Alignment: Overall Summary

The Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 materials reviewed partially meet the criteria for alignment to standards and research-based practices for foundational skills instruction. Materials include instruction in letter formation for all 52 letters, and students have opportunities for practicing letter formation with various materials. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print. The instructional materials reviewed provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness through systematic modeling; however, materials include limited opportunities for frequent student practice. While there are a variety of phonological awareness activities, materials include 11 phonological awareness lessons. Materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling; however, students have limited practice opportunities to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns. Students have limited opportunities to decode phonetically regular words in a sentence and limited opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics. Instructional materials include eight generative lessons for high-frequency words. Materials provide limited practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences). The teacher reads aloud poetry from Sing a Song of Poetry; however, materials do not contain resources for frequent explicit, systematic instruction in fluency elements and students do not read text with a focus on fluent reading. 

See Rating Scale
Understanding Gateways

Alignment

|

Partially Meets Expectations

Gateway 1:

Standards and Research-Based Practices

0
29
52
60
33
52-60
Meets Expectations
30-51
Partially Meets Expectations
0-29
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 2:

Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

0
25
46
52
31
46-52
Meets Expectations
26-45
Partially Meets Expectations
0-25
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway One

Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction

Partially Meets Expectations

+
-
Gateway One Details

The Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 materials reviewed partially meet the criteria for alignment to standards and research-based practices for foundational skills instruction. Materials include instruction in letter formation for all 52 letters, and students have opportunities for practicing letter formation with various materials. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print. The instructional materials reviewed provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness through systematic modeling; however, material include limited opportunities for frequent student practice and while there are a variety of phonological awareness activities, materials include 11 phonological awareness lessons. Materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling; however, students have limited practice opportunities to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns. Students have limited opportunities to decode phonetically regular words in a sentence and limited opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics. Instructional materials include eight generative lessons for high-frequency words. Materials provide limited practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences). The teacher reads aloud poetry from Sing a Song of Poetry; however, materials do not contain resources for frequent explicit, systematic instruction in fluency elements and students do not read text with a focus on fluent reading. 


Criterion 1a - 1b

Materials and instruction provide embedded support with general concepts of print, and systematic and explicit instruction and practice for letter recognition.
3/4
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed include instruction in letter formation for all 52 letters, and students have opportunities for practicing letter formation with various materials. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print.

Indicator 1a

Letter Identification
0/0

Indicator 1a.iv

Materials provide explicit instruction to print and to practice forming the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase).(K-1)
2/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction to print and to practice the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase).

In the Fountas & Pinnell materials, teachers explain letter formation for all 52 letters, and students have opportunities for practicing letter formation with various materials. The materials include an online resource for teacher talk in forming letters in the Verbal Path for the Formation of Letters. The teacher references Letter Formation Charts when explaining letter formation. In Letter Knowledge, students practice letter formation. There are multi-modal/multi-sensory activities for students to complete, including creating big letters with pieces of paper, rainbow writing, and writing letters in the air. 

Materials include clear directions for the teacher concerning how to explain and model how to correctly form each of the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase). For example; 

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge 10, page 179-182, the introduction of letter writing and the use of the verbal descriptions are provided in the Verbal Path for the Formation of Letters online resource. This is a generative lesson that is to be repeated with other groups of letters until all lowercase letters have been mastered.
    • The teacher states, “This is an h. To make a lowercase h, pull down, up, over, and down.” The class repeats the verbal path aloud with the teacher.
    • The teacher is instructed to repeat the steps with other letters made in similar ways, such as i and b
    • The teacher is instructed to use the lesson with uppercase letters that children are making an inefficient way or are finding difficult. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge 11, pages 184-186, students are instructed on letter formation using the Verbal Path for the Formation of Letters.
    • The letter b is introduced and modeled by the teacher: “We’re going to practice forming lowercase b by making a rainbow letter. Watch while I make a big one with a pencil. Pull down, up and around.”

Materials include frequent opportunities for students to practice forming all of the 26 letters (uppercase and lowercase). For example: 

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge 10, pages 179-182 after learning all of the lowercase letters, students learn the uppercase forms. During Apply, students make the day’s uppercase letters several times using different media while stating the verbal path aloud.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge 11, pages 184-186, after learning all of the lowercase letters, students learn uppercase forms. During Apply, students practice writing a line of uppercase letters in their handwriting books. Students highlight their best letters to show a partner.

Materials include frequent opportunities for students to practice forming letters using multi-modal and/or multi-sensory methods. For example: 

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge 10, page 180, students practice making letters in the air with their finger, while saying the verbal path aloud with each motion.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge 10, page 180, students practice making the letters on their desks or on the floor with one finger.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge 11, pages 184-186, students are asked to practice making the b in the air and to use a colored marker to trace the letter b.

Indicator 1b

Materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books (K-1) and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters. (K-early Grade 1)
1/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide instructional support for general concepts of print and connect learning of print concepts to books (K-1) and provide cumulative review of print concepts, letter identification, and printing letters. (K-early Grade 1).

In the Fountas & Pinnell materials, there are four lessons with explicit instruction on the organization of Grade 1 print concepts. Cumulative review of concepts is embedded in the Early Learning Concepts and Letter Knowledge lessons with letter identification and printing of letters reviewed throughout the Master Lesson Guide (#1-#100) until #55. Early Learning Concepts, which includes print concepts, is only taught until #56; therefore, grade level print concepts are not reviewed and practiced after #56. While there are lesson plans for the use of physical books to teach and model lesson plans, the physical books are not included in the instructional materials for instruction and student practice.

Materials include sufficient and explicit instruction for all students about the organization of print concepts for part of the year's curriculum (e.g. recognize features of a sentence). For example: 

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Early Literacy Concepts Lesson 3, page 88, the teacher shows students how to understand the concept of a sentence. The teacher models complete and incomplete sentences using students’ names.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Early Literacy Concepts Lesson 4, pages 91-94, the teacher shows students how to understand the concept of a sentence. The teacher models an incomplete sentence (Nicole likes) and a complete sentence (Dereon sits on the rug.).

Materials include adequate lessons, tasks, and questions for all students about the organization of print concepts for part of the curricular year (e.g. recognize features of a sentence). For example: 

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Early Literacy Concepts Lesson 3, page 88, students receive a four-page blank book to write sentences about a classmate, a friend, a family member, or themselves. Students are to read aloud the sentences to make sure the sentences make sense.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Early Literacy Concepts Lesson 4, pages 91-94, the students work together to make sentences using the word cards. Students read aloud each sentence they constructed to make sure the group of words make sense. Students select four sentences to write on lined sheets.

Materials do not include a variety of physical books (teacher-guided, such as big books) lesson plans that are suitable for teaching print concepts. The included materials are poems from Sing a Song of Poetry. 

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Early Literacy Concepts 4, page 94, the teacher could obtain two recommended books, A Birthday Basket for Tia and Chrysanthemum to see how a writer crafts a sentence so the words tell a complete idea.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge 3, page 154, the teacher enlarges the poems, “1, 2, 3,” or “Aunt Maria,”  for students to highlight known words in texts.

Materials include limited explicit instruction about the organization of print concepts (e.g. recognize features of a sentence) in the context of a book. For example: 

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Early Literacy Concepts 4, page 94, the teacher can enlarge “Roosters Crow,” from Sing a Song of Poetry in order to draw students’ attention to each period. Students discuss the words that lead up to the period. 

Materials include limited opportunities for students to engage in authentic practice using print concepts in the context of student books. Students are able to use poems from Sing a Song of Poetry.

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Early Literacy Concepts 3, page 90, the teacher can use “Did You Feed My Cow” or “Soda Bread” from Sing a Song of Poetry for students to recall the words that will make a sentence complete.

Criterion 1c - 1e

Materials emphasize explicit, systematic instruction of researched-based and/or evidence-based phonological awareness.
8/12
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness through systematic modeling; however, material include limited opportunities for frequent student practice and while there are a variety of phonological awareness activities, materials include 11 phonological awareness lessons. Students do not have opportunities to distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.

Indicator 1c

Materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness activities during Kindergarten and early Grade 1.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials have frequent opportunities for students to engage in phonological awareness activities through Kindergarten and early 1st grade.

The Fountas & Pinnell phonological awareness lessons contain oral practice activities for demonstrating understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds. Although there are a variety of practice activities, there are only 11 phonological awareness lessons.

Examples of materials that include phonological awareness practice activities include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials include a variety of activities for phonological awareness. 
    • Students have opportunities to orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends. For example:
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 8, page 126, students blend words the teacher states in onset and rime format. For example, the teacher says /n/ /est/. Students say the two parts: nest.
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 10, page 134, students play a game together where one student takes a word picture from a pile of cards and pronounces the first and last part of the word that represents the picture. The partner blends the parts together and says the word smoothly.
  • There are limited opportunities for students to practice phonological awareness. Examples that were found include:
    • Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 7, page 122, the teacher holds up a picture of a word, and the students say the middle sound in the word.
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 8, page 126, the teacher says, "what is the first sound and then what is the last part?"
    • Students have opportunities to segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes). For example, in Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 11, page 138, students see a picture of a plant in the pocket chart, and the students are guided to hear and say each individual sound.

Indicator 1d

Materials provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness through systematic modeling across the K-1 grade band.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials provide explicit instruction in phonological awareness through systematic modeling across the K-1 grade band.

The Fountas & Pinnell phonological awareness lessons contain lesson structures that provide teachers with the opportunity to explicitly teach phonological awareness. Lessons start with Teach, which is a whole-class instruction on the phonological concept. The Teach section provides the teacher with examples for instruction in blending, segmenting, and manipulating phonemes.

Examples of materials that include explicit instruction in phonological awareness include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials provide the teacher with systematic, explicit modeling for instruction in syllables, sounds (phonemes), and spoken words.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 7 page 122, the teacher holds up a picture card of bug. The teacher says the word slowly to model the sounds in bug
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 10 page 134, the teacher holds up the picture of a frog. The teacher informs students they have learned to say the first and last part of a word and now they are going to practice blending to say the words more smoothly. 
  • Materials provide the teacher with examples for instruction in syllables, sounds (phonemes), and spoken words called for in grade-level standards.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 5, page 114, the teacher models a word game that requires changing the initial sound in a word. There are 13 examples for the teacher to use for students to practice the skill. Examples include: name, game and look, book.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 6, page 118, the teacher models a word game where the students change the sound at the end of the word. There are 12 examples for students to practice the skill. Examples include: hug, hum and can, cat.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 11, page 138, the teacher displays the picture of nest. There are four other picture cards for the teacher to model hearing and saying sounds in a word in a sequence. 

Indicator 1e

Materials provide practice of each newly taught sound (phoneme) and sound pattern across the K-1 band.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide practice of each newly taught sound (phoneme) and sound pattern across the K-1 band. 

