher models reading the way we talk using sentence strip 1 “The pig got the cob from Ted.” The teacher explains, “When we read the way we talk we clump groups of words together and say them a little faster.” The teacher uses a paper clip to create phrases. The teacher models reading in phrases, and students echo read. Students practice in the "Reading Club" using a paperclip to create phrases and read the sentence strip several times to a partner until they, “Then read it the way we talk.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 178-180, the teacher reviews the concept of reading the way we talk. The teacher reads some sentences with, and some without, phrasing, and the students respond by nodding either yes or no to indicate whether phrasing has been used correctly.

Materials provide opportunities for students in Kindergarten and Grade 1 to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 151, students practice reading word lists with a partner. Students take turns being the teacher and the student. The “teacher” asks, “1) What’s the vowel? 2) What’s the rime? 3) What’s the word?” As part of the lesson the teacher is instructed to, “Tell the students that they are going to practice together to read words correctly. Their goal is to learn to read lists of words accurately and quickly. They will test themselves by trying to read their list in less than one second per word.”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 153, students engage in paired learning with "SNAP" and "Map" words by practicing with sets of words to develop accurate and automatic reading.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 156, students learn the "SNAP Read and Hand Back Practice Routine." In this routine students practice reading words quickly. Initially, students say the rime and then the word. Students progress to "eyeballing" the word and reading the whole word out loud.
  • In the Small Group Folder, students complete "Read Words" practice in small groups: Level 2 Days 4, 5 and 6 and in Level 3, Days 1-6.

Indicator 1o

Instructional opportunities are built into the materials for systematic, evidence-based, explicit instruction in fluency. (Grades 1-2)
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for instructional opportunities are built into the materials for systematic, evidence-based, explicit instruction in fluency (Grades 1-2).

The Pathways to Reading materials provide explicit instruction in some aspects of fluency through the "Small Group" instruction and the "Pathways to Spelling." Fluency lessons focus on accuracy, phrasing, prosody, punctuation, and emotions through activities such as choral reading, echo reading, and "Reading Club" activities. Lessons and activities are limited to nine repeated lessons during "Small Groups" that rely on decodable texts, two sentences and a weekly paragraph in Pathways to Spelling, and sentence strips.

Materials include some opportunities for explicit, systematic instruction in fluency elements using grade-level text. Instruction in rate is missing.

For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 164, Objective 1 for "Read in Context" lessons is: Develop decoding accuracy, phrasing, expression, and fluency:
    • Students decode orally with 98% accuracy.
    • Teacher provides error assists and prompts for decoding accuracy.
    • Teacher models phrasing and expression.
    • Students re-read to demonstrate fluency, phrasing, and expression.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 171, the teacher demonstrates phrasing verbally and then uses two colors of highlighter to show the phrases on the sentence strip. “Let’s read it that way together. Are you ready?” Students choral read. A selected student reads the sentence again for the 5th round.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 181-183, students echo read to practice prosody while focusing on punctuation marks. “I’m going to read this sentence again. Tell me if at the end my voice goes up (make the voice go higher when saying up) or if it goes down (make the voice go lower when saying down.).”

Materials provide opportunities for students to hear fluent reading of grade-level text by a model reader. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 9, Day 2 of each week includes the routine, “Teacher following the teacher’s manual and using the PowerPoint, has students ‘echo’ read the two sentences for the week. The teacher reads the sentence phrase by phrase with expression. The group echoes each phrase after it is read.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 32, when completing the weekly Day 4 spelling paragraph, the teacher is instructed to, “Read each sentence. Students echo read (repeat after teacher.). Have students read and image the paragraph sentence by sentence.”

Materials include some resources for explicit instruction in fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 192-194, students read decodable texts using “imaging, phrasing, making our reading voices show where commas, periods, and question marks are and the emotions of the writer and so forth, during small group instruction."
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 195-197, the teacher is directed to use a decodable book to develop listening and reading skills through context reading. The teacher reads, and students echo read with proper phrasing, “Now that we’ve figured out the words, let’s practice reading in phrases.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 171, the teacher reads the weekly words. Then, the teacher reads the two weekly sentences. Students echo read. The process of echo reading the spelling sentences is repeated on Day 2 of weekly spelling lessons during large group instruction.

Indicator 1p

Varied and frequent opportunities are built into the materials for students to engage in supported practice to gain oral reading fluency beginning in mid-Grade 1 and through Grade 2 (once accuracy is secure). (not scored for K and early Grade 1)
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for varied and frequent opportunities are built into the materials for students to engage in supported practice to gain oral reading fluency beginning in mid-Grade 1 and through Grade 2 (once accuracy is secure).

The Pathways to Reading materials provide opportunities to engage in supported practice to gain oral fluency through small group lessons, "Reading Club," and "Pathways to Spelling" lessons. Variety is limited as materials only include sentence strips for small group activities and paragraph readings in "Pathways to Spelling" lessons.

Opportunities are provided over the course of the year in core materials for students to gain oral reading fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 9, Day 2 of each week includes the following routine, “Teacher following the teacher’s manual and using the PowerPoint has students ‘echo’ read the two sentences for the week. The teacher reads the sentence phrase-by-phrase with expression. The group ‘echoes’ each phrase after it is read.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 32, Day 4 of each week when completing the weekly spelling paragraph, the teacher is instructed to, “Read each sentence. Students echo read (repeat after teacher). Have students read and image the paragraph, sentence by sentence.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 120, students read and image the paragraph in their "Screech and Me Student Book" for Lesson 11 Day 4. Students re-read the paragraph independently, or to a partner.
  • In the Small Group Folder, page 8, "First UP-Materials" and "Start Up" outlines the "Reading Plan" for Level 2 small group instruction during "Reading Clubs:"
    • "Day 4 - Reading Club assignment - Co-read to a play focusing on phrasing and expression. Choose a part to read to the group demonstrating good phrasing and expression.
    • Day 5 - Reading Club assignment - Co-read to a pal focusing on imagery. Choose a section with favorite imagery to share back with the group."

Materials contain opportunities for students to participate in repeated readings of a grade-level text to practice oral reading fluency:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 176-177, the teacher models reading the way we talk using sentence strip 1, "The pig got the cob from Ted." The teacher explains, “When we read the way we talk we clump groups of words together and say them a little faster.” The teacher uses a paper clip to create phrases. The teacher models, and students echo read as they read in phrases. Students practice in the Reading Club with Sentence Strip 5 using the paperclip to create phrases and read the sentence strip several times to a partner until they, “Then read it the way we talk.” Students are told they will be able to show off their practice during the next small group session.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 197, the teacher can “Continue with the decodable book of choice.” At the end of the lesson, students “Re-read the story with a partner or alone. Choose a favorite page and practice it until the words are easy and you can work on phrasing. Write one of the sentences on a piece of paper and put a colored mark after each phrase. Come to reading group ready to show off!”
  • In the Small Group Folder, page 8, the lesson references a grade-level book that is not included in the materials. The "First UP Materials" and "Start Up" lesson outlines the "Reading Plan" for Level 2 small group instruction:
    • "Day 4-Cold Read-focus = accuracy: transfer decoding skills, light questioning of vocabulary and story line; teacher responds to student errors and questions images for key vocabulary.
    • Day 5-Reread-focus = meaning and phrasing: how does the meaning influence the phrasing? Discuss imagery, emotions, predictions, inferences, summarize. What does the book lend itself to?
    • Day 6-Final Read-focus = application: students pair up and read to each other in paired learning. 1) Students stop each other and ask questions; 2) If needed, they help to correct each other; 3) Students prepare to read with the teacher. The teacher listens to a student read aloud a portion of the book/passage. The teacher responds to errors and assists as needed."

Materials include minimal guidance and feedback suggestions to the teacher for supporting students’ gains in oral reading fluency. Materials include feedback at the word level. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual", pages 23-27, materials provide 11 assists for reading one-syllable words including:
    • Pauses at a word
    • Student starts to read the word by segmenting
    • Incorrect vowel sound
    • Sound is omitted
    • Sound is added
    • Sound is replaced
    • Sounds out of order
    • A phonics guide is incorrect
    • A phonics guide is correct
    • Letter reversal
    • A cheater word

Indicator 1q

Materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors (Grades 1-2) and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding.

In Pathways to Reading, the Flip and Assist Manual and "Pathways to Spelling" lessons provide teachers with guidance concerning how to assist students with confirming reading or self-correcting errors. Imagery is a consistent focus of reading for understanding. Materials include detailed think alouds to use when discussing imagery. On-level texts included with the program are limited to weekly spelling paragraphs. While grade-level books are referenced in the materials, the books are not included in the program. Materials include limited opportunities for students to read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

Materials provide explicit lessons for the teacher in confirming and self-correcting errors in fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 179, the teacher responds to questions the student may have about a word from the sentence strip after a silent reading with the word reading strategy, “What’s the vowel in the word? Blend sounds into a word. Is that a word you know?”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 238, students learn how to “make the leap” when reading words, “Sometimes we read a word the way it looks like it should be read, but it doesn’t sound quite right. That’s because some words aren’t said the way they look. When we read, we should always expect a word to sound right and make sense. If it doesn’t we may need to search in our minds for a word that it might be. You can think of this as making the leap to a read word.”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," pages 28-31, materials outline the process for assisting students to read multisyllabic words. "Leveled Assists" are provided to help students confirm or self-correct errors. The following is an example for when students replace a sound:
    • "Most assistance:
      • When you say (____) what’s the (first) syllable?
      • What’s the (first sound in /le/)?
      • Look at the syllable. Do you see the (/l/ sound first)?
    • Moderate assistance:
      • Check the (first) sound in the (first) syllable.
    • Least assistance:
      • Part of your word isn’t matching. Can you fix it?
      • What part did you fix?"
    • For all errors-the “final support-release of responsibility” includes the following prompts:
      • “I saw you stop to figure out that word. What was going on in your head? How did you do that?”
      • “You read that word incorrectly and then you fixed it. Good job. How did you know to fix it?”
      • “I noticed that you read those words easily. You didn’t seem to need any time at all to figure them out. That’s good. That’s what good readers are trying to do.”