The Fountas & Pinnell phonological awareness lessons contain opportunities for students to learn Grade Kindergarten phonemes and sound patterns through examples the teacher uses in Teach, as well as the practice opportunities in Apply and Share. Multimodal and multisensory activities for students to practice phonological awareness tasks are found throughout the Apply or Connect Learning Across Contexts within each lesson, including opportunities to use songs and stories to apply new skills. There are missed opportunities for students to practice all phonological awareness standards since students do not distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.

Examples of materials that include phonological awareness practice activities include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials include systematic, explicit instruction on new phonemes and provide ample opportunities for students to learn and practice each new phoneme called for in grade-level standards. 
    • Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 8, page 126, students blend words the teacher states in onset and rime format. For example, the teacher says /b/ /ell/. Students say the two parts: bell.
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 10, page 134, students play a game together where one student takes a word picture from a pile of cards and pronounces the first and last part of the word that represents the picture. The partner blends the parts together and says the word smoothly.
    • Students have opportunities to isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 7, page 122, the teacher shows three picture cards (cat, pan, van). The teacher asks, “How are these three words alike? They sound the same in the middle, /a/." Students view a picture of a bug. The teacher asks, “What sound do you hear in the middle?”
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 9, page 130, the teacher says several words and students identify the first sound and the last sound of the word. 
    • Students have opportunities to segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 11, page 138, in Teach, students practice hearing and saying the sounds in order for the following picture cards: clap, rainbow.
      • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 11, page 139, in Apply, it says “have partners take turns showing a picture card, slowly saying the word that the picture represents, and putting fingers in the air as they hear each sound. Check a child’s understanding by asking: What sounds do you hear in this word?” 
  • Materials include a variety of multi-modal/multi-sensory activities for student practice of phonological awareness. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 4, page 111, in Apply, students complete sorting activities. Students have a 3-way sort with the sounds /t/, /s/, and /I/. Students say the word, and identify the ending sound and then sort the picture according to the ending sound. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 11, page 139, in Apply, students take turns showing a partner a picture card, slowly saying the picture’s sounds, and putting fingers in the air as they hear each sound. 

Criterion 1f - 1j

Materials emphasize explicit, systematic instruction of researched-based and/or evidence-based phonics.
12/20
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed meet the criteria for materials emphasize  explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling; however, students have limited practice opportunities to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns and limited opportunities for students to review previously taught phonics skills. Students have limited opportunities to decode phonetically regular words in a sentence and limited opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics.

Indicator 1f

Materials emphasize explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials emphasize  explicit phonics instruction through systematic and repeated modeling.

The Fountas and Pinnell materials contain lessons which provide the teachers with instruction and repeated modeling of most grade-level phonics standards. Students have practice in listening, speaking, writing and reading the phonics skills they are learning through a variety of activities. The students complete sorts using pictures and letter cards, and the teacher uses a pocket chart during whole group instruction in order for students to get systematic and repeated modeling of the skills. 

Materials contain explicit instructions for systematic and repeated teacher modeling of all grade-level phonics standards. For example:

  • Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 19, page 278, the teacher writes she on chart paper. The teacher and students discuss what they notice about the beginning two letters and that it starts with sh. The teacher writes think on chart paper and leads students through a discussion. The teacher writes the following words on chart paper for student discussion: this, ship, shell, shop, them, three.
  • Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 8, page 319, the teacher explains that students will learn to notice patterns in words. The teacher models sorting phonograms (-an, -at, -ay) into three categories. 
  • Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 15, page 262, a pocket chart contains two columns with words ride and like in one column and the words cube and tube in the second column. Students read the words. The teacher talks to the students about what letter comes before the final e at the end of the word and that it’s a consonant. The teacher says all of the words have a vowel that comes before a consonant, and the e is silent. The teacher places the key cards i_e and u_e at the top of the column on the chart, and the blank space is a reminder to the students that a consonant appears there. 
  • Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Structure 1, page 382, the teacher has students clap one- and two-syllable words. The teacher is to have students discuss what they noticed about the one-and two-syllable words such as there is a vowel in every syllable.
  • Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Structure 1, page 382, the teacher places the word cards (fish, play, boat) in one column and another set of words (basket, garden, picnic) in a second column. The teacher and the students say and clap the syllables. The teacher cuts the two syllable word cards in half and explains to the students that the cut in each syllable word divides the word into syllables.
  • Read words with inflectional endings.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Structure 6, page 402, The teacher says, “Today I walk.” But how do you show something happened yesterday? The teacher repeats, “Today I walk, and yesterday I … Right, yesterday I walked.” The teacher places the card walked in the column under yesterday I. The teacher discusses with students about what they notice about the word walked. The teacher states that students can add the verb -ed to end many verbs to show that something has already happened. 

Lessons provide teachers with systematic and repeated instruction for students to hear, say, encode, and read each newly taught grade-level phonics pattern. For example:

  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 14, page 259, students receive a list of word cards and a list sheet. The children read the words (CVCe with long o and long a) and write 4 examples for each pattern on the list sheet.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 18, page 274, the teacher displays words in the pocket chart with long and short e words. The words at the top are bell and tree. The students say each word with the teacher, so all students hear the words.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 275, students play Lotto with short and long /e/ and /i/ sounds. Students read some examples of words on their game cards from each category.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 20, page 283, students read words ending with -sh or -th.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 2, page 296, students say the following one syllable words with the teacher: bit, nod, hug.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 6, page 312, the students take turns choosing a spelling pattern to read aloud. Students hear their peers reading the words.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Structure 1, page 382, students clap the syllables of the following words: fish, finish, play, ship, shower, absent, boat, basket, thick, garden, picnic, and bread as they say the names of the words.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Structure 4, page 394, students say words with plural -es, such as beaches and dishes.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Structure 6, page 402, the teacher distributes two copies of the two-way sort and one set of word cards to each student. The students match the verb with the past tense verb. The students read each row of the completed sheet to a partner in this format: “Today I… Yesterday I….”

Indicator 1g

Materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns and provide opportunities for students to review previously taught phonics skills.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to decode words that consist of common and newly-taught sound and spelling patterns and provide opportunities for students to review previously taught phonics skills.

The Fountas & Pinnell materials contain opportunities for students to decode letter sounds during 21 Letter-Sound Relationships lessons. Students decode phonetically based words during 10 Spelling Patterns lessons, 10 Word Structure lessons, and 18 Word-Solving Actions lessons. The materials do not contain a deliberate, systematic review of previously introduced grade-level phonics skills.

Examples of materials that include some practice opportunities for students to read words based in phonics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Lessons provide students with opportunities to decode (phonemes, onset and rime, and/or syllables) phonetically spelled words. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships, Letter-Sound Relationships 7, page 231, students read the list of words that they created based on blending two- or three-consonant sounds. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 6, page 313, students say and sort words based on the following phonogram patterns: -an, -at, -in, -it, -op, -ot, -ut, -og.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 6, page 445, students work in pairs to build and say words in “If you know it helps you know.” One student builds a word for the column “If you know.” The partner reads the word and adds or changes a letter to the beginning of the word to make a new word. The first student reads the new word.
  • Lessons provide students with opportunities to read complete words by saying the entire word as a unit using newly taught phonics skills. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 275, students play Lotto with short and long /e/ and /i/ sounds. Students read some examples of words on their game cards from each category. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 1, page 293, students are given a set of word cards and a two-column sorting sheet. Students read all of the words. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 7, page 449, students work in pairs to build and say words in “If you know it helps you know.” One student builds a word for the column “If you know.” The partner reads the word and adds or changes a letter to the beginning of the word to make a new word. The first student reads the new word.

Materials do not contain systematic opportunities for students to review previously learned phonics skills. While Generative Lesson plans contain a structure for teachers to present similar content or concepts to teach a variety of spelling patterns, the intention is not for systematic, explicit review phonics skills with a variety of methods to promote students’ practice of previously taught grade-level phonics. For example:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 7, page 229, the generative lesson suggestion is "A generative lesson has a simple structure that you can use to present similar content and concepts. Use this lesson structure to teach a variety for consonant clusters."
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 6, page 311, the generative lesson suggestion is "A generative lesson has a simple structure that you can use to present similar content and concepts. Use this lesson structure to teach a variety of phonograms."

Indicator 1h

Materials provide frequent opportunities for students to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide frequent opportunities for students to practice decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence.

The Fountas & Pinnell Grade 1 materials provide opportunities for students to read decodable words in sentences when students read poems during Teach and/or Shared Reading. There are limited opportunities for students to explicitly and systematically read phonetically regular words in sentences.

Materials provide limited explicit, systematic practice for decoding phonetically regular words in a sentence. For example, in Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 2, the teacher tells students they will learn how to think about the sounds in words and how knowing these sounds helps them read. Students read “Six Little Ducks” aloud with the teacher. 

Lessons provide students with some opportunities to decode words in a sentence based on phonics. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 15, page 264, students read the poem, “I Know Something,” with the teacher. The poem contains CVCe words. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 2, page 298, students read the poem, “The Clever Hen,” with the teacher.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 5, page 310, students read the poem, “Aunt Maria.”

Indicator 1i

Materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sound and sound patterns.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include frequent practice opportunities for students to build/manipulate/spell and encode grade-level phonics, including common and newly-taught sounds and sound patterns.

The Fountas & Pinnell materials contain some opportunities for students to build/manipulate/spell and write words based on phonics patterns. Encoding opportunities are not provided daily. Opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode are provided during Teach and Apply within lessons.

Examples of materials that include opportunities for student learning in building/manipulating/spelling and encoding using sound and spelling patterns include but are not limited to the following:

  • The materials contain teacher-level instruction/modeling for building/manipulating/spelling and encoding words.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 11, the teacher writes the following words on chart paper in order for students to observe consonant clusters: bring, tree, green, frog, cry, prize, dress, street, string.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 19, page 278, the teacher writes she on chart paper. The teacher and students discuss what they notice about the beginning two letters and that it starts with sh. The teacher writes think on chart paper and leads students through a discussion. The teacher writes the following words on chart paper for student discussion: this, ship, shell, shop, them, three.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 6, the teacher creates a summary chart of spelling patterns. The teacher writes each pattern at the top of the column. The teacher writes examples of words belonging to each spelling pattern.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 7, the teacher models using magnetic letters to show “If you know...it helps you know…” The teacher models building it, fit and play, day.
  • Lessons provide students with some opportunities to build/manipulate/spell and encode words in isolation based in common and newly taught phonics patterns.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 14, page 259, students sort a set of word cards based on words with the CVCe pattern with long o and words with the CVCe pattern with long a. Students write four examples of CVCe words on the list sheet.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 16, page 267, students sort words into two groups: words with the short a sound and words with the long a sound. Students write some of the words in the appropriate column of their two-column sort paper.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 19, page 279, students sort words into sh- or th- columns. Students select five words from each stack of cards and write them in the appropriate column.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 2, page 297, students use magnetic letters, letter tiles, or lowercase letter cards to make words with a variety of CVC spelling patterns. Students write each word on a list sheet.

Indicator 1j

Materials provide application and encoding of phonics in activities and tasks. (mid K-Grade 2)
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide application and encoding of phonics in activities and tasks. (mid K-Grade 2)

The Fountas & Pinnell materials provide students with limited opportunities to encode phonetically-based words in activities and tasks during Interactive Writing and Independent Writing of Letter-Sound Relationships, Spelling Patterns, and Word-Solving Actions lessons. There are some opportunities to practice encoding phonetically based words during Apply in lessons. There are missed opportunities for the teacher to consistently and explicitly teach and/or model encoding phonics in activities and tasks.

Materials include some explicit, systematic teacher-level instruction of teacher modeling that demonstrates the use of phonics to encode sounds to letters and words in writing tasks. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 3, page 359, in both Interactive Writing and Independent Writing, the teacher is to help students write words with the -at pattern, or have them use a known word that contains -at to write a new word and to use their knowledge of spelling patterns as a resource to write words. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 7, page 374, during Interactive Writing, the instructions are to “make explicit connections between words on the word wall and words children are writing. After writing, point out common patterns among the words in the text.” In Independent Writing, the instructions say to “encourage children to use the word wall as a resource for spelling words accurately in their writing.” 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 248, during Interactive Writing, the teacher reminds students they can hear both sounds in the consonant cluster. The teacher highlights consonant clusters in Interactive Writing. 

Lessons provide students with limited activities and tasks to promote application of phonics as they encode words in sentences or in phrases based on common and newly taught grade-level phonics patterns. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 223, during Apply, students write sentences with words that begin with the same sound and letter. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 4, page 306, during Independent Writing, students are to use their knowledge of spelling patterns as a resource to write words. When students are writing rhyming texts, the teacher is to remind students to use the spelling pattern charts.

Criterion 1k - 1m

Materials and instruction support students in learning and practicing regularly and irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
6/8
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Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and opportunities to practice reading of high-frequency words to develop automaticity. Instructional materials include eight generative lessons for high-frequency words. Materials provide limited practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences). Materials contain instruction and practice in word analysis strategies during  Letter-Sound Relationships, Word Structure, Word Solving Actions, and Spelling Patterns.

Indicator 1k

Materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and opportunities to practice reading of high-frequency words to develop automaticity.
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include systematic instruction of high-frequency words and opportunities to practice reading of high-frequency words to develop automaticity.

The Fountas & Pinnell Grade 1 materials contain eight High-Frequency Word Lessons. Since all eight lessons are generative lessons, the materials suggest the teacher repeat the lesson several times with new words selected by the teacher. The program does not specify an exact sequence of instruction. In the Master Lesson Guide, Lesson #15 (High-Frequency Word Lesson 4), it indicates the goal for Grade 1 is instant recognition of 100-150 high-frequency words. High-frequency words lessons are not regularly addressed over the course of the year with lessons occurring in #12, #13, #14, #15, #16, #69, #69, and #70 of the Master Lesson Guide. Each lesson suggests the use of the Words to Know Instructional Procedure, which contains five steps including explicit instruction by the teacher and opportunities for students to understand the principle. 

Examples of materials that include systematic instruction of irregularly spelled words and practice opportunities for students include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials include systematic and explicit instruction of irregularly spelled words.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, the Words to Know Instructional Routine is described with 5 steps: 
      • 1. Show a group of high-frequency words, reading each one while running your pointer finger under it, left to right. 
      • 2. Children look at each word to see if they recognize it. 
      • 3. Help children understand the principle. 
      • 4. Children work with high-frequency words to apply the principle.
      • 5. Summarize the learning by restating the principle. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 1, page 334, the teacher states had and places had on the left side of the whiteboard with magnetic letters. The teacher discusses with students what letter is put first, second, and at the end of the word. Once the students talk about the word, the teacher writes the word without stopping, reminding students that there are some words they need to know how to read and write quickly. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 7, page 358, using the pocket chart cards and a pocket chart, the teacher displays a few words of three or more letters that the children know, such as make, come look. Students read the words. The teacher adds two or three more words. The students work with the teacher to notice the pattern in the words by demonstrating how to make it with magnetic letters.
  • Materials include infrequent opportunities for the teacher to model the spelling and reading of irregularly spelled words in isolation. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 1, page 334, the teacher makes the following words with magnetic letters: had, did, was. The teacher writes the words.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 7, page 358, the teacher uses magnetic letters to make the following words: make, come, look, your, have said, then, from, with, they, going, when. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 8, page 362, the teacher places the word cards on the left hand column on the board. Then the teacher makes the words letter by letter with magnetic letters and writes the word for the students to see. 
  • Students practice identifying and reading irregularly spelled words in isolation.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 2, page 339, students play Concentration using high-frequency words they have learned. Students turn the card over, read the word, and then do the same thing with the second card. If it is a match they get the pair. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words, pages 349-352, students practice reading, making, and writing high-frequency words during Apply. Words could include: from, came, have.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words pages 361-364, the lesson uses the following format, “What is this word? This word is ___. You read it together,” when teaching high-frequency words with 3 or more letters.
  • Materials include a sufficient quantity of new grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words for students to make reading progress.
    • There are a total of eight high-frequency lessons in the Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 book. On page 333, it states, “once children have learned forty or so words, you may want to expand your high-frequency word list.” The teacher is provided a list of 150 high-frequency words for Grade 1, but the program does not specify an exact sequence.

Indicator 1l

Materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences).
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide frequent practice opportunities to read and write high-frequency words in context (sentences).

In the Fountas & Pinnell materials, Grade 1 students have opportunities to hear and read high-frequency words in the context of sentences during Teach and/or Shared Reading of the High-Frequency Word lessons. The teacher models reading poems that contain high-frequency words from Sing a Song of Poetry, and students are encouraged to join the teacher after one or two repetitions. During Interactive Writing, there are various opportunities for students to write high-frequency words out of context in order to check their spelling on the word wall, but there is no systematic practice on writing high-frequency words in sentences. In some of the Independent Writing sections, the teacher encourages students to recall words they know by sight and write them quickly, checking them for accuracy against words posted on the word wall, but does not provide any systematic practice on writing that day’s high-frequency words in context. 

Lessons provide students with some opportunities to read grade level irregularly spelled words in a sentence. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 3, page 343, students read the poem “The Itsy, Bitsy Spider,” and students identify the high-frequency words. 
    • During Shared Reading, the teacher can use other poems from Sing a Song of Poetry for students to read. Students can locate and identify one or two high-frequency words in the poem.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 1, page 340, during Shared Reading, students read “Sing a Song of Sixpence” with the teacher. Students locate one, two, or three high-frequency words using highlighter tape. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 4, page 348, during Shared Reading, students read the poem, “Polly, Put the Kettle on.” Students use highlighter tape to identify high-frequency words. 

Lessons provide students with few opportunities to write grade level irregularly spelled words in tasks (such as sentences) in order to promote automaticity in writing grade level irregularly spelled words. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 2, page 340, during Interactive Writing, the teacher asks students to quickly write the high-frequency words that come up during writing.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 4, page 348, during Interactive Writing, students write isolated high-frequency words and then other students find them on the wall. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency 8, page 364, during Interactive Writing, when the teacher is composing a text with students, the teacher should include high-frequency words. 

Materials provide some instruction in how to use student-friendly reference materials and resources and reading irregularly spelled words (e.g., word cards, word lists, word ladders, student dictionaries). Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 1, page 336, during Independent Writing, students recall words that they know by sight when writing and then check the accuracy of the spelled words by using a word wall.
    • In Extend Learning, students add new high-frequency words to a collection of words in a bag or on a ring to practice reading from lesson to lesson.
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency 4, page 348, during Interactive Writing, students write high-frequency words and the other students find them on the word wall.

Indicator 1m

Materials explicitly teach word analysis strategies (e.g., phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis) based on the requirements of the standards and provide students with frequent practice opportunities to apply word analysis strategies.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials explicitly teach word analysis strategies (e.g., phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis) based on the requirements of the standards and provide frequent practice opportunities for students to apply word analysis strategies.

The Fountas & Pinnell Grade 1 materials contain instruction and practice in word analysis strategies during Letter-Sound Relationships, Word Structure, Word Solving Actions, and Spelling Patterns. The skills introduced are explicitly taught, and students are provided both guided and independent practice activities that include word sorts, games, using magnetic letters, poems, and other reading selections.  

Materials contain frequent explicit instruction of word analysis strategies (e.g. phoneme/grapheme recognition, syllabication, morpheme analysis). Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 13, pages 253-256, the teacher guides students to hear and identify long vowel sounds in words and to identify the letters that represent them. The teacher asks the students to read a pair of words (e.g., lake/rain, acorn/ape) and identify the vowel sound they hear in the words. The teacher explains that sometimes the letter a by itself “says its name” and sometimes it’s part of a team of letters that “says its name”. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 3, page 300, the teacher explains to students that they are going to learn about spelling patterns. The teacher places the cards for cat and ran in two columns on a pocket chart. The teacher guides students to identify the pattern they see. The teacher shows more words, and students sort them based on the pattern and the discussion with the teacher.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Solving Actions 6, pages 443-446, the teacher teaches students how to use onsets and rimes in known words to read and write other words with the same parts. The teacher models that if you know the word is, it will help you know another word such as his. 

Materials contain frequent explicit instruction of word solving strategies (graphophonic and syntactic) to decode unfamiliar words. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Structure 5, page 398, students learn about the endings of words. On a whiteboard, the teacher writes I can read and I am. The teacher has the students read the first sentence, and they create a second second sentence together. The teacher adds -ing to the word read and discusses what students notice about the ending.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 5, page 440, students learn that they are going to play a fun game where they make new words by changing the first sound of the word. The teacher displays the picture card, dress. Then they discuss that the first sounds are /d/ and /r/. Then the teacher says I’m going to change the first sounds of dress to /m/. They discuss what changed and that the teacher changed dr in dress to make mess. This process is repeated with pin, thin, grin, skin
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions, page 472, the teacher explains to students that they can use what they know about letters and sounds to spell words they don’t know. The teacher talks to students about the word flash. The teacher asks what sound they hear at the beginning of the word and what letter stands for that sound. Then the teacher builds the word using magnetic letters. The teacher does the same sound and spelling activity with the words: swift and splash

Multiple and varied opportunities are provided over the course of the year for students to learn, practice, and apply word analysis strategies. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 4, page 305, students use magnetic letters, letter tiles, or letter cards in order to build -ap and -ay words. They build the word, then write the word, and read the word. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 7, page 231, students use magnetic letters to build tr words. Students draw a picture and write the word. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 10, page 243, students play the game Lotto. Students take turns picking a card, reading it, and if the student has the same consonant cluster, they place a game marker over the word. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 6, page 313, students have two envelopes that represent two groups of cards with spelling patterns students have learned such as: -an, -at, in, -it and in the second envelope, there are -op, -ot, ut, -og words. Students say and sort the words in the first envelope into four columns on a sheet of paper. They write out the words in the correct column. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 10, page 329, students use magnetic letters, letter tiles, or letter cards in order to build -ell and -ill words. Students not only build the word on the chart but they build new words also. Students write the words. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 7, page 449, students work in pairs with magnetic letters, a known sheet, and an index card. The first student makes a word s/he knows on the left side of the sheet. The partner reads the word, but changes a letter at the beginning to make a new word on the right side of the sheet. The first student reads the word. After making eight pairs of words, partners choose one pair and write the word on the index card. 