Materials provide opportunities for students to practice using confirmation or self-correction of errors. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 179, the teacher prompts students to self-identify challenge when presented with a new sentence: “I see you have a question about a word. Is your question how to read the word or what it means?” If the student is struggling to read a word, prompt as follows: “What’s the vowel sound? Blend sounds into a word. Is that a word you know?”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 181-182, the teacher models reading questions and has the students echo read them. The teacher tells a student, “(Student name) let’s hear you read this question sentence. (affirm or assist student to use voice to indicate a question.” At the end of the lesson the students practice using sticky notes with punctuation marks on them, place them on the "ABC" chart, and practice reading it with a partner. The teacher tells the students, “At our next small group meeting you’ll get to perform!”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 239, students practice “Making the Leap.” “This word isn’t read the way it looks. How did you figure it out or how did you know the word? What went through your mind?” The steps in “making the leap” are to, “1. Read the word the way it looks. 2. Do a mental search to “make the leap” to the correct pronunciation. 3. Read the sentence with the word. 4. Ask the teacher, an adult or a friend or check the dictionary.” The teacher is provided with numerous words to have students practice including again, answer, mountain, and country.

Some opportunities are provided over the course of the year for students to read on-level texts (Grades 1-2) for purpose and understanding. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 197, during "Reading Club," students learn how to ask each other questions about the stories that they are reading.
    • Page 4: “What do you think it means when the words say, ‘They can hop on top? What is meant by on top? On top of the grass, the water? A tree?’”
    • Page 5: “Why do you think they are hot? Is it only the sun that would make them hot? What have they been doing? Would that make you hot?”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 55-56, students read and image a paragraph in the "Screech and Me Student Book," sentence by sentence. The teacher is to “Help students to summarize the paragraph.” The teacher asks who the characters are and what is important in the paragraph. Students write a summary of the paragraph for independent work.

Materials contain explicit directions and/or think-alouds for the teacher to model how to engage with a text to emphasize reading for purpose and understanding. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 179, the teacher helps students make meaning from the sentence, “The ducks pick and peck at Beth:”
    • “How did you see the words, ‘pick and peck’?"
    • “What do you imagine or see for the background? If Beth looks around what do you imagine she’d see? Would she be looking at city streets and buildings?”
    • Then, students mark phrases to more fluently read the sentence.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 32, students summarize the weekly paragraph provided in their "Screech and Me Student Book." The teacher helps students summarize the paragraph. The teacher asks the questions, “Who are the characters? What did we learn about them that’s important? This paragraph is about a man with a special cat.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 64, students “Read and Image,” a paragraph. The teacher is provided with guiding questions to use to help students in the process. In this lesson, for example, questions the teacher asks include, “What do you see in your mind for ‘men’ and ‘hut’?” and, “How do you see ‘the sun has set?'”

Gateway Two

Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

Partially Meets Expectations

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Gateway Two Details

The Grade 1 Pathways to Reading program spans 36 weeks and content provided can reasonably be completed in a year based on the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" provided. Although recommended scripting is provided within lessons, specific times are not suggested for individual activities. Additionally, at times, components of the program are difficult to navigate and may need additional guidance. The "Teacher Preparation" section of the "Large Group Manual" provides an explanation of the scope and sequence for phonological awareness and phonics. Teachers are provided with research-based explanations for the hierarchy of phonological awareness and the phonics sequence in Grade 1.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence. Students read a paragraph on Day 4 of the weekly spelling routine that provides the opportunity to apply grade-level phonics skills to a text. Decodable readers are referenced in "Read in Context" small group lessons. Additionally, the paragraphs students read each week during spelling instruction contain "Cheater Words" (i.e., irregularly spelled words) that align with the scope of sequence for spelling instruction. All decodable texts referenced in the materials are available as an additional purchase. Materials do not provide opportunities for the teacher to monitor print concepts, letter recognition, or letter formation in the Grade 1 materials. While materials provide assessment opportunities over the course of the school year to measure students’ mastery of phonics, teacher guidance provides general questions and directs the teacher to use the "Small Group" manuals.

Materials partially meet the criteria for assessment materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized. Materials include an "Assessment Manual" which provides information on student progress and instructional suggestions to assist students toward mastery of word recognition and analysis. Limited assessments for fluency are provided in Pathways to Reading. The teacher is directed to use district fluency assessments and are given a list of suggested fluency resources.

Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.

Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level; however, there is no reference to English Language Learners in the Pathways to Reading materials.

Although the visual design of the website and teachers manuals is easy to read, there are multiple teacher manuals utilized for lessons which could result in an inefficiency of guidance for the teacher.

Criterion 2a - 2e

Materials are accompanied by a systematic, explicit, and research-based scope and sequence outlining the essential knowledge and skills that are taught in the program and the order in which they are presented. Scope and sequence should include phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, fluency, and print concepts.
18/20
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 materials meet the criteria for materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary. Accompanying online video tutorials are located on the Pathways to Reading website. The Grade 1 Pathways to Reading program spans 36 weeks and content provided can reasonably be completed in a year based on the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" provided. Although recommended scripting is provided within lessons, specific times are not suggested for individual activities. Additionally, at times, components of the program are difficult to navigate and may need additional guidance. The "Teacher Preparation" section of the Large Group Manual provides an explanation of the scope and sequence for phonological awareness and phonics. Teachers are provided with research-based explanations for the hierarchy of phonological awareness and the phonics sequence in Grade 1.

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the ELA/literacy program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.

Indicator 2a

Materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 Pathways to Reading meet the criteria for materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.

Pathways to Reading, First Grade manuals provide detailed lessons regarding how to present the content to students. Materials are provided for whole group lessons in the "Large Group Manual." The "Small Group Manual" is used in conjunction with the "First Grade Small Group Folder" for documenting data for small group lessons. The "Flip & Assist" book supports the "Small Group Manual" providing strategies along with possible student responses for help with remediation. "Reproducibles" are provided for whole and small group activities. Sample lessons are provided through video clips that provide support and a modeling tool for the teacher. However, while consistent routines and activities are used throughout the year, the layout of the "First Grade Large Group Instructor Manual" often necessitates flipping back and forth through pages during a daily lesson to find the lessons that correspond with each day.

Materials provide a well-defined, teacher resource (teacher edition, manual) for content presentation. For example, the following is noted:

  • There are multiple teacher manuals/resources included:
    • "First Grade Large Group."
    • "First Grade Small Group."
    • "First Grade Small Group Folder."
    • "First Grade Assessments."
    • "Flip & Assist" (Grade 1 and Above).
    • "Advanced Oral PA Development."
    • "First Grade Pathways to Spelling."
    • "First Grade Reproducibles."
    • "Online Video Library for Teachers."
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-4, the teacher is provided with quarterly literacy plans. Lessons throughout the manual are broken down into weeks and days.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," for Week 6, page 86, the teacher refers to the sight words from Set 1 located on pg. 14. Days 2 and 3 of Week 6 include a "Vowel Lesson Review" with -r vowels. The first activity is to, “Review the sounds of the -r vowels by repeating Lesson 6.” However, no page number is listed, so the teacher is required to locate Lesson 6.

The teacher resource contains detailed information and instructional routines that help the teacher to effectively implement all foundational skills content (i.e., phonological awareness, phonics, irregularly spelled words, word analysis, fluency). For example, the following is noted:

    • In the "Large Group Manual," page 2, the materials provide a model of the "Division of Instructional Time for the First Quarter."
    • "Large Group," 20 minutes, 3-4 times a week.
    • "Small Group, 60-80 minutes daily.
    • "Handwriting," 15-20 minutes three times a week to alternate with "Large Group instruction."
    • "Writing," 30 minutes daily.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 28, students are introduced to the /k/ sound. A chart is provided for the teacher that lists the 6 steps for introducing the sounds. The process for introducing sounds is consistent throughout the manual: "1. Make the sound, 2. Describe the Mouth, 3. Choose a picture, 4. Spell, 5. Find the 'PAL,' and 6. 'Loud Pal, Whispery Pal.'"
  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," pages 76-77 include, “Objective”, “Intro Directions”, “Assist,” and “Routine” to implement the objective of omitting consonants next to the end in CVCC words.