Criterion 1n - 1q

Materials and instruction support students in learning and practicing regularly and irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
4/16
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Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 contain some opportunities for students to be explicitly instructed in how to decode with automaticity and accuracy during Teach. The teacher reads aloud poetry from Sing a Song of Poetry; however, materials do not contain resources for frequent explicit, systematic instruction in fluency elements and students do not read text with a focus on fluent reading. Materials do not provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding.

Indicator 1n

Materials provide opportunities for students to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity in K and Grade 1.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials provide opportunities for students to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity in K and Grade 1.

The Fountas & Pinnell Grade 1 materials contain some opportunities for students to be explicitly instructed in how to decode with automaticity and accuracy during Teach. In some lessons, the teacher explains the phonics concept but does not model reading words with automaticity and accuracy prior to asking students to read the words. The materials contain some opportunities for students to engage in decoding practice during Teach and Apply. 

Materials provide some systematic and explicit instruction in fluency by focusing on accuracy and automaticity in decoding. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 14, the teacher places a_e and o_e in a pocket chart. The teacher states, “Each of these words has a vowel, then a consonant, and finally a silent e.” The teacher explains that the vowels will “say their name.” 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 19, the teacher writes sh- and th- words on chart paper. The teacher writes she on chart paper and asks students, “What is this word? What do you notice about the letters at the beginning of she?” The teacher explains sh- stands for one sound.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 9, page 324, the teacher places the following words in a pocket chart: gate, make, name. The teacher has students read the words with the teacher. The teacher asks, “What patterns do you notice in these words?”

Materials provide opportunities for students in Kindergarten and Grade 1 to engage in decoding practice focused on accuracy and automaticity. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 14, each student gets a set of word cards with a_e and o_e. Each student is to say and sort the words.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 20, each student gets a set of word cards with -sh or -th. Each student reads the word cards.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 8, each student sorts word cards with -an, -at, -ay. Each student reads the list of sorted words.

Indicator 1o

Instructional opportunities are built into the materials for systematic, evidence-based, explicit instruction in fluency. (Grades 1-2)
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for instructional opportunities are built into the materials for systematic, evidence-based, explicit instruction in fluency (Grades 1-2). 

The Fountas & Pinnell Grade 1 materials do not contain resources for frequent explicit, systematic instruction in fluency elements. Students do have opportunities to hear the teacher read some grade-level text during Shared Reading and Interactive Reading in Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1. The teacher reads aloud poetry from Sing a Song of Poetry.

Materials provide opportunities for students to hear fluent reading of grade-level text by a model reader. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 21, students hear the teacher read the poem, “The Clever Hen” or “Dingle Dangle Scarecrow” from Sing a Song of Poetry
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Structure 2, page 384, students hear the teacher read the poem, “Two Cats of Kilkenny” from Sing a Song of Poetry
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 2, page 428, the students read the text “Six Little Ducks” with the teacher.

Indicator 1p

Varied and frequent opportunities are built into the materials for students to engage in supported practice to gain oral reading fluency beginning in mid-Grade 1 and through Grade 2 (once accuracy is secure). (not scored for K and early Grade 1)
0/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for varied and frequent opportunities are built into the materials for students to engage in supported practice to gain oral reading fluency beginning in mid-Grade 1 and through Grade 2 (once accuracy is secure).

In Fountas & Pinnell Grade 1 materials, students do not read text with a focus on fluent reading. While students read aloud poetry with the teacher from Sing a Song of Poetry, the practice is not to build students’ skills in rate, accuracy, and expression. Students participate in the reading of poetry to practice decoding automaticity.

Indicator 1q

Materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors (Grades 1-2) and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding.
0/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for materials provide teacher guidance to support students as they confirm or self-correct errors and emphasize reading for purpose and understanding.

Materials do not provide students with opportunities to read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. 

The Fountas & Pinnell Grade 1 materials do not contain explicit lessons for the teacher to teach students how to confirm or self-correct errors; therefore, students do not have opportunities to practice confirming or self-correcting errors. Within the lessons, students read poems from Sing a Song of Poetry, but teachers do not have specific guidance in teaching students to read the poems with purpose and understanding.

Gateway Two

Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

Partially Meets Expectations

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Gateway Two Details

The Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 materials reviewed  partially meet the criteria for Implementation, Support Materials, and Assesment. Materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Materials partially meet the criteria for scope and sequence clearly delineate the sequence in which phonological awareness and phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy of phonemic awareness competence and sequence of phonics. The program does not present a research-based or evidence-based explanation for the teaching of these skills or for the particular hierarchy in which the skills are presented. Decodable texts include poems from Sing a Song of Poetry that do not consistently align to the program’s scope and sequence for phonics and high-frequency word instruction and do not consistently provide practice of the decodable element from the lesson.  Materials provide inconsistent assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics, and word recognition and analysis.  Materials do not include assessment opportunities that measure student progress in fluency. Materials include a publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards with limited information pertaining to documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessments. The visual design is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.

Criterion 2a - 2e

Materials are accompanied by a systematic, explicit, and research-based scope and sequence outlining the essential knowledge and skills that are taught in the program and the order in which they are presented. Scope and sequence should include phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, fluency, and print concepts.
16/20
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Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. The Fountas & Pinnell materials include several resources for teacher use with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary. Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 provides foundational skills lessons that are highly structured, provide adequate resources for teaching the concepts, and provide recommendations for extended learning opportunities. Materials partially meet the criteria for scope and sequence clearly delineate the sequence in which phonological awareness and phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy of phonemic awareness competence. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the Foundational Skills program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.

Indicator 2a

Materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials contain a teacher edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.

The Fountas & Pinnell materials include several resources for teacher use with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student materials. The books include: The Fountas & Pinnell Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Guide, Fountas & Pinnell Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons, Online Resources, and Sing a Song of Poetry: A Teaching Resource for Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Fluency.

Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 provides an in-depth overview of the areas of literacy instruction, including definitions and rationale, 100 lessons for teaching them, and a detailed instructional sequence for integrating lessons from each of the areas. It includes useful suggestions for how to organize the classroom and incorporate the literacy instruction into the daily schedule, as well as instructional interventions for ELL students. Sing a Song of Poetry provides an overview and rationale for the teaching of oral language through songs and poetry and each selection provided in this book is referenced in one of the 100 lessons. Each lesson is consistently organized and all materials needed to teach are clearly referenced. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning. Each lesson guide also provides an online resource code to access resources online. By visiting www.resources.fountasandpinnell.com, entering the product code inside the front cover of the lesson book, and registering, you can access lesson resources, general resources, and assessment guides for each grade level. The Grade 1 kit also provides an organizational structure for the lessons and materials used on a daily, as well as monthly, basis.

Examples of materials that include a teacher edition with useful annotations, suggestions for content presentation and embedded technology include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials provide a well-defined, teacher resource (teacher edition, manual) for content presentation.
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 book, pages 1-8, has nine outlined areas of learning that are taught across the year. They include early literacy concepts: Phonological Awareness, Letter Knowledge, Letter-Sound Relationships, Spelling Patterns, High-Frequency words, Word meaning/Vocabulary, Word Structure, and Word-Solving Actions. 
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 book on page 143, the lesson plan is laid out with a description of the principle that is going to be taught, with a section to help ELL learners, and what resources the teacher is going to need. Then there is a teach, apply, share, assess section of the lesson plan.
    • Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons book for First Grade outlines  “Essential Literacy Concepts Every First Grader Should Know” (page 5) in the first chapter, followed by details on reading contexts in a First Grade classroom (pg. 11), writing contexts in a First Grade classroom (page 15), and independent literacy work (page 17). “Essential Literacy Concepts Every First Grader Should Know” gives teachers an understanding of what first graders are learning to do within phonological awareness, letters and sounds, reading and writing words, and early reading concepts. In this book, the materials and resources in the Fountas and Pinnell system are reviewed, allowing teachers to understand the many resources available to help guide them through the program.
  • The teacher resource contains detailed information and instructional routines that help the teacher to effectively implement all foundational skills content (i.e. phonological awareness, phonics, irregularly spelled words, word analysis, fluency).
    • Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons book for Grade 1, An Annotated Lesson and Its Features, page 31 outlines for the teacher how the 100 provided lessons are presented, providing detailed information and instructional routines that will help the teacher effectively implement all foundational skills content. 
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 36 - 41, there are instructional routines laid out for teachers with full explanations, including See and Say, Say and Sort, Hear and Say.
    • Sing a Song of Poetry Grade 1, included within the Teacher’s Kit, provides a rationale and overview for the use of poetry and songs for enhancing oral language and literacy skills, along with specific selections for use with the lessons.
      • In Connected Learning Across Contexts under the Shared Reading section, the lessons reference the Sing a Song of Poetry book selections that provide extension activities related to poems and songs. 
  • Any technology pieces included provide support and guidance for the teacher and do not create an additional layer of complication around the materials.
    • The online materials contained under PWS: Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study, Grade 1, contain a gamemaker tab where there are explanations on how the teacher can create games based on the lessons the students are working on for centers. 
    • Online learning resources are referenced in each lesson, including the online assessment guide and specific assessment forms related to that lesson. Teachers are provided lesson folders to assist in organizing these materials as they are downloaded.

Indicator 2b

Materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials contain full, adult-level explanations and examples of the foundational skills concepts included in the program so teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.

Materials in the program include The Fountas & Pinnell Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Guide, and the Fountas & Pinnell Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons. Both books contain information about the “Nine Areas of Learning About Phonics, Spelling and Word Study,” providing in-depth definitions and explicit examples of early literacy concepts, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, letter-sound relationships, spelling patterns, high-frequency words, word meaning/vocabulary, word structure, and word-solving actions. The Comprehensive, Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Guide K-8th, contains information on various topics, such as interactive read-aloud and literature discussions, writing, phonics, spelling and word study, and guided reading. In the Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study section, the book highlights, early literacy concepts, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, letter-sound relationship, spelling patterns, high-frequency words, word meaning/vocabulary, word structure, and word-solving actions that each Grade 1 student would need to know. Under each of these headings are the skills that encompass that component of literacy. Additionally, the Fountas & Pinnell Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons provides “Essential Literacy Concepts Every Kindergartener Should Know,” outlining the specific foundational skills in Grade 1 with a detailed explanation and rationale for their inclusion. The Sing a Song of Poetry book provides an additional overview of skills incorporated into poetry and the rationale for the inclusion of poetry into the 100 literacy lessons provided.

Examples of opportunities for full, adult-level explanations and examples of foundational skills concepts to improve teacher content knowledge include but are not limited to the following:

  • Complete, detailed adult-level explanations are provided for each foundational skill taught at the grade level.
    • Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 1-8, provides clear definitions of the terminology surrounding phonics instruction and how those terms apply to the teaching of early literacy skills, the need for contextualized and decontextualized teaching, and how each should be systematically and explicitly taught.
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 495-501, has a glossary of terms that describes different words in order to explain it to teachers. For example, a closed syllable is defined as a syllable that ends in a consonant: eg. lem-on
    • Sing a Song of Poetry Grade 1, page 3, provides teachers with an explanation of the values and goals of including poetry in first grade classrooms.
      • It includes descriptions of the language and literacy features of poetry and how the use of poetry contributes to literacy learning.
  • Detailed examples of the grade level foundational skill concepts are provided for the teacher.
    • Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Guide, page 56, on the chart, it talks about recognizing and using plurals that end in -es. There are examples to help the teacher understand the concept.
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 65, talks about recognizing and using phonograms that end with a double consonant. There is an example of what it is and examples of VCC words.
    • Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Guide, page 278, students are learning about Letter-Sound Relationships. They have been learning about consonant clusters. It tells the teacher that a consonant cluster means that you can hear each sound in the cluster.

Indicator 2c

Foundational skills lessons are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing. Content can reasonably be completed within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for foundational skills lessons are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing. Content can reasonably be completed within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding. 

Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 provides foundational skills lessons that are highly structured, provide adequate resources for teaching the concepts, and provide recommendations for extended learning opportunities. The lessons are well-organized and reasonably calculated to be completed within an academic year. The program provides an in-depth overview for providing the various instructional contexts (i.e., read-aloud lessons, word study lessons, reading mini-lessons, small and whole group instruction) in a coherent, two- and a half-hour daily instructional block. The Grade 1 materials provide 100 lesson plans that utilize an effective, research-based lesson plan design for early literacy instruction. There is a clear structure that is used in order to outline the phonics lessons with students that includes a teach, apply, share, and assess model for each lesson. There are general statements included in some lessons regarding pacing and how fast or slow a teacher should go through the lesson, but it is specifically left up to the teacher. Some of the lesson plans may be done several times with similar concepts. They utilize a research design where they target nine areas of learning across the year, and each skill is built on what students need at the early, middle, or late part of the year. 

Examples of well designed and effective foundational skills lessons with carefully organized structure, include but are not limited to the following:

  • Lesson plans utilize effective, research-based lesson plan design for early literacy instruction.
    • Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Guide Grade 1, page 43, in Fitting it all Together, there is a map for a three- hour literacy block that has 5 minutes for a group meeting, 15 minutes for an interactive read-aloud lesson, 10 minutes for Shared Reading, 10 minutes for phonics, spelling, and word study, 10 minutes for a reading mini lesson, 60 minutes for small group instruction and independent literacy work, 10 minutes for a group share, and 60 minutes for Writer’s Workshop. 
    • Each lesson is organized around the consistent format of plan, teach, apply, share, assess, connect learning across contexts, and extended learning, with additional suggestions for making home connections.
      • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge Lesson 15, pages 199-202, teaches the principle of recognizing that some letters are consonants while others are vowels and that every word has at least one vowel. In the Teach section, students are explicitly taught which letters are vowels and are provided several words for them to practice identifying consonant and vowel letters. They then apply this knowledge through completion of several activities. The Connected Learning Across Contexts section of the lesson provides recommendations for interactive read-along books, a Shared Reading activity incorporating selections from Sing a Song of Poetry, and suggested writing activities.
      • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Solving Actions Lesson 6, pages 443-446, introduces the principle of using onsets and rimes in known words to read and write other words with the same parts. It provides specific examples for instructing students on how to use word parts that they know to figure out new words, opportunities for students to apply the skill, and recommendations for assessing students’ knowledge. In the Connected Learning Across Contexts section of the lesson, teachers are provided two selections for read-aloud books and recommendations for a Shared Reading poetry selection, extended learning suggestions and home school connections.
    • The effective lesson design structure includes both whole group and small group instruction.  
      • Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Guide Grade 1, page 43, in the section Fitting it all Together, the teacher is prompted to meet with three Guided Reading groups each day.
      • Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Guide Grade 1, page 196, students complete the Teach section of the lesson plan in whole group. Teachers are directed to put S and B on the board and students talk about the differences.
    • The pacing of each component of daily lessons plans is clear and appropriate.  
      • Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Guide Grade 1, page 179, the lesson consists of teach, apply, share, and assess. The entire lesson should take 10 minutes. Although it does not break down how long each section should take, the materials do say if the teacher has time, every child in the class can trace the letter, during the Teach portion of the lesson. 
    • The suggested amount of time and expectations for maximum student understanding of all foundational skill content (i.e. phonological awareness, print concepts, letters, phonics, HFW, word analysis, decoding) can reasonably be completed in one school year and should not require modifications. 
      • While there are 100 lessons provided within the program, a number of them are generative, meaning they can be used to present similar content or concepts. For example, Spelling Patterns Lesson 10, pages 327-330, is designed to teach students to recognize and use phonograms that end with a double consonant.  It introduces two word patterns, -ell and -ill; however, the lesson can be repeated to teach other double-consonant patterns with short vowel sounds, such as -ass, -ess, and -uff.
    • For those materials on the borderline (e.g. approximately 130 days on the low end or 200 days on the high end), evidence clearly explains how students would be able to master ALL the grade level standards within one school year.
    • Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Guide Grade 1, there are 100 phonics lessons contained in the text. Some of the lessons can be repeated based on whether students understood the concept or not.

Indicator 2d

Order of Skills
0/0

Indicator 2d.i

Scope and sequence clearly delineate the sequence in which phonological awareness skills are to be taught, with a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy of phonemic awareness competence. (K-1)
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for scope and sequence clearly delineate the sequence in which phonological awareness skills are to be taught, with a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy of phonemic awareness competence.

The Fountas & Pinnell materials delineate a hierarchy for teaching phonological awareness skills by early, middle, and late grade one. The Master Lesson Guide indicates the order in which phonological awareness skills should be taught. While the program cites some research, in general, supporting the explicit teaching of these phonological awareness skills, the program does not present a research-based or evidence-based explanation for the teaching of these skills or for the particular hierarchy in which the skills are presented. 

Examples of materials that include a cohesive phonological awareness sequence include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials do not contain a clear, evidence-based explanation for the expected hierarchy for teaching phonological awareness skills.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 3, the materials provide a clear definition of the terms phonological awareness and phonemic awareness and their relationship to early literacy skills. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, the materials identify that “phonological awareness refers to both explicit and implicit knowledge of the sounds in language” and “it includes the ability to identify and make rhymes, hear syllables in words, hear the parts of words (onsets and rimes), and hear individual sounds in words” (page 95). 
  • Materials contain a phonemic awareness sequence of instruction and practice based on the expected hierarchy.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, there are 11 phonological awareness lessons taught based on early, middle or end-of-year student knowledge.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, the materials contain the Master Lesson Guide with suggestions on the order the phonological awareness lessons should be taught. 
    • In Comprehensive, Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Guide, the materials  identify a hierarchy for teaching phonological awareness skills in Kindergarten. On pages 18-20, the progression is clearly sequenced on an instructional chart as the following: rhyming words, words, syllables, onsets and rimes, and phonemes.
  • Materials have a cohesive sequence of phonemic awareness instruction based on the expected hierarchy to build toward students’ application of the skills.
    • Within the Phonological Awareness lessons in Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, the instruction builds toward students’ application of skills by providing an “Apply” section within each of the 11 lessons. 
      • In Phonological Awareness Lesson 1, page 99, the Apply section says, “For each pair of rhyming words, invite children to draw a picture representing a third word that rhymes with the pair, e.g., children might draw a picture of a snake to go with the picture cards of rake and cake.” 
      • In Phonological Awareness Lesson 5, page 115, the Apply section says, “Have pairs of children use the picture cards to play the game. Partners take turns choosing a picture (e.g., ball), saying the word the picture represents, and then changing the first sound to make new words, possibly including nonsense words: e.g. fall, hall, tall, zall. You can help children think about whether the new words are real or made up, but the substitution of beginning sounds is the primary goal.” 
      • In Phonological Awareness Lesson 9, page 131, the Apply section says, “Have a small group of children play Follow the Path. Show the game board and game pieces. Then explain that a player tosses a die to determine the number of spaces to move a game piece forward. When the player lands on a space, she says the word that represents the picture and then says the first part and the last part of the word, e.g., swing, sw - ing. Then the next player takes his turn.” 

Indicator 2d.ii

Scope and sequence clearly delineate an intentional sequence in which phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear explanation for the order of the sequence.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for scope and sequence clearly delineate an intentional sequence in which phonics skills are to be taught, with a clear explanation for the order of the sequence. 

Fountas & Pinnell Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 delineates a suggested intentional sequence for the teaching of phonics skills. The Master Lesson Guide explains the order in which phonics lessons should be taught. The teacher references The Fountas and Pinnell in Literacy Continuum for specific Letter-Sound relationships, Spelling Patterns (which include phonogram patterns such as: CVC, VC, VCe patterns), Word Structure, and Word Solving Actions. While Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 cites studies supporting explicit teaching of phonics skills, the program does not present a research-based or evidence-based explanation for the sequence of phonics. 

Materials clearly delineate a scope and sequence with a cohesive, intentional sequence of phonics instruction and practice to build toward application of skills.