Any technology pieces included provide support and guidance for the teacher and do not create an additional layer of complication around the materials. For example, the following is noted:

  • Videos are provided on the Pathways to Reading Website for teacher use. Topics addressed in the videos include small groups, vowels, segmenting and writing words, multisyllabic words, and fluency. Videos provide demonstrations of a teacher working with students on the strategies taught in Pathways to Reading. For example, the following is noted,
    • A 1 minute and 4 second video titled, “First Grade: Focus on Accuracy” shows a teacher helping a student correct an error while reading.
    • Consonant articulation practice videos such as, “Introduction of Exploders: p/b, t/d, c, k/g, ch/j.”
  • First Grade "Reproducibles," spelling PowerPoints and masters, and assessment masters are provided in digital format on the Pathways to Reading website.
  • The online resource includes a "Board Letter Tiles Notebook for SMART Boards" to accompany building words activities.

Indicator 2b

Materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 Pathways to Reading meet the criteria for materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.

Lessons throughout the Grade 1 Pathways to Reading manuals contain explanations and examples of foundational skills being taught such as detailed annotations of the phonological instruction, speech concepts, and further suggestions for professional reading. The "First Grade Large Group Manual" contains a "Teacher Preparation" section that provides adult-level explanations of foundational skills concepts such as phonemic awareness, phonics, and high-frequency words. The "Flip and Assist Manual" provides explanations and examples of foundational skills. Accompanying online video tutorials are located on the Pathways to Reading website.

Complete, detailed adult-level explanations are provided for each foundational skill taught at the grade level. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 144, when students are learning about multisyllabic words, the teacher is provided with two very important points, one of which is, “The main focus of multisyllabic instruction is to teach students to approach decoding multisyllabic words a syllable at a time. Once vowel bump, circle and read has been established begin to use the language: “What’s the first syllable with the first vowel?” “What’s the next syllable with the next vowel?” “What’s the word?” The student may not divide the word following the vowel bump rules. That’s acceptable. The objective is that the student is approaching the word a syllable at a time and not a sound at a time. If the student gets into a tongue twister situation ask: “That seems to be hard to pronounce the way you’re dividing it. Is there another way to divide the syllables?”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" pages 3-4, the materials explain the shape of the mouth when pronouncing “special sounds” in speech such as "nasal," "fricatives," "glides," and "liquids."
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" page 13, teachers are provided an explanation for how to teach the /sh/ sound. Teachers are given six steps for learning about the sound, "1. Make the Sound, 2. Describe the Mouth Action, 3. Anchor with a Picture, 4. Spell, 5. Find the "Pal & Spell,' and 6. Determine 'Loud/Whispery.'" For example, the following is noted:
    • Under 1. "Make the Sound," teachers are told, “T: Make the sound: /sh/ (shop). T: Feel the air. Does it explode (stop quickly) or squeeze out of the mouth? Circle one." An image of each has been provided.

Detailed examples of the grade level foundational skill concepts are provided for the teacher. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," pages 3-4, "Pathways" category: "Special Sounds," examples are provided about sounds: /l/, /r/. These are labeled, "liquids." The description is as follows: “/l/ curls the tongue in the front of the mouth. /r/ curls the tongue in the back of the mouth. Both are voiced.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 28, the teacher is provided with examples and rules for long vowel spellings. For example, Guide #4 states, “When the vowel says its name the -e goes to the end of the word.” The teacher is provided with a chart that lists the words name, bike, lake, cute, and note as examples of this rule. The teacher is informed that “a subset of this guide is that the 2 ee-s are like twins and mostly stick together. feet, greet. However they also occur separated: Pete, complete.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 30, the teacher is provided with examples and rules for the letter y. For example, Guide #11 states, “The letter -y is very versatile. At the beginning of a word it functions as a consonant with a sound similar to /ee//u/. When stretching a word that begins with the -y sound the sound /ee/ is heard.” The teacher is provided with a chart that lists “y = /y/ yard; y = /ie/ fly; /ee/ ba by/; /i/ gym”.

Indicator 2c

Foundational skills lessons are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing. Content can reasonably be completed within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for foundational skills lessons are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing. Content can reasonably be completed within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.

The Grade 1 Pathways to Reading program spans 36 weeks. The Pathways to Reading content provided can reasonably be completed in a year based on the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" provided. Instructions for breaking up the daily literacy block are provided for teachers. Lesson plan design utilizes teacher modeling and consistent instructional routines and activities. Grade 1 materials follow a continuum for phonemic awareness and phonics which includes short vowel sounds, basic consonants, consonant digraphs, long vowels, alternate spellings, vowel pairs, inflectional endings, prefixes and suffixes. Segmenting and blending follow the sequence of CVC, CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC, and two syllable word manipulations. Recommended times are provided for whole group, small groups, and supporting activities within the 2.5 hour literacy block. Although recommended scripting is provided within lessons, specific times are not suggested for individual activities. Additionally, due to many program components, the materials can be hard to navigate and need additional guidance.

Lesson plans utilize effective, research-based lesson plan design for early literacy instruction. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 43, Linnea Ehri’s theory of the four stages of reading development are referenced. "Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension," by Pikulski and Chard is referenced. “PTR assists students in this phase of word reading by offering scaffolded questions based on the type of decoding error made by a student.” The goal is for students to reach the "Fully Alphabetic Stage" by the end of Kindergarten, or beginning of Grade 1.
  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," pages 2-4, the materials cite David Kilpatrick’s research that supports the Phonological Awareness Screening Test (PAST) and that determines the various sequences and lesson designs.
  • On the Pathways to Reading Website, pathwaystoreading.com, "Research Tab," teachers are informed, “PTR is grounded/focused in/on the five components of the reading process identified through the research of the National Reading Panel and the National Reading Council: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension.”

The effective lesson design structure includes both whole group and small group instruction. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, the "Division of Instructional Time" per quarter allots 2.5 hours for literacy instruction. Whole group is allotted 20 minutes. "Small Group" instruction is alloted 60-80 minutes for Pathways to Reading strategies.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 44, "Small Group Preparation" is provided for "Using a Teacher Helper" following the whole group lesson.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 5, the Introduction provides the following guidance: “Groups 1-3 receive 4 days of instruction for a total of 80 minutes. Group 4 (students with higher reading scores) receives 3 days of instruction (60 minutes).”

The pacing of each component of daily lessons plans is clear and appropriate. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 1, the program advises that literacy instruction should take 2.5 hours a day.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, "Quarterly Literacy Plan" teachers are provided with guidance on how long literacy instruction should take each quarter. The following is an example for the Second Quarter:
    • "PTR Whole Group: 20 minutes Daily for Pathways to Spelling or a whole group lesson for the large group section.
    • PTR Small Group: 60-80 minutes daily (3 groups daily at 20 mins. = 60 mins., 4 groups = 80).
    • Comprehension Whole Group: 20 minutes daily.
    • Handwriting: 15 minutes (three times a week).
    • Writing: 20 minutes daily."

The suggested amount of time and expectations for maximum student understanding of all foundational skill content (i.e., phonological awareness, phonics, irregularly spelled words, word analysis, fluency) can reasonably be completed in one school year and should not require modifications. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, the "Quarterly Literacy Plans" outline the program as taking 36 weeks to complete.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5 the "Quarterly Overview" indicates that "Segment and Write" activities begin with Lesson 1, in Week 1 and end Week 21 with a review.

Indicator 2d

Order of Skills
0/0

Indicator 2d.i

Scope and sequence clearly delineate the sequence in which phonological awareness skills are to be taught, with a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy of phonemic awareness competence. (K-1)
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 meet the criteria for scope and sequence clearly delineate the sequence in which phonological awareness skills are to be taught, with a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy of phonemic awareness competence.

Materials provide an evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy by which phonological awareness skills are introduced and taught through the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," and the "Small Group Manual." Lessons throughout the program adhere to the phonemic awareness progression. The sequence and expectations are consistent across Kindergarten and First Grade levels.

Materials contain a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy for teaching phonological awareness skills. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 41, materials cite researcher Linnea Ehri’s theory outlining the stages of development for learning to read words by sight: phonemic awareness, to phonics, to sight word development, to fluency and accuracy, to comprehension.
  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 6, an "Overview of Grade Level Expectations" lists minimum achievements for, "Basic Syllable, Onset Rime, Advanced Phoneme, and Multisyllable lessons" based on David Kilpatrick’s three levels of phonemic awareness development. Suggested guidelines are provided for Lessons 1-19 and the expected levels on the Phonological Awareness Screening Test (PAST).

Materials contain a phonemic awareness sequence of instruction and practice based on the expected hierarchy. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," page 1, materials cite the work of David Kilpatrick’s levels of phonemic awareness development as early, basic, and advanced. The research is addressed in Pathways to Reading as follows:
    • "Early: Kindergarten PA exercises (ability to rhyme, clap out syllables in words, notice beginning sounds).
    • Basic: 'Segment and Write' for segmenting.
    • 'Old Word/New Word' for blending (ability to segment and blend).
    • 'Advanced-Old Word/New Word' manipulation of sounds (ability to manipulate sounds by adding, omitting, and substituting)."

Materials have a cohesive sequence of phonemic awareness instruction based on the expected hierarchy to build toward students’ application of the skills. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the Addendum, Kindergarten, "First Grade Up," "PTR Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Continuum," students learn CVC, CCVC/CVCC, CCVCC/CCCVC/CVCCC, and 2 syllables.
  • In the "Advanced Oral PA Development Manual," pages 30-38, students add an initial consonant to make CCVC words. In Lesson 12, students omit initial consonants to make CVC from CCVC words. In Lesson 13, students begin with CCVC words and substitute the initial consonant.

Indicator 2d.ii

Scope and sequence clearly delineate an intentional sequence in which phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear explanation for the order of the sequence.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 meet the criteria for scope and sequence clearly delineate an intentional sequence in which phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear explanation for the order of the sequence.

The "Teacher Preparation" section of the "Large Group Manual" provides an explanation of the scope and sequence for phonics. Teachers are provided with research-based explanations for the phonics sequence in Grade 1. Materials provide a list of all phonics guides (rules) that will be addressed over the course of the school year. While there are some low utility patterns that are taught, the majority of phonics rules that are taught are of high utility. The "Teacher Preparation" pages explain and provide examples of all phonics rules that will be taught during the sequence.

Materials clearly delineate a scope and sequence with a cohesive, intentional sequence of phonics instruction and practice to build toward application of skills. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" page 65, the materials outline the "Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Continuum." The Phonics sequence listed is: short vowels (a, e, i, o, u), basic consonants (b, c, d, f, g, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y, z), consonant digraphs (th, sh, ch, wh, ng), long vowels (a_e, ee, i_e, o_e, u_e), alternate spellings (-ck, qu, x, y, -ge, g/e, i, y, c/e, i, y, -tch, -dge), long vowel pairs (ai, ay, oa, ea), buddy vowels (ou/ow, oi/oy, aw/aw, oo/oo), -r vowels (ar, er, ir, or, ur), inflectional endings (s/es, -ed, -ing), prefixes (re- , in- , dis- , pre- , per-), and suffixes (-y, -ly, -er, -le, -tion, -ture).
  • In the "Small Group Folder," the materials provide a sheet with the scope and sequence of sounds and phonics guides taught in Grade 1. The phonics patterns are taught by pools:
    • Pool 1: consonant set 1(pb, td, ckg, fv, th), consonant set 2 (s, z, sh, ch) consonant set 3 (m, n, l, r, ng) a, e, i, o, u, -ck, c? k?
    • Pool 2: w, h, wh, qu, x, y, ae, ee, ie, oe, ue, -e to end, 2 ee’s
    • Pool 3: oi/oy, ou/ow, au/aw, oo/oo, c/e, i, y
    • Pool 4: er, ir, ur, ar, or, g/e, i, y, -ge
    • Pool 5: ai/ay, ea, oa, (optional -dge, -tch)

Materials have a clear research-based explanation for the order of the phonics sequence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 41, the materials include information on the underlying processes that support a successful decoder as, “The ability to figure out (decode) new words independently is important in a reader’s development. Research studies (see pages 42 and 43) indicate phonemic awareness and phonics skills are the foundation of independent decoding.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 43, the teacher is provided with an explanation and chart containing information about Ehri’s Theory of Fluency. For example, under "Stage 4 Consolidated Alphabetic Middle of First Grade," the teacher is provided with the following information:
    • "Readers recognize words instantly. Readers store words as units. Repeated encounters with words allow them to store letter patterns across different words. For example, they learn the multi-letter unit -ent. With stored units they can approach the new word dent as two units: /d/, /ent/ rather than four: /d/, /e/, /n/, /t/. The foundation for this stage is success in the Fully Alphabetic stage."

Phonics instruction is based in high utility patterns and/or common phonics generalizations. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," pages 27-30, the scope of phonics guides (rules) are provided. Guides include: #1-3 /k/, /j/, or /ch/ at the end of a word, #4 & #5 long vowels -e and "Two Vowels Go Walking," #6 & #7 -c and -g similarities, #8 & #9 the choice of c or k, /j/ -ge, and #10 & #11 copycat letters qu, x, and y.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" pages 27-30, some of the phonics patterns taught are of high utility while others are not. High utility patterns taught include the following.
    • "#1 When the sound /k/ is at the end of a word right after a one-letter vowel the defender c is added.
    • #2 When the sound /j/ is at the end of a word right after a one-letter vowel defender d is added.
    • #3 When the sound /ch/ is at the end of a word right after a one-letter vowel defender t is added.
    • #6 When c is followed by an -e, -i, or -y it always has the /s/ sound."
  • Low utility patterns however are also included in instruction. For example, the following is noted:
    • "#5 When two vowels go walking (and are not found together in "Vowel Town") the first one does the talking. What does it say? Its name. Subset: /ae/ sound at the end of a word is spelled -ay.
    • #8 A subset of the c guide is the choice of c -r -k to spell the /k/ sound at the beginning of a word. When there is a choice of spelling the first sound with a c or k choose c. There are far more c words in the dictionary."

Patterns and generalizations are carefully selected to provide a meaningful and manageable number of phonics patterns and common generalizations for students to learn deeply. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 2, the "Quarterly Literacy Plan," Quarter 1 lists a consonants overview and review, vowels overviews with the introduction of vowel buddies, and -r vowels. "Segment and Write" includes endings -ng, ck, digraphs th, sh, ch, wh, and -e to end, 2-ee’s along with qu, x, y are introduced and/or reviewed weekly.
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab," page 27, the teacher instructions include, “Become familiar with each guide and the language used to discuss it in order to carry out the student lessons and to correct student errors.”

Indicator 2e

Materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the Foundational Skills program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.
0/0
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 Pathways to Reading partially meet the criteria for materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the ELA/literacy program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.

Grade 1 materials provide School Administrators with access to videos of model lessons on the website. However, resources are not provided for parents that explain any segments of the foundational skills program. There are 25 take-home spelling lessons which provide explicit instructions for parents to help their children study spelling words. The spelling support for caregivers includes weekly spelling take-home lessons with the week’s target words and sentences, as well as instructions and strategies for how to support the student practice reading, spelling, and checking their words. Explanations within the spelling lessons are not provided for vowel spelling patterns or sounds that may be included on the list. A letter for introducing these spelling lessons to parents is not provided. The teachers' manuals do not include letters home or other communication resources for parents.

Materials that contain jargon-free resources and processes to inform all stakeholders about foundational skills taught at school are not evident:

  • In the "Reproducibles" packet, there is a parent letter, "Sight Word Olympics Parent Letter," “Dear Parent, It’s Olympic time in our classroom! We’re getting our brains in shape and well trained so that we can name our sight words quickly. Here’s our training workout plan: We have four sets of words we want to read very quickly! I’ll practice with you at home and my buddy in school. Every so often an Olympic judge will visit my classroom and I’ll run my best race with the word lists I’ve been practicing. If I can read each list in 2 and ½ minutes I am on my way to meeting my Olympic goals ...” Lists are provided for each quarter.
  • Materials provide stakeholders with minimal strategies and activities for practicing phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, fluency, and print concepts that will support students in progress towards and achievement of grade level foundational skills standards.
  • In Pathways to Spelling, Appendix B, pages 6-55, lessons are provided for parents to work on with students at home. These lessons contain explicit instructions for parents to follow when helping their children study their spelling words.
  • In Pathways to Spelling, Appendix B, page 24, "Take Home Lesson 10," caregivers are asked to have their student read the words in the list, spell them, and read sentences that include the target words in context.
  • In Pathways to Spelling, Appendix B, Page 26, "Take Home Lesson 11," step one of the parent directions reads, “Ask me to read each word in the list. Look at the words I wrote (back of this page). Have me read my list from top to bottom or bottom to top. Tell me how to read any words that I miss.” The lesson continues as the parent asks the child to spell each word, sound dots are used during this portion of the lesson and instructions continue to be very explicit, “Let me spell the word, then show me the word and ask: Did you spell it right? Let me self correct. I will check my spelling and make corrections if I need to.”
  • In Pathways to Spelling, Appendix B, Page 52, "Take Home Lesson 24," parents continue to help their child practice spelling words at home with take-home lessons. These lessons follow consistent routines. The parent starts by asking the child to read aloud their spelling words and then spell the words. Lesson 24 includes work on syllables. “Tell me to say each syllable as I spell it. For example: stu dy. Say. “Say the first syllable in the word.” Students should say the word part that is written on the first line. “Now spell it.” Student spells the first part of the word.” The lesson continues with the parent and child discussing the last syllable in the word.
  • The Pathways to Reading website provides school administrators with a, “video tour of some clips used to assist with learning the PTR Strategies.” The videoclips include modeled lessons.

Criterion 2f - 2f.ii

Program includes work with decodables in K and Grade 1, and as needed in Grade 2, following the grade-level scope and sequence to address both securing phonics.
4/8
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 materials partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence. Students read a paragraph on Day 4 of the weekly spelling routine that provides the opportunity to apply grade level phonics skills to a text. Decodable readers are referenced in "Read in Context" small group lessons. Additionally, the paragraphs students read each week during spelling instruction contain "Cheater Words" (irregularly spelled words) that align with the scope of sequence for spelling instruction. All decodable texts referenced in the materials are available as an additional purchase.