  • Comprehensive Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Guide Grades PreK-8, it identifies a progression for teaching Letter-Sound Relationships (LSR), Spelling Relationships (SP), Word Structure (WS), Word-Solving Actions (WSA) in Grade 1. On pages 26-83, the progression is sequenced on an instructional chart as the following: consonants, vowels, and letter-sound representations. Within each of the categories of phonics, behaviors and instructional language is provided to pinpoint specific standards and expectations.
  • IPhonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 54-55, #17-18, WSA lessons begin. There are two WSA lessons for students to recognize and read known words quickly and to use knowledge of letter-sound relationships to monitor word solving accuracy.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 56-57, #25-27, there are three WSA lessons. In these lessons, students learn to change the beginning sound or sounds to make and solve a new word.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 57, #28-29, there are two WS lessons. In these lessons, students learn to identify syllables in one- or two-syllable words.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 59-60, #36-41, there are six LSR lessons. Students learn to:
    • Understand that some letters represent consonant sounds.
    • Recognize beginning consonant sounds and the letters that represent them.
    • Recognize the same beginning consonant sound and the letter that represents the sound.
    • Understand that some letters represent vowel sounds.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 60-61, #42-45, there are four SP lessons. Students learn to:
    • Recognize letter patterns.
    • Recognize and use the CVC pattern.
    • Recognize and use phonograms: -at, -an.
    • Recognize and use phonograms with a VC pattern: -ap, -ay.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 63, #52-54, there are three WSA lessons. Students learn to use onsets and rimes to read words.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 64-65, #57-62, there are six SP lessons. Students learn to:
    • Recognize letter patterns.
    • Recognize and use more common phonograms with a VC pattern.
    • Recognize and use phongrams: -an, -at, -ay, -ate, -ake, -ame.
    • Recognize and use phonograms that end with a double consonant.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 65-66, #63-67, there are five LSR lessons. Students learn to recognize and say consonant clusters that blend two or three consonant sounds.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 67, #71-73, there are three LSR lessons. Students learn to hear and identify long vowel sounds, including words with silent e.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 68, #74-76, there are three WSA lessons. Students learn to change the ending sound or sounds to make and solve a new word.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 69-70, #77-81, there are five LSR lessons. Students learn to:
    • Recognize and use long vowel sounds in words with silent e.
    • Contrast short and long vowel sounds in words.
    • Recognize and use consonant digraphs at the beginning of a word
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 70-72, #82-88, there are seven WSA lessons. Students learn to:
    • Make a first attempt to spell an unknown word.
    • Use letter-sound relationships to help spell an unknown word.
    • Change a middle-sound to make and solve a new word.
    • Change an onset or rime to read or write other words.
    • Add a letter to the beginning or end of a word to read and write other words.
    • Take apart a compound word to read two smaller words.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 72-73, #91-92, there are two LSR lessons. Students learn to recognize and use consonant digraphs at the end of a word and to recognize and use consonant letters that represent two or more different sounds.
  • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 73-75, #93-100, there are eight WS lessons. Students learn to:
    • Recognize and use plurals that add -s, -es.
    • Recognize and use the ending -ing
    • Recognize and use contractions with not, am, is.
  • Materials do not contain a clear research-based explanation for the order of the phonics sequence.  
    • Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 3, states, “We have identified nine areas of learning about phonics, spelling, and word study; for each area of learning, lessons are provided in this book. The continuum is based on research in language and literacy learning; we have asked linguists, researchers on literacy education, and many teachers to provide feedback on the phonics and word study section. We found surprising agreement on the knowledge needed to become an expert word solver.” 
    • Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, pages 2-3, the materials generally cite researchers to support the need for explicit teaching of phonics skills identified in the nine areas of learning about phonics, spelling, and word study. 
  • Phonics instruction is based in high utility patterns and/or common phonics generalizations.  For example, in Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, students learn CVC patterns for short vowel sounds. Students learn phonograms (VC and VCe).
  • Patterns and generalizations are carefully selected to provide a meaningful and manageable number of phonics patterns and common generalizations for students to learn deeply.  For example, the Grade 1 materials focus on consonant sounds, the CVC pattern, phonograms (VC and VCe).

Indicator 2e

Materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the Foundational Skills program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.
0/0
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the Foundational Skills program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement. 

Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 provides suggestions on each lesson for connecting what students are doing in the classroom to their home environments. These resources are located within the daily lesson plans under Extend Learning and are specifically labeled Connect with Home. These suggestions involve taking home copies of the poems or games practiced. Although this resource offers opportunities for teachers to connect with families in relation to the day’s lesson, the information provided is not very explicit nor does it offer parent-friendly letters or communication. None of the activities provide written resources that inform stakeholders about the foundational skills that are taught in the program or the progress that students are making towards mastering these foundational skills. The materials direct the students to explain the foundational skills they are learning to their families and explain what they should do with the activity that is sent home. 

Examples of strategies for informing stakeholders about the program include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials contain jargon-free resources and processes to inform all stakeholders about foundational skills taught at school.
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, the teacher is directed to, in a meeting or newsletter, teach parents or caregivers to play a game with children in which they change the initial sounds of words. The example given explains that they can say a word and ask the child to change the first sound to make a new word - more, door; glass, class, etc. 
  • Materials provide stakeholders with strategies and activities for practicing phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, fluency, and print concepts that will support students in progress towards and achievement of grade level foundational skills standards.
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 112, the teacher is encouraged to have family members use their time spent shopping or riding in the car to play games with their children based on the way words sound. It is suggested to tell families to have them say a word, and then have their child say another word that ends that way.
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Connect with Home, page 146, the teacher encourages children to write their names and the names of family members. Have children take their name cards home and find a picture of something with a name that starts with the same letter to glue on the cards. 
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Connect with Home, page 150, the materials inform teachers that first graders who need this activity will quickly learn how to put together their names. When they know the routine for putting together the name puzzle, let them take it home to show their family members.
    • Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 236, the Connection to Home is to teach family members to play a consonant cluster word game with their children on a walk or at the supermarket. The adult says a word with a consonant cluster and the child tells the letters.

Criterion 2f - 2f.ii

Program includes work with decodables in K and Grade 1, and as needed in Grade 2, following the grade-level scope and sequence to address both securing phonics.
4/8
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Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with phonics and high-frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.  Decodable texts include poems from Sing a Song of Poetry that do not consistently align to the program’s scope and sequence for phonics and high-frequency word instruction and do not consistently provide practice of the decodable element from the lesson.

Indicator 2f

Aligned Decodable Texts
0/0

Indicator 2f.i

Materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with phonics aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.

The Fountas & Pinnell materials contain poems from Sing a Song of Poetry Grade 1 for students to read during Shared Reading in lessons of the Nine Areas of Learning about Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study. Poems are suggested in each lesson, but the poems are not consistently aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and do not consistently provide practice of the decodable element from the lesson. Poems can be used for repeated readings for the following reasons: expand oral language and/or help students to notice features of print such as letters, letter patterns, or words. The materials do not suggest when to reuse poems for repeated readings.

Materials include decodable texts to address securing phonics. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 19, page 280, students read, “She’ll be Coming ‘Round the Mountain” or "This Old Man.” Students underline or apply highlighter tape to the digraphs sh and th
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 2, page 298, students read the poem, “The Clever Hen.” Students use highlighter tape to mark the CVC spelling pattern words. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 3, page 302, students read the poems, “Aunt Maria,” and “Can you Can?” The students use highlighter tape to identify -at and -an pattern words. 

Decodable texts contain grade-level phonics skills aligned to the program’s scope and sequence. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 15, page 264, students read the poem, “I Know Something.” The poem contains CVCe words.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 6, page 336, students read the poem, “I’ve Got a Dog as Thin as a Rail.” The poem contains -og, -in, -op spelling patterns.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Grade 1, Word Structure Lesson 3, students read the poem, “I Love the Mountains.” The poem has nouns with -s.

Materials include some detailed lesson plans for repeated readings of decodable texts to address securing phonics skills. 

    • In Sing a Song of Poetry, page 13, there is a grid to help a teacher think about how to use 5 poems as a text to revisit.
      • A teacher could revisit “How Much Dew?” to focus on:
        • Phonogram Patterns: -ow, -ew, -op, -ey, -at, -en.
        • Letter-Sound Beginning h, m, d, dr, th, wh.
        • Letter-Sound Ending w, ch, s, p, f, y, t, n.
        • One- and two-syllable words
        • Assonance (/oo/)
      • A teacher could revisit “The Little Plant” to focus on:
        • Phonogram Patterns: -eed, -eep, -ay, -ine, -ose, -at, -ide.
        • Letter-Sound Beginning th, h, s, b, d, l, p, f, w, cr, t, v, r, wh, m.
        • Letter-Sound Ending n, t, f, d, p, r, l, k, c, s.
        • Multisyllable words.

Indicator 2f.ii

Materials include decodable texts with high-frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials include decodable texts with high frequency words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence and opportunities for students to use decodables for multiple readings.

The Fountas & Pinnell materials include poems with high-frequency words for students to read during Shared Reading in the High-Frequency Words and Word Structure Lessons. The decodable texts/poems align to the scope and sequence of the Master Lesson Guide. While there are poems for high-frequency word reading in decodable texts, there are a limited number of prepared lesson plans for repeated readings of the poems. 

Materials include decodable texts that utilize high-frequency words. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 4, page 348, students read the poem “Polly, Put the Kettle On,” or “Pumpkin Orange.” Students use highlighter tape to locate high-frequency words after reading the poem.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 6, page 356, students read the poem, “My Aunt Jane.” The students find the high-frequency words. The teacher gives two clues to the students. Students use highlighter tape to highlight the words. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 8, page 364, students read the poem, “On Saturday Night.” Before reading the poem, the teacher covers three to four high-frequency words with sticky notes. When the teacher comes to a word that is covered up, the students guess what the word is. Then they tell the teacher what they notice about the word.

Decodable texts contain grade-level high-frequency/irregularly spelled words aligned to the program’s scope and sequence. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Grade 1 High-Frequency Words 1, students use highlighter tape to highlight one-, two-, and three- letter high-frequency words from the poem, “Mary’s Canary.” The poem contains two words from the lesson, had and was.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 2, page 340, students read “Sing a Song of Sixpence” or “The Man in the Moon” to practice words introduced in the lesson.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Lessons Study Grade 1, Word Structure 2, students use poetry charts and highlighter tape to search for one-, two-, and three-letter high-frequency words. 

Materials include some detailed lesson plans for repeated readings of decodable texts to address securing reading high-frequency words/irregularly spelled words in context.

    • In Sing a Song of Poetry, page 13, there is a grid to help teachers think about how to use five poems as a text to revisit.
      • A teacher could revisit “Bat, Bat” to focus on high-frequency words: come, my, and, you, a, of, when, I, if, am, not.
      • A teacher could revisit “If You’re Happy and You Know It” to focus on high-frequency words: if, and, you, it, your, then, will.
      • A teacher could revisit “Little Robin Redbreast” to focus on high-frequency words: little, a, went, his.

Criterion 2g - 2i.iii

Materials provide teachers resources and tools to collect ongoing data about student progress on the Standards. Materials also provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so that students demonstrate independence with grade-level standards.
11/24
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Criterion Rating Details

Materials partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics, word recognition and analysis.  Materials do not include assessment opportunities that measure student progress in fluency. Materials partially meet the criteria for assessment materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized. In the Fountas and Pinnell materials, standards alignment documentation is not available for formative and summative assessments. Materials provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen in a language other than English with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards; however, materials do not meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.

Indicator 2g

Regular and Systematic Opportunities for Assessment
0/0

Indicator 2g.i

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts (K-1), letter recognition (K only), and printing letters (as indicated by the program scope and sequence) (K-1).
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress through mastery of print concepts (K-1), letter recognition (K only), and printing letters (as indicated by the program scope and sequence) (K-1). 

In Fountas and Pinnell Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 materials, there are suggested daily opportunities to assess students’ skills of print concepts during Assess. There are curriculum-based assessment protocols provided in the online resources, which are directly correlated to the nine areas of literacy instruction included in the program. Each assessment explains what is being tested, why it is important, and how to complete the assessment. These opportunities provide the teacher with information about students’ skills; however, there is no guidance or next steps based on assessment results provided for the teacher once the teacher has conducted the assessment. There are Extend learning sections the teacher can do if a student has mastered a content area or if a student needs reteaching.

Materials regularly and systematically provide a variety of assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence of print concepts.

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons, Early Literacy Concepts 3, page 89, during Assess, the teacher is asked to notice whether children are composing complete sentences in their independent writing.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons, Letter Knowledge 5, page 161, during Assess, the teacher observes whether children can find letters quickly and match and check them. The teacher also observes the students working with letters and be aware of how students are using them.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons, Letter Knowledge 7, page 169, it is recommended that the teacher may want to use Letter Knowledge Assessment A (Recognizing Letters and Stating Their Names) or Assessment D (Individual Record).

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information concerning students’ current skills/level of understanding of print concepts. 

  • In Early Literacy Concepts Assessment C (Locating Letters and Punctuation), the teacher is provided with information about what letters students can identify and if students can locate a period.
  • In Letter Knowledge Assessment B (Recognizing and Matching Uppercase and Lowercase Letters), the teacher is provided with what letters each student can recognize.
  • In Letter Knowledge Assessment C (Forming Letters with Writing Tools), the teacher is provided with what letters each students form.

Materials do not support teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in print concepts.

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons, Letter Knowledge 10, during Extend, the teacher is told to repeat the lesson with uppercase letters that children are making in an inefficient way or are finding difficult.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons, Letter Knowledge 14, page 197, during Assess, students match uppercase letters placed on a table to their lowercase forms. The teacher is prompted to observe which letters are confusing to the student. 
  • In Letter Knowledge Assessment A (Recognizing Letters and Stating Their Names), the students name letters. The teacher is to look at the letters known and unknown and identify students who need more work on letters. 
    • "If your entire class or most of them know 20-plus letters, you will use only one or two lessons in the letter knowledge section. Meet with the children who need more work in small groups."

Indicator 2g.ii

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonological awareness (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-1)
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonological awareness (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-1)

In Fountas & Pinnell Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 materials, there are opportunities to assess students’ skills in phonological awareness during Assess of the Phonological Awareness lessons. There are curriculum-based assessment protocols provided in the online resources, which are directly correlated to the nine areas of literacy instruction included in the program. Each assessment explains what is being tested, why it is important, and how to complete the assessment. These opportunities provide the teacher with information about students’ skills; however, there is no guidance or next steps based on assessment results provided for the teacher once the teacher has conducted the assessment. There are Extend learning sections the teacher can do if a student has mastered a content area or if a student needs reteaching. 

Examples of materials that include phonological awareness assessments include but are not limited to the following:

  • Materials regularly and systematically provide a variety of assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence in phonological awareness.
    • There are five assessments and an individual record form found in the Online Resources for Phonological Awareness. A teacher is prompted during Assess to use particular assessments. The assessments are:
      • Assessment A: Hearing and Saying Rhyming Words
      • Assessment B: Hearing and Saying Beginning Consonant sounds
      • Assessment C: Hearing and Saying Ending Consonant Sounds
      • Assessment D: Hearing and Saying Sounds in Words
      • Assessment E: Hearing and Dividing Word Parts
      • Assessment F: Blending Word Parts
      • Assessment G: Individual Record
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 7, page 123, during Assess, the assessment asks teachers to notice whether students can identify the cards that represent words with /a/ in the middle. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 11, page 139, during Assess, it is recommended to observe whether students are able to produce each sound in a word distinctly and in the correct order. It is recommended that the teacher may wish to use online assessment D or G. 
  • Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information concerning students’ current skills/level of understanding of phonological awareness.
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 5, page 115, during Assess, the assessment asks whether students can create words by replacing the initial sound with a different sound. It states that one or two examples will tell the teacher if the students understand the concept or not. 
    • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 9, page 131, during Assess, there are three assessment options.
      • 1) Notice whether children can identify the first and last parts of words. A quick check of two or three examples will tell you whether children have grasped the concept. 
      • 2) Notice whether children are using their awareness of the first part of words in order to figure out new words as they read and write. 
      • 3) You may wish to use Phonological Awareness Assessment E or G.
    • In Phonological Awareness Assessment A, Online Resources, the materials state that the assessment will help the teacher know which students are able to hear and make connections in rhyming words. There are four things the teacher is listening to see if students can do: 
      • numbers of rhyming words the child can make
      • ability to hear and repeat a word 
      • ability to hear a rhyming part of a word
      • ability to connect rhyming words to parts
  • Materials do not support teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in phonological awareness.
    • In Phonological Awareness Assessment D (Hearing and Saying Sounds in Words), after administering the assessment and recording the students' results on Assessment G (Individual Record), the teacher is to score the word correctly if the child taps the right number of sounds even if he cannot tell the teacher the number. Next steps are not provided.
    • In Phonological Assessment F, after administering the assessment and recording each student’s response on Assessment G (Individual Record), the teacher can view the What to Notice section of the assessment. The teacher is to notice the following, but there are no steps for what the teacher should do next based on the assessment and What to Notice:
      • Ability to blend the first part and last part of a word
      • Number of words for which the child can blend parts
      • Ability to articulate each word

Indicator 2g.iii

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonics in- and out-of-context (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of phonics (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)

In Fountas & Pinnell Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 materials, there are opportunities to assess students’ skills in phonological awareness during Assess of the Letter-Sound Relationships, Spelling Patterns, and Word-Solving Actions Lessons. There are curriculum-based assessment protocols provided in the online resources, which are directly correlated to the nine areas of literacy instruction included in the program. Each assessment explains what is being tested, why it is important, and how to complete the assessment. These opportunities provide the teacher with information about students’ skills; however, there is no guidance or next steps based on assessment results provided for the teacher once the teacher has conducted the assessment. There are Extend learning sections the teacher can do if a student has mastered a content area or if a student needs reteaching. 

Materials provide resources and tools to collect ongoing data about students’ progress in phonics. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • Throughout the Letter-Sound Relationships (LSR), the following assessment opportunities are provided within the Online Resources: Assessment A: Saying and Identifying Sounds in Words, Assessment B: Matching Beginning Consonant Sounds with the Letters that Represent Them, Assessment C: Matching Beginning Sounds with the Letters that Represent Them, Assessment D: Matching Beginning Sounds with the Consonants Digraphs that Represent Them, Assessment E: Matching Ending Sounds with the Consonant Digraphs that Represent Them, Assessment F: Matching Short Vowel Sounds with the Letters that Represent Them, Assessment G: Matching Long Vowel Sounds with the Letters that Represent Them, Assessment H: Writing Words, Assessment I: Individual Record (Saying and Recording Sounds in Words), Assessment J: Individual Record (Letter-Sound Knowledge), Assessment K: Class Record (Consonant Clusters), and Assessment L: Class Record (Consonant Digraphs).
  • Throughout the Sound Patterns (SP), the following assessment opportunities are provided within the Online Resources: Assessment A: Matching Phonogram Patterns in Words, Assessment B: Reading Names with Phonogram Patterns, Assessment C: Reading Words with Phonogram Patterns, Assessment D: Reading and Writing Names (Phonograms), Assessment E: Individual Record (Reading), Assessment F: Class Record (Reading), Assessment G: Individual Record (Reading and Writing), and Assessment H Individual Record (Spelling).
  • Throughout the Word-Solving Actions (WSA) set of lessons, the following assessment opportunities are provided within the Online Resources: Assessment A: Sorting Words, Assessment B: Using Known Words to Solve New Words, Assessment C: Solving Unknown Words While Reading a Text, Assessment D: Monitoring Word-Solving Accuracy with a Familiar Text, Assessment E: Changing Sounds to Make and Solve New Words, and Assessment F: Taking Apart a Compound Word to Read Two Smaller Words.

Materials offer some assessment opportunities to determine students’ progress in phonics that are implemented systematically. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships, Connect to Assessment, the materials state, “See related [optional] LSR Assessment tasks in Online Resources.”
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 1, during Assess, the materials state, “You may wish to use Letter-Sound Relationships Assessment A, B, I, or J.”
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns, Connect to Assessment, the materials state, “See related [optional] SP Assessment tasks in Online Resources.”
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 1, during Assess, the materials state, “You may wish to use Word-Solving Actions Assessment A or G.”

Multiple assessment opportunities are provided regularly for students to demonstrate progress toward mastery and independence with phonics. Examples include, but are not limited:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 13, page 255, during Assess, the teacher checks whether students can categorize words with long vowels. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 10, page 329, the teacher observes students as they read to determine whether they are noticing and using -ell and -ill patterns to solve new words.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 8, page 453, the teacher gives students a list of three or four known words and ask them to underline the first part of each.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with some information of students’ current skills/level of understanding of phonics. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Letter-Sound Relationships 9, page 239, during Assess, the lesson lists three assessment opportunities:
    • Observe children as they play the game, and make note of the children who need your help to understand and identify consonant clusters.
    • Dictate five to ten words with beginning consonant clusters for children to write, and notice if children accurately represent each letter in the consonant cluster.
    • You may wish to use Letter-Sound Relationships Assessment C, I, or K.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 2, during Assess, the lesson lists three assessment opportunities:
    • Ask individual children to make and read a CVC word with magnetic letters.
    • Observe children as they read to determine whether they are noticing and using the CVC pattern to solve new words.
    • You may wish to use Spelling Patterns Assessment A, B, C, D, E, F, G, or H.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 2, during Assess, the lesson lists four assessment opportunities:
    • Observe the children’s reading behavior and record substitutions.
    • Notice whether the children are using the first letter or more letters in the words to monitor their reading, correct themselves, and solve words.
    • Notice the letters and sounds the children are using in their writing.
    • You may wish to use Word-Solving Action Assessment C, D, or G. 

Materials do not genuinely measure students’ progress to support teachers with instructional adjustments to help students make progress toward mastery in phonics.

Indicator 2g.iv

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of word recognition and analysis (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress of word recognition and analysis (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (K-2)

The Fountas & Pinnell Grade 1 materials contain assessments for word recognition and analysis in the Online Resources as well as assessments in the 100 lessons. Assessments within the lessons are administered at the end of lessons. Throughout the High-Frequency Words lessons, the following assessment opportunities are provided within the Online Resources to use over the course of the year: Assessment A: Reading High-Frequency Words, Assessment B: Recognizing and Writing High-Frequency Words. For word analysis, there are Word-Solving Action assessments provided such as Assessment A (Sorting Words), Assessment B (Using Known Words to Solve New Words), Assessment C (Solving Unknown Words While reading a Text), Assessment D (Monitoring Word-Solving Accuracy with a Familiar Text), Assessment E (Changing Sounds to Make and Solve New Words), and Assessment F (Taking Apart a Compound Word to Read Two Smaller Words). Each assessment provides recommendations for what teachers should analyze once the assessment has been administered. There are missed opportunities for assessments to provide the teacher with instructional guidance about next steps for all students.

Materials regularly and systematically provide a variety of assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate students’ progress toward mastery and independence of word recognition (high-frequency words or irregularly spelled words) and analysis. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, High-Frequency Words 8, page 363, it is suggested that the teacher assess students with the high-frequency assessments (A, B, C or D). During the lesson, the teacher  should notice whether students are able to recognize high-frequency words with three or more letters quickly when reading. 
    • In Assessment A (Reading High-Frequency Words), students are individually assessed over several days using five provided word lists. 
    • In Assessment B (Using Known Words to Solve New Words), the students read each word card one at a time. The teacher can administer the assessment several times as students become more advanced.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word-Solving Actions 3, page 433, during Assess, the teacher is asked to notice whether students can figure out unknown words from known words. Next, students say three words. Lastly, the students change the first sound of each to make a new word. 
  • In the Word-Solving Actions Online Assessment B, students read a list of words. If students are struggling, the teacher prompts the student to look for a part the student knows. 