Indicator 2f

Aligned Decodable Texts
0/0

Indicator 2f.i

Materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence.

In Pathways to Learning, students read a paragraph on Day 4 of the weekly spelling routine that provides the opportunity to apply grade level phonics skills to a text. Decodable readers are referenced in "Read in Context" small group lessons. Although lessons reference books available from outside vendors, these books are not included with the program. Students do have opportunities to read sentence strips that contain phonics skills they are currently working on mastering, but the sentence strips are not connected texts.

Materials include decodable texts to address securing phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 11, on Day 4 of the weekly spelling routine students read a paragraph that contains the week’s "cheater "words. Students color the "cheater" words yellow after reading the paragraph. These paragraphs contain decodable words.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 96, students use the "Student Screech and Me Book" which contains a paragraph about a sheep dog. The teacher reads the passage, and students echo read. Students re-read the paragraph independently or with a partner. Some of the phonics rules included are -ee and -sh.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," pages 2-4, the "Placement Guide" includes the titles of the recommended decodable texts that align to the phonics focus for each set of lessons. The listed texts are from for-purchase sources. The texts are not included in the materials.

Decodable texts contain grade-level phonics skills aligned to the program’s scope and sequence. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Folder," page 2, the "Placement Guide" outlines the “Read in Context” sentence strips and suggested decodable texts aligned to the phonics skills of the week. However, decodable texts are not included in the program materials.
    • The following is an example from Lesson 7:
      • "Sentence Strips 30-36.
      • Reading A-Z texts suggested (not included): 32 - Yum, Yum Yams; 31-Jill and Gill; 36-Swiss Fun Run; 37-Fran and the Prom Dress; 51-Whisker Bill."
  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," Lesson 20, Day 4, students read a paragraph that contains the week’s cheater words show and know. The week’s spelling words focus on /ea/ and the word teach is also used in the paragraph. “I just know you will like the dog show! In the show you will see big and small dogs do tricks. I know you will have fun. A man will show you how to teach your dog to do tricks, too.”

Materials include some detailed lesson plans for repeated readings of decodable texts to address securing phonics skills. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" page 56, materials outline the process for students reading decodable texts. However, decodable texts are not included in the materials:
    • Students read orally from decodable or carefully chosen trade books that progress in decoding difficulty as the students learn more skills.
    • The teacher responds to student decoding errors with a scaffold of questions which assist students to apply the skills practiced in "Segment and Write," "Old//New Word," and "Read Single Words" to the task of reading in context. The teacher gradually reduces questioning and puts more responsibility on the reader until independent and self-correcting behaviors are observed.
    • The teacher models phrasing and expression and thinks aloud to explain context cues that result in phrasing and expression. Students may practice phrasing and expression by repeating after the teacher, or in a "reader’s theater" format.
    • The teacher gives students a focus and purpose to reread in an effort to build fluency.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 166, the teacher is provided with instructions for completing the paragraph reading activity with students, “Teacher reads words then paragraph, sentence-by-sentence. Students echo read.” During independent time, the students “Re-read paragraph independently, or with a partner. Circle spelling words. Draw image picture. Write a summary.”

Indicator 2f.ii

Materials include decodable texts with high-frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with high frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence.

In Pathways to Reading, the paragraphs students read each week during spelling instruction contain "Cheater Words" (irregularly spelled words) that align with the scope of sequence for spelling instruction. For the first reading, the teacher reads the spelling paragraph, and students echo read. Students have the opportunity to reread the paragraph alone or with a partner. However, these paragraphs are only used one day each week, and no other practice outside of the weekly spelling paragraph is provided. Grade 1 materials include sentence strips with phonics aligned to the program's scope and sequence that are utilized during small group lessons. While the sentence strips contain high-frequency words, the sentence strips are not connected text. Although decodable texts are referenced in "Read in Context" small group lessons, the texts are not included in the materials for student practice. All decodable texts referenced in the materials are available as an additional purchase.

Materials include decodable texts that utilize high-frequency/irregularly spelled words. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 11, the 20-minute lesson outline calls for students to “read and image a short paragraph that repeatedly uses the week’s ‘cheater’ words.” The process is repeated each week on Day 4 with the decodable paragraph for each week.
  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," Lesson 11, Day 4, students read a paragraph and highlight the cheater words want and were in yellow. “Jim and I want a set of bugs. We were to find them for class. We were to find them quick. We want three that are green. We did find them and we were not late to class. We want the class to like our bug set.”
  • In the "Pathways to Spelling" downloadable PowerPoint, Lesson 4, Day 4, Slide 5, the decodable paragraph featuring the week’s focus words (i.e., “monster words”), and irregularly spelled words (i.e., “cheater words”) can be projected for the entire class to see as they engage in the activity. The paragraph is located in the "Screech and Me Student Book." The “cheater words” are their and they. Students read these words in the following sentences of the paragraph: “Their Dog was in it when the log fell! They chop and chop. Their dog yelps and yelps. They pet their dog. They are glad he is ok!”

Decodable texts contain grade-level, high-frequency/irregularly spelled words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence.

  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," materials include weekly decodable paragraphs that contain the week’s focus words. For example, the Lesson 17, Day 4, paragraph contains two “cheater words”: work, world. The paragraph is: “My work is to sell cars. I like my work. I sell cars in all parts of the world. I go to hot and cold parts of the world. I work hard to see good cars. The world needs cars that are good for it. My cars are good for the world.”
  • In the "Screech and Me Student Book," Lesson 7, Day 4, materials target the cheater words small and call. Students read the following paragraph and color the cheater words yellow, “The kids miss Ruff their small dog. They call and call, but still no dog. They call and tell all their pals. They tell them their dog is small with black and tan spots. The pals will call if they see the dog. One pal did call. He has a small dog that was stuck on a tall wall. It is Ruff! Thanks to all the pals for their help.”

Materials include detailed lesson plans for repeated readings of decodable texts to address securing high-frequency words/irregularly spelled words in context. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 136, materials provide the lesson plan that follows the downloadable PowerPoint, Lesson 13, Day 4, Slide 5. The decodable paragraph located in the PowerPoint features the week’s irregularly spelled words (i.e., “cheater words”): would, could. The paragraph is found in the "Screech and Me Student Book." The paragraph can be projected for the entire class to see as they engage in the activity.
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 181, the teacher is provided with instructions for completing the paragraph reading activity with students, “Teacher reads words then paragraph, sentence-by-sentence. Students echo read.” During independent time, the students “Re-read paragraph independently or with a partner. Circle spelling words. Draw image picture. Write a summary.”

Criterion 2g - 2i.iii

Materials provide teachers resources and tools to collect ongoing data about student progress on the Standards. Materials also provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so that students demonstrate independence with grade-level standards.
15/24
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 materials do not provide teacher opportunities to monitor print concepts, letter recognition, or letter formation in the Grade 1 materials. While materials provide assessment opportunities over the course of the school year to measure students’ mastery of phonics, teacher guidance provides general questions and directs the teacher to use the "Small Group" manuals. Materials include an "Assessment Manual" which provides information on student progress and instructional suggestions to assist students toward mastery of word recognition and analysis. Limited assessment opportunities for fluency are present in the materials.

Materials partially meet the criteria for assessment materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.

Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.

Materials meet the criteria for materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level.

There is no reference to English Language Learners in the Pathways to Reading materials.

Indicator 2g

Regular and Systematic Opportunities for Assessment
0/0

Indicator 2g.i

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts (K-1), letter recognition (K only), and printing letters (as indicated by the program scope and sequence) (K-1).
0/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts (K-1), letter recognition (K only), and printing letters (as indicated by the program scope and sequence) (K-1).

There are no assessments provided that monitor print concepts, letter recognition, or letter formation in the Grade 1 materials.

Materials provide no assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence of print concepts, letter recognition, and letter formation:

  • Assessments of print concepts, letter recognition, and letter formation are not included in the Grade 1 materials.

Assessment materials do not provide teachers and students with information concerning students’ current skills/level of understanding of print concepts, letter recognition, and letter formation:

  • No evidence found.

Materials do not support teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in print concepts, letter recognition, and letter formation:

  • No evidence found.

Indicator 2g.ii

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonological awareness (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-1)
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that genuinely measure student progress of phonological awareness (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

Materials provide phonological awareness assessments to use over the course of the school year in the "First Grade Assessments Manual." The materials provide teachers with rubrics and instructional implications which can assist teachers in making adjustments in both whole and small group lessons to help in each student’s progress of phonological awareness. While there are instructional suggestions, the guidance is general and suggests additional phonological exercises and additional Pathways to Reading instruction.

Materials regularly and systematically provide a variety of assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence in phonological awareness. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 1, Assessments 1, 2, and the PAST (Phonological Awareness Screening Test) are to be given in the fall for small group placement. Exams are to be administered during the 9 weeks assessment periods to inform pacing for both whole group and small group instruction, although Test 8 (PAST) is administered in the winter (end of second nine weeks) and spring (end of fourth nine weeks).

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information concerning students’ current skills/level of understanding of phonological awareness. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "First Grade Assessments Manual," pages 31-34, it provides the Phonological Awareness Screening Test (PAST) exam which assesses phonological awareness of each student.
  • In the "Kindergarten Assessments Manual," pages 31-34, materials provide scoring guidelines for the PAST which indicate the students approximate grade level, and a scoring of each level of phonological awareness (i.e., "Basic Syllable," "Onset-Rime," "Basic Phonemes," and "Advanced Phoneme levels").

Materials support teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in phonological awareness. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Grade 1 Assessments Manual," page 6, the following information is provided: “Developmental guidelines are provided indicating which PA levels are expected to be mastered by the beginning, middle, and ending grade levels. Students behind these norms should be provided additional oral PA exercises and additional PTR instruction.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 3, at the end of the "Test 2: Word Spelling," "No Guide" assessment, the teacher is provided with instructional implications. For example, if the student shows “weak phonemic awareness (e.g., sounds added, omitted or out of order), the student needs segmenting practice as ‘sound leader’ with corrective feedback.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 15, additional scoring tips for typical student errors are provided for the "Word Spelling-No Guides" exam. For example, when a student uses several extra letters, it advises, “This indicates a poor understanding of phonemes and assigned spellings.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 23, materials delineate the instructional demands of the assessment and key activities to focus on with students. For example, if the student is unsuccessful on the phonemic awareness section, the instruction demands suggest practice segmenting CCVCC words and practice with Multisyllable (MS) spelling.

Indicator 2g.iii

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonics in- and out-of-context (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonics (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

Pathways to Reading materials provide assessment opportunities over the course of the school year to measure students’ mastery of phonics. Assessment opportunities include quarterly assessments such as "Spell a Sound," and various word spelling assessments. Students take a total of 25 weekly spelling assessments over the course of the year. Teachers are provided with instructional implications based on the assessments.

Materials provide resources and tools to collect ongoing data about students’ progress in phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 1, materials state that 25 weekly spelling lessons end with an exam which contains four spelling words, a sentence the students practiced during the week, and two new words which include the phonics sound/spelling covered that week. The teacher is able to grade the spelling exams immediately.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 35-40, teachers are provided with tracking forms to track class data and individual student data on assessments (e.g., "Spell a Sound," "Spell a Word No Guides," "Spell a Word with Guides," "Spell a Word Multisyllable," "Nonsense Word Reading").
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 41, teachers are provided with instructions for using the "Excel Pathways Assessment Report." The Excel document provides a means for teachers to collect student assessment data. “Enter data each period. Scores are color coded. Red = at risk. Orange and yellow = nearing target. Green = On target.” Group and individual reports are available.
  • In the Small Group Folder, Level 4, Days 4-6 provide materials that allow teachers to track students’ progress each day on their ability to spell and write in context (e.g., sentence and paragraph).

Materials offer systematically implemented assessment opportunities to determine students’ progress in phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 1, materials explain that students take weekly spelling tests to measure phonics knowledge. “Students are asked to spell four words and one sentence practiced throughout the week and two new words not found on the week’s list. The two new words contain the same phonics and sound/spellings as those practiced throughout the week’s lesson. Students apply their phonics knowledge to spell the two new words.”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 2, "Test 3 Word Spelling With Guides" is used to assess a range of phonics and spelling conventions such as vowels, consonant digraphs, and -ck, 2 ee’s, qu -y, -ge. This test is given three (3) times during the year.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 3, materials explain the purpose of "Spell a Sound" is to “Measure knowledge of sound/letter associations.” In this test, the teacher dictates consonants and vowels to students.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 3, "Word Spelling With Guides" indicates the purpose of the exam is to measure students’ phonics knowledge. Students spell eight words with phonics elements taught in Pathways to Spelling. The vowels included are a, ee, ae, ie, oi, ou, ar. Consonant digraphs included are sh, ch. Guides included are -ck, 2 ee’s, qu, -y, and -ge.

Multiple assessment opportunities are provided regularly for students to demonstrate progress toward mastery and independence with phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 1, materials advise that each of the 25 weekly spelling lessons end with an exam that contains four spelling words, a sentence the students practiced during the week, and two new words which include the phonics sound/spelling taught that week.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 2, the following assessments are administered during the year:
    • Test 1, "Spell a Sound," is given at the start of school and at the end of each quarter. However, if at the end of the 2nd quarter a student scores a 4 or 5, the student does not need to take the test again.
    • Test 2, "Word Spelling: No guides," is given at the start of school and at the end of each quarter. However, if at the end of the 1st quarter a student scores a 4 or 5, the student does not need to take the test again.
    • Test 3, "Word Spelling: With Guides" is given at the end of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quarters.
    • Test 4, "Word Spelling Multisyllable," is given at the end of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quarters. However, if at the end of the 2nd quarter a student scores a 4 or 5, the student does not need to take the test again.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information about students’ current skills/level of understanding of phonics.For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 2, based on a student’s performance on a test, a student will be given a rubric score of 1-5. These numbers correspond with 1= High Risk, 2=At Risk, 3=Nearing Target, 4=On Target, and 5=Above Target.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 19-20, materials provide "Test Forms A and B" which contain phonemic awareness and phonics rubrics based on exam results.

Materials genuinely measure students’ progress to support teachers with some instructional adjustments to help students make progress toward mastery in phonics. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 65, teachers score and return tests with the student errors section. Materials advise the teacher to score and study student errors such as phonics skills not mastered or segmenting errors like sounds being added, omitted, or switched in a word. The teacher is to refer the student to “Thoughtful Spelling Strategies 1, 2, and 3.”
  • In the "Spelling Manual," page 198, the teacher scores the test and assesses for type of error: segmenting (e.g., sounds added, omitted, out of order); phonics (e.g., rule/pattern not applied made=mad, kit=cit); visual memory (e.g., word spelled phonetically, but inaccurately kap=cap, his=hiz, seat=seet) so that teachers can respond instructionally.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 3, after administering Test 2: "Word Spelling-No Guides," the teacher is provided with instructional implications in the areas of phonics and phonemic awareness. For example, if students have a weak phonics score, the teacher is instructed to, “Be certain the student has mastered each concept in a Segment and Write group of words before moving on. Observe the student’s application of concepts in "Old/New," "Read Single Words," and "Read in Context." The student may need more practice before proceeding to the next level.”

Indicator 2g.iv

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of word recognition and analysis (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of word recognition and analysis (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

In Pathways to Reading, assessment opportunities align with the sequence lessons that are taught. The materials include an "Assessment Manual" which provides information on student progress and instructional suggestions to assist students toward mastery of word recognition and analysis. Materials provide instructions for administering assessments throughout the Grade 1 sequence. Assessments in the areas of nonsense word reading and sight words are administered on a quarterly basis. Students are assessed during small group instruction. Notetaking sheets are provided for the teacher to use during small group instruction time.

Materials regularly and systematically provide a variety of assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence of word recognition (high-frequency words or irregularly spelled words) and analysis. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 27, materials state that each quarter students are assessed on 50 sight words.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 27-29, there are four exams provided with four lists of words. Each list is tested at the end of the nine week period. If students score a 3 or less, they are tested again. At the end of the fourth nine week period, all 200 words are tested. The sequence of the exams given follows the sequence in which the high-frequency words are taught:
    • End of first nine weeks, all students read "List 1" (short vowels).
    • End of the second nine weeks, all students read "List 2" (short/long vowels).
    • End of third nine weeks, all students read "List 3" (short/long/buddy vowels).
    • End of fourth nine weeks, all students read "List 4" (buddy/-r vowels/multisyllable).

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information concerning students’ current skills/level of understanding of word recognition and word analysis. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 21-24, materials provide scoring forms and a rubric which breaks the exam down into phonemic awareness, phonics, and visual memory skills. Instructional demands such as having students practice multisyllable spelling skills are included for low score instructional suggestions.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 35 and 40, the teacher keeps a class summary of students’ progress.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 41, the "Pathways Assessment Report" is an electronic report available on the program's website. The Excel document allows the teacher to track student data throughout the year. Scores are color-coded: Red=at risk. Orange and yellow=nearing target. Green=On target. Reports are available for groups and individuals.
  • In the Small Group Folder, teachers are provided with "Small Group Note Taking Cues" to use to record observations of student performance in small groups. One of the areas the teacher is instructed to record student performance in is "Word Reading Lists." As part of these observations the teacher is instructed to, “Record number of words read correctly,” and to, “Record errors.”

Materials support teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in word recognition and word analysis. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 5, based on a student’s performance on the sight word reading assessment, the teacher is provided with instructional implications. Suggestions are broken down into three categories: weak phonemic awareness score, weak phonics score, and weak orthographic memory for non-phonetic words. For example, if a student has a weak phonics score, the teacher is instructed to, “Check that pacing hasn’t been too fast. Check that a six-day cycle is being followed moving from 'Segment and Write' to 'Single Word Reading' to 'Read in Context.'”
  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 5, the instructional implications for students after the sight word reading test are as follows:
    • “Weak orthographic memory for non-phonetic words:”
      • Increase the amount of reading in context at the appropriate decodable level.
      • Give specific attention to "Cheater" words in "Pathways to Spelling" and the "Visual Memory Word Wall." Ask the student to read a target word from the wall. Cover it and ask for the spelling. Uncover and ask, “Are you right?”
      • Increase student reading in context with teacher feedback on decoding errors.
      • When a high frequency word is missed, write it on a flashcard for the student’s personal word practice.
  • In the "Assessment Manual," pages 21-24, materials provide scoring forms and a rubric which breaks the exam down into phonemic awareness, phonics, and visual memory skills. It lists "Instructional Demands" such as having students practice reading and spelling multisyllable words if they are scoring low on their phonics assessment.

Indicator 2g.v

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress in fluency (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (1-2)
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress in fluency (as indicated by the program scope and sequence).

Fluency scores are recorded for "Reading Words" and "Reading in Context". The form uses a rubric continuum of Very Hesitant, Hesitant, Fluent, Very Fluent. The teacher takes notes on fluency during small group instruction as part of "Read Words" and "Read in Context," but materials do not provide follow-up for instructional adjustments based on these notes. The teacher can use the "Flip and Assist Manual" to provide “in the moment” help to students. However, "Flip and Assist" adjustments based on assessments are not provided.

Limited assessment opportunities are provide over the course of the year in core materials for students to demonstrate progress toward mastery and independence of fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," Page 6, “District Choice Tests of Fluency.” The purpose of these assessments is, “to measure three components of fluency. Accuracy: accurate decoding of words in text. Fluency: reading at a rate that allows comprehension. Prosody: the appropriate use of phrasing and expression to convey meaning.” The test description states, “Test of district choice. Often have the student read from three different grade level passages for one minute. On each passage at the end of one minute the teacher records the number of words read correctly. The high and low scores are discarded. The student’s middle score is recorded. The teacher also records the percentage of words read correctly and uses a rubric to record prosody.” However, direct links and instructions are not provided. Additionally, components of the fluency definition are inaccurate.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with some information about students' current skills/level of understanding of fluency. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 7, materials provide norms for "Oral Reading Fluency." For Grade 1 Winter WCPM (Words Correct Per Minute) should be between 10-30; Spring WCPM should be between 30-60.
  • In the "Small Group Folder," lesson pages, the teacher is provided with a place to take notes when students "Read Words" and "Read in Context." Teachers circle whether a student made many errors, a few errors, or were “accurate with self corrections.” Teachers circle whether a student was, “VH=Very Hesitant”, “H=Hesitant,” “F=Fluent” or “VF=Very Fluent.”

Materials do not support teachers with instructional adjustments to help students make progress toward mastery in fluency.

  • In the "Assessment Manual," page 7, a "Reading Levels by Word Reading Accuracy" chart is provided and outlines the following information:
    • Frustration Level: “Below 90% Correct Decoding."
    • Instructional Level: “90-95% Correct Decoding."
    • Independent Level: “96-100% Correct Decoding."

Adjustments are not provided.

Indicator 2h

Materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for assessment materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.

The Pathways to Reading materials include a three page, "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document. The standards alignment document lists "Reading Foundational Skills" standards with lessons and summative assessments that target each standard. While there is some guidance provided for standards alignment, alignment documentation is inconsistent. Six of the seven summative assessments include the specific standards that correspond to the assessment. Individual assessment items located in the "Assessment Manual" do not contain standards; however, assessments are specific to skills. The assessments that are listed in the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document focus on one skill. Several of the Large and Small group weekly assessments and "Advanced Oral PA Development" assessments are referenced on the alignment document. However, the formative assessments that are used during daily "Small Group" instruction and tracked on the lesson plans through observational notes are not explicitly aligned to standards. Standards are not listed in lessons in the teacher manuals.

Materials include denotations of the standards being assessed in the formative assessments. For example, the following is noted:

In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, page 1, ELA standard RF.1.2b Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends is referenced for the, "Advanced Oral PA Development Lessons 11, 14, 16, 20, 25."

In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, page 1, ELA standard RF.1.2d Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds is referenced in the activity and introduction for PTR "Segment and Write" (Up to CCVCC) and "Flip and Assist" pages, 14 & 17.

Materials include denotations of standards being assessed in the summative assessments. For example, the following is noted:

In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, pages 1-3, materials provide standards for six summative assessments. Standards are not provided for Test 7-“PAST” which is located on pages 30-34 in the "Assessment Manual:"

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, pages 1-3, the following alignment is listed:
      • RF1.2: Test 2: "Spelling-No guides."
      • RF1.3: Test 7: "Sight Word Reading."
      • RF.1.3b: Test 5: "Nonsense Word Reading."
  • Test 5 is administered at the end of each nine weeks period.

Alignment documentation is not provided for tasks, questions, and assessment items. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, page 1, the publisher notes, “All strategies mentioned are embedded in all PTR manuals: Large and Small Group manuals, Spelling manuals and Flip and Assist booklet. Not all pages in all resources have been cited.”

Alignment documentation does not consistently contain specific standards correlated to lessons. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "How PTR Meets the Common Core Standards" document, pages 1-2, materials state “All strategies mentioned are embedded in all PTR manuals: Large and Small Group Manuals, Spelling manuals, and Flip and Assist booklet. Not all pages in all resources have been cited.” For example, the following is noted:
    • RF.1.3: Several lessons are listed, for example, “1. Consonant introduction: Large Group manual pp. 41, 63, 66, 70-73, 78-80 Large Group Teacher Preparation tab: pp.1-22.”
    • RF1.3: Large Group manual pages 133, 136, 139, 145.
    • RF.1.3c: Found in “Large Group Manual, "Vowel Town," pages 36-39, 89-90, 91-92, 128-131”. The vowel teams found in the materials are stated as, “a_e, ee, i_e, o_e, u_e, ai, ay, oa, ea”.
    • RF.1.3d: Cited in PTR multisyllable strategies, "Large Group Manual," pages 133, 136, 139, 145.

Indicator 2i

Differentiation for Instruction: Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so the content is accessible to all learners and supports them in meeting or exceeding grade-level standards.
0/0

Indicator 2i.i

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen in a language other than English with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen in a language other than English, with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.

There is no reference to English Language Learners in the Pathways to Reading materials.

Indicator 2i.ii

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade-level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.

In Pathways to Reading, 60 to 80 minutes each day is the suggested time assigned to small group instruction based on four levels and grouping of students based on their specific needs. Small group lessons are provided in the "Small Group Manual" to begin as soon as possible after the startup of school. Lessons located in the "Small Group Manual" provide an opportunity for reteaching skills initially taught in a whole group setting. Students are assessed regularly in order to move between levels. "Student Assists" for students who are struggling are spread throughout lessons and provide teachers with tips to help students. The "Flip and Assist Manual" also provides ideas for teachers to use to help students who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level.

Materials provide opportunities for small group reteaching. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," pages 2-5, the "Quarterly Literacy Plan" indicates that vowels are introduced and practiced in whole group lessons in Quarters 1 and 2 in "Reading," and in Quarters 3 and 4 in "Spelling" instruction. In the "Small Group Manual," page 28, Level 1, Day 1 has "Vowel Practice 1."
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 19, four levels are established for small group instruction. Each level focuses on different activities. For example, Level 1 instruction focuses on vowel practice and "Segment and Write." Level 2 focuses on vowel practice, "Segment and Write," "Old/New Word," "Read Words," and "Read in Context."
  • In the "Small Group Folder," students are placed into four levels of instruction. Level 1 and Level 2 students work with a teacher on materials that may be below grade level during their 20 minutes per day for at least three times per week.

Materials provide guidance to teachers for scaffolding and adapting lessons and activities to support students who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level in extensive opportunities to learn foundational skills at the grade-level standards. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Large Group Manual," page 135, if the “Student gives the wrong number of vowel sounds,” the teacher is instructed to say, “Let’s check. Every syllable has a vowel sound. So if we found two syllables, we know there are two vowel sounds in the word.”
  • In the "Large Group Manual," "Teacher Preparation Tab" pages 36-37, the "Old/New Word Teacher Guide" provides multiple examples of student assists and adaptations to the lessons. Student responses include phonemic awareness questions, phonics questions, and prompts for teachers. For example, “Repeat step 4 until the first half of an Old/New Word list has been completed. Then, on one board leave the student’s last word. Collect the other boards. Hold up one board with the last word on it.” Teacher models changing the letters around and prompting students, with “What’s my new word?”
  • In the "Small Group Manual," pages 61-62, during the small group vowel practice lesson, the teacher is provided with a "Student Assist" for students having difficulty recalling the image of the vowel chart to recall letter/sound associations. The teacher asks the student to recall the location of the vowel sounds on the vowel chart. “If student still can’t recall, refer to the vowel chart. Let student locate the sound.”
  • In the "Flip and Assist Manual," page 11, when completing the "Say It" activity, the teacher is provided with assists for helping the student. For example, if the “student makes a sound error: -e=/a/, etc.” the teacher is instructed to, “Student Assist: Student say the set of sounds with the error. Repeat the sound correctly. T: You’re not quite matching. (Ask the student to say the set of sounds the error is in.) Say these top three smile sounds. (R) T: (Point to the sound that was in error.) What’s this sound again? (R)."

Indicator 2i.iii

Materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade-level.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level.

In Pathways to Reading, a minimum of 60 minutes each day involves small group instruction based on four levels and grouping of students based on their specific needs. Extension lessons are provided for students working above grade level through "Xtend" lessons and in the small group Level 4 lessons. Students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level are provided activities that promote student independence. While Level 4 students receive fewer individualized teacher lessons in small groups, their daily and weekly activities advance to include more frequent opportunities to spell, read, and write in context. Materials provide multiple opportunities for advanced students to investigate grade-level foundational skills at a greater depth. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 19, teachers are provided with a chart that lists the activities students will work on at each level. In Level 1, students focus on targets such as vowel practice and "Segment and Write." In Level 4 students are working on applying foundational skills through "Read Words," and "Read in Context" activities.
  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 48, Level 4 "Read in Context," the teacher is to have students read independently and “Students read grade level text on their own and are prepared to come to the small group and discuss errors and strategies used to read any unknown words. Did the strategy work? Were they accurate?”
  • In the "Small Group Folder," page 5, materials outline the four levels of instruction for students. Level 3 students begin with "Segment and Write," and "Reading Words," move to "Old/New Word" in Day 3, and "Read Multisyllable Words," and "Read in Context" on Days 4-6. Level 4 students begin "Read Multisyllable Words," and "Read in Context" on Days 1-3. On Days 4-6, Level 4 students move into spelling and writing in context.

Criterion 2j - 2n

Materials support effective use of technology and visual design to enhance student learning. Digital materials are accessible and available in multiple platforms.
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Criterion Rating Details

Pathways to Reading Grade 1 materials meet the criteria for digital materials (either included as supplementary to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning, drawing attention to evidence and texts as appropriate. There are no adaptive or technological innovations for students provided by the program. Materials do not provide guidance or suggestions on how to customize the spelling PowerPoints. Materials provided for students have visual designs which are engaging and not distracting. Although the visual design of the website and teachers manuals are easy to read, there are multiple teacher manuals utilized for lessons.

Indicator 2j

Digital materials (either included as a supplement to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.
0/0
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 meet the criteria for digital materials (either included as supplementary to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.

Digital materials, including reproducibles, spelling PowerPoints, spelling and assessment masters, and instructional videos for teachers, are compatible with the internet browsers Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. The materials are to be compatible with Windows and Apple products. The materials are accessible on an Amazon tablet and an iPhone.

The Pathways to Reading website is compatible with Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari, and Firefox. Materials also work on both an Apple and PC device.

Indicator 2k

Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning, drawing attention to evidence and texts as appropriate.

The daily Pathways to Spelling PowerPoints include animation and student-friendly text to draw attention to phonics and spelling patterns of the week. The decodable paragraphs utilized during spelling instruction are provided in the "Spelling" PowerPoint. However, the majority of materials on the website are for teachers to interact with rather than for students’ use. Teachers can download instructional resources, for example, "Small Group Folders," "Decodable Books for Small Group Placement Guides," "Excel Pathways Assessment Report," "SNAP and Map Directions," "SMART Board Resources," "Reproducibles," and "Assessment Masters." There is a video library that provides guidance on enunciation of vowel sounds.

These spelling lessons on the website are used in conjunction with the "Spelling Manual." For example, the following is noted:

  • Pathways to Reading website includes, "First Grade Spelling PowerPoints" for Weeks 1-25.
  • In Week 7, Day 4, PowerPoint, students finger write their spelling words. The PowerPoint contains the weekly paragraph that is also found in the "Screech and Me Student Book."

Indicator 2l

Digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.

There are no adaptive or technological innovations for students provided by the program.

Indicator 2m

Materials can be easily customized for local use.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for materials can be easily customized for local use.

Assessment and Reproducible documents provided digitally are PDFs and not editable or customizable. "Spelling" PowerPoints for the lessons to accompany the "Pathways to Spelling Manual" are fully customizable. However, materials do not provide guidance or suggestions on how to customize the "Spelling" PowerPoints.

Indicator 2n

The visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.
0/0
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Pathways to Reading Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for the visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.

Materials provided for students have visual designs which are engaging and not distracting. Although the visual design of the website and teacher manuals are easy to read, there are multiple teacher manuals utilized for individual lessons which prompt the teacher to gather lesson information from multiple sources. This could lead to inefficiencies and missing elements in lessons. There is a "Large Group Manual," a "Small Group Manual," a "Pathways to Spelling Manual," a "Screech and Me Student Spelling Book," a "Flip and Assist Manual," an "Advanced Oral PA Manual," and a "Small Group Folder." For a single lesson, the teacher has to navigate through several pages in the "Large Group Manual" with pages divided into the front section for lessons and the back section of the manual for teacher preparation and/or through several of the various manuals provided. Organization of the materials is inconsistent.

Organization of the materials requires the teacher to navigate several manuals and the website to implement a lesson. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Small Group Manual," page 43, Level 2, day 1, the "Segment and Write" lesson states, “Carefully follow directions on the Segment and Write Word list guide.” However, the directions are not provided on the page. Directions for the teacher continue and state, “Every Teacher Lesson in the Segment and Write Guide directs the teacher to the Segment and Write section of this manual. Locate the lesson on the contents page for the section.” In the Lesson Note provided on the bottom of the page, Note 3 calls for the teacher to “Follow directions for ‘Write Only’ in Flip and Assist.”
  • "Spelling" Lessons rely on the PowerPoint lessons. For example, in Pathways to Spelling, Page 44, Lesson 2, Day 4, students read the weekly paragraph. A copy of the paragraph for teacher reference is not provided in the teacher manual.

Organization of the materials is inconsistent. For example, the following is noted:

  • In the "Reproducibles," 179 loose-leaf pages are provided and are not organized in a binder or folder. Although the reproducibles are color-coded and organized into five sections, the pages are not numbered which makes it difficult to find resources.
  • Pages are not numbered in the "Screech and Me Spelling Student Book."
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Additional Publication Details

Report Published Date: 08/06/2020

Report Edition: 2017

About Publishers Responses

All publishers are invited to provide an orientation to the educator-led team that will be reviewing their materials. The review teams also can ask publishers clarifying questions about their programs throughout the review process.

Once a review is complete, publishers have the opportunity to post a 1,500-word response to the educator report and a 1,500-word document that includes any background information or research on the instructional materials.

Please note: Beginning in spring 2020, reports developed by EdReports.org will be using an updated version of our review tools. View draft versions of our revised review criteria here.

Educator-Led Review Teams

Each report found on EdReports.org represents hundreds of hours of work by educator reviewers. Working in teams of 4-5, reviewers use educator-developed review tools, evidence guides, and key documents to thoroughly examine their sets of materials.

After receiving over 25 hours of training on the EdReports.org review tool and process, teams meet weekly over the course of several months to share evidence, come to consensus on scoring, and write the evidence that ultimately is shared on the website.

All team members look at every grade and indicator, ensuring that the entire team considers the program in full. The team lead and calibrator also meet in cross-team PLCs to ensure that the tool is being applied consistently among review teams. Final reports are the result of multiple educators analyzing every page, calibrating all findings, and reaching a unified conclusion.

Rubric Design

The EdReports.org’s rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of standards alignment to the fundamental design elements of the materials and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum as recommended by educators.

Advancing Through Gateways

  • Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators to move along the process. Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?
  • Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Key Terms Used throughout Review Rubric and Reports

  • Indicator Specific item that reviewers look for in materials.
  • Criterion Combination of all of the individual indicators for a single focus area.
  • Gateway Organizing feature of the evaluation rubric that combines criteria and prioritizes order for sequential review.
  • Alignment Rating Degree to which materials meet expectations for alignment, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.
  • Usability Degree to which materials are consistent with effective practices for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, and differentiated instruction.

ELA Foundational Skills Rubric and Evidence Guides

The ELA foundational skills review rubric identifies the criteria and indicators for high quality instructional materials. The rubric supports a sequential review process that reflect the importance of alignment to the standards then consider other high-quality attributes of curriculum as recommended by educators.

The ELA foundational skills rubric evaluates materials based on:

  • Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction
  • Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

The ELA Evidence Guides complement the rubrics by elaborating details for each indicator including the purpose of the indicator, information on how to collect evidence, guiding questions and discussion prompts, and scoring criteria.

NOTE: The ELA foundational skills rubric contains only two gateways. The structural pieces that we normally review as a part of Gateway 3 (e.g. differentiation) in our comprehensive reviews are critical to the success of a program, and are, therefore, interspersed and combined with other indicators in Gateway 2.

The ELA foundational skills rubric contains only two gateways: Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction (Gateway 1) and Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment (Gateway 2). The structural pieces that we normally review as a part of Gateway 3 (e.g. differentiation) in our comprehensive reviews are critical to the success of a program, and are, therefore, interspersed and combined with other indicators in Gateway 2.

The EdReports rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of alignment to college and career ready standards and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum, such as usability and design, as recommended by educators.

Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators (gateway 1) to move to the other gateways. 

Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment to the standards. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?

Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. 

In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Alignment and usability ratings are assigned based on how materials score on a series of criteria and indicators with reviewers providing supporting evidence to determine and substantiate each point awarded.

For ELA and math, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to college- and career-ready standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For science, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For all content areas, usability ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for effective practices (as outlined in the evaluation tool) for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, differentiated instruction, and effective technology use.

Math K-8

Math High School

ELA K-2

ELA 3-5

ELA 6-8


ELA High School

Science Middle School

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