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with information concerning  students’ current skills/level of understanding of word recognition and word analysis.  Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In the online Ready Resources: Assessment: High-Frequency Words Grade 1, it suggests starting with individually assessing the five provided high-frequency word lists, which consist of 100 high-frequency words. The assessment indicates to “administer this assessment individually to achieve an inventory of the high-frequency word each child knows and the words that will be productive to use in lessons and application activities.” 
  • For high-frequency words, Online Assessment A is an assessment to evaluate matching phonogram patterns in words. There is an individual record form for the teacher to collect student data. The assessment includes students saying a word and then matching the words with the same rime. The teacher is asked 
  • to notice the following skills:
    • the number of patterns students complete correctly
    • the number of spelling patterns written correctly
    • the ability to hear and connect spelling patterns. 
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Word Structure 5, pages 397-400, it suggests the teacher may want to use the Letter-Sound Relationships Assessment D, Recognizing and Using Simple Affixes. 
      • After administering the assessment, it recommends the teacher analyze students’:
        • number of words with -ed, -ing endings that the student can say accurately
        • number of words with a affixes the student can say accurately
        • ability to read words with -s, -ed, or -ing ending.
  • For Word-Solving Actions, Online Assessment E is an assessment to evaluate students’ skills in manipulating the letters in words. Each student builds a known word with magnetic letters. The teacher asks the student to change the word by  changing a letter or letters. In What to Notice on the assessment, teachers find out:
    • Number of words the child can read and write accurately.
    • Flexibility in reorganizing and using word parts.
    • Ability to connect known parts to unknown words to solve them.

Materials do not support teachers with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in word recognition and word analysis. 

  • In the online Ready Resources: Assessment: High-Frequency Words Grade 1, advice is provided in the “Why Use It” section of the assessment. It says: “This assessment will give you information about children’s knowledge of high-frequency words as well as the particular words they know. Looking across the class profile will help you decide which high-frequency words to include in words games such as Lotto, Follow the Path, and Concentration. Of course, word knowledge will vary, and some children will be working with words that are familiar. In general, however, you will always want children to work with many words they nearly know and some words that are new.”

Indicator 2g.v

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress in fluency (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (1-2)
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that measure student progress in fluency (as indicated by the program scope and sequence). (1-2)

The Fountas & Pinnell Grade 1 materials do not provide regular and systematic assessment opportunities of students’ current skills in fluency. While Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 provides curriculum-based assessment measures in each of the nine areas of phonics instruction, fluency is not included in the nine areas.

Indicator 2h

Materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for assessment materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment and assessment materials clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.

In the Fountas and Pinnell materials, standards alignment documentation is not available for formative and summative assessments. The assessments are aligned to the topics listed in the Nine Areas of Learning about Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study. There is limited documentation or correlation provided for specific lessons to indicate how the lessons align with standards. The documentation provided includes some example lessons that correlate to the foundational skills standards.

Indicator 2i

Differentiation for Instruction: Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so the content is accessible to all learners and supports them in meeting or exceeding grade-level standards.
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Indicator 2i.i

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen in a language other than English with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen in a language other than English with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards. 

The Fountas & Pinnell materials provide daily support for students who read, speak, or listen in a language other than English. Each lesson is introduced with a section entitled Working with English Language Learners, which provides additional suggestions provided for addressing the instructional needs of this population. 

Materials provide support for ELL students. At the beginning of each lesson, information is provided to the teacher for working with English Language Learners. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 1, page 137, it is suggested that the teacher should say words slowly to make sure the phonology of English words are more available to English language learners.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, page 261, the guide suggests that the teacher help students think about the letter name and associate it with the long vowel sounds they are hearing. Students use magnetic letters and swap out a consonant to build a string of connected words including: hide, ride, side, and wide.
  • In Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1,  page 333, the guide says it is important for the teacher to use the high-frequency words in sentences so that students can hear them and become familiar with how they are used. The guide asks teachers to construct meaningful sentences that students can repeat.

General statements about ELL students or few strategies note at the beginning of a unit or at one place in the teacher edition are then implemented by the materials throughout the curriculum.

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lesson Book, What Are Some Ways of Working Effectively with English Language Learners?, pages 23-29, states, “You are likely to have many children in your class who not only can speak one language but are learning a second or even third language.” It is suggested that the teacher adjust their teaching to make sure that English language learners have access to the teaching of sounds, letters, and words. Suggestions are provided for Oral Language, Reading, Writing, Phonics and Word Study. For example:
    • Oral Language: "Engage English language learners in repeating and enjoying songs, rhymes, and repetitive chants. Incorporate body movements to enhance children’s enjoyment of songs, rhymes, and chants and help them remember and understand the language better."
    • Reading: "Understand that shared reading involves children in a great deal of repetition of language, often language that is different from or more complex than they can currently use in speech. This experience gives children a chance to practice language, learn the meaning of the words, and use the sentence structure of English."
    • Writing: "Know that once a text has been successfully produced in interactive writing and children can easily read it, this text is a resource for talking about language--locating specific words, noticing beginning sounds and ending sounds, noticing rhymes, and so on."
    • Phonics and Word Study: "Be sure that the print for all charts (ABC charts, name charts, shared writing, picture and words charts, etc.) is clear and consistent so that children who are working in another language do not have to deal with varying forms of letters."

Indicator 2i.ii

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade-level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level with extensive opportunities for reteaching to meet or exceed grade-level standards. 

The Fountas & Pinnell Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 lessons consistently include Teach, Apply, and Share. Teach is a whole-class lesson. Apply is hands-on practice and the teacher may have students work in a small group at a literacy center. Share is a whole-class meeting for students to share their phonics, spelling, and word study lessons. Within Teach, Apply, and Share, there are no opportunities or explicit instruction in re-teaching when a student is performing below grade level to receive extensive opportunities for learning and practice. While some of the lesson plans are generative and a teacher can reteach the generative lesson repeatedly, guidance is not provided to the teacher as to how to scaffold students performing below grade level. The materials suggest Book Club as small-group instruction; however, Book Club materials are not included in Phonics, Spelling and Word Study Lessons Grade 1.

Materials suggest small group teaching, but do not provide lesson plans and explicit instruction for reteaching students performing below grade level.

Materials do not provide guidance to teachers for scaffolding and adapting lessons and activities to support students who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level in extensive opportunities to learn foundational skills at the grade-level standards.

Indicator 2i.iii

Materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade-level.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials regularly provide extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level. 

In the Fountas & Pinnell materials, all students participate in Teach, Apply, and Share for instruction and practice. No advanced opportunities are provided for students to work on while the teacher is providing reteaching to students who have not acquired the skills being taught. Each lesson contains Extend opportunities, which can provide advanced students with the opportunity to learn grade-level foundational skills at greater depth. In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Lessons Grade 1, page 34, the materials describe Extend as “If children need more experience, you can repeat the lesson format using these suggestions for variation, different examples, or more challenging activities.”

Materials provide some opportunities for advanced students to investigate grade-level foundational skills at a greater depth. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Lessons Grade 1, Phonological Awareness 9, page 132, during Extend, the teacher is asked to have students play Follow the Path with other pictures or picture cards on the path.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Lessons Grade 1, Letter Knowledge 5, during Extend, page 162, the teacher is asked to: 
    • Repeat this lesson with different letters.
    • Repeat this lesson and mix in uppercase letters.
    • After children understand the procedures for finding and grouping specific letters, increase the challenge by having a larger group of distracting letters. Encourage the children to work quickly and check their grouping.
  • In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Lessons Grade 1, Spelling Patterns 9, page 326, during Extend, the teacher is asked to repeat the lesson with other VCe phonograms, such as -ace, -ade, -ale, -ane, -ape, -ide, -ile, -ine, -ive, -oke 

There are no instances of advanced students simply doing more assignments than their classmates. Activities presented as challenge activities are all additional assignments located in the Extend Learning section of each lesson plan.

Criterion 2j - 2n

Materials support effective use of technology and visual design to enhance student learning. Digital materials are accessible and available in multiple platforms.
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Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed include web-based resources, compatible with multiple Internet browsers, are platform neutral, follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices. Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning. Materials can be easily customized for local use. Materials do not include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.  The visual design is not

Indicator 2j

Digital materials (either included as a supplement to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for digital materials (either included as a supplement to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), “platform neutral” (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.

A teacher can login to www.fountasandpinnell.com using many web browsers, such as, but not limited to, Firefox, Google Chrome, and Safari. The materials can be viewed on an iPad, but are not accessible on a cellphone.

The materials include “access to Online Resources, which includes lesson-specific materials for application activities, extending learning, and formal assessment.”

Indicator 2k

Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning.

The online materials are for teacher use and not student use. The teacher is able to print materials, such as word cards, to use in the classroom. There are printable online assessments the teacher can use to support student learning.

Indicator 2l

Digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 do not meet the criteria for digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.

There are on-line resources provided for the teacher to enhance instruction, but the materials cannot be personalized for students. The word cards and other digital resources cannot be edited.

Indicator 2m

Materials can be easily customized for local use.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials can be easily customized for local use.

In Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, each lesson begins with a Consider Your Children section. This provides the teacher with the opportunity to customize the lesson based on the group of students. Within each lesson, during Interactive Read-Aloud and Shared Reading, a teacher is provided options for texts to read aloud or share with students. The teacher may select the text that works best for that particular group of students. When selecting poems to use from Sing a Song of Poetry, the teacher may select from a suggested list. 

During Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1, Assess, the teacher can pick and choose which online assessments they would like to use. For example, in Letter-Sound Relationships 20, a teacher may “wish to use Letter-Sound Relationships Assessment E, J, or L.”

Indicator 2n

The visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for the visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.  The lines are clean, there is not too much information or items on a page and they have large pictures that are easy for students to see. 

The Fountas and Pinnell teacher materials are printed in understandable formats in the Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Lessons Grade 1 book. The lessons are organized in the Nine Areas of Learning, and each lesson contains headings to clearly mark each part of the lesson. The beginning of the book provides an Introduction and an in-depth, clear chart of the Grade 1 foundational skills plan.

The Fountas and Pinnell student materials contain word cards with clear font and sound cards with clear images. Worksheets for students have clear font for students to read. The size of the font on student materials is easy for students to see. Most materials are black and white.

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Additional Publication Details

Report Published Date: 11/13/2019

Report Edition: 2019

Title ISBN Edition Publisher Year
The Fountas & Pinnell Literacy Continuum, Expanded Edition A Tool for Assessment, Planning, and Teaching, PreK-8 978-0-325-06078-1 Heinemann 2019
Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study Ready Resources for Grade 1 978-0-325-09294-2 Heinemann 2019
Fountas & Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) Orange System, Second Edition Levels A - E 978-0-325-10502-4 Heinemann 2019
Prompting Guide, Part 1 & 2 Bundle 978-0-325-10548-2 Heinemann 2019
Phonics, Spelling, and Word Study System, for Grade 1 978-0-325-10550-5 Heinemann 2019

About Publishers Responses

All publishers are invited to provide an orientation to the educator-led team that will be reviewing their materials. The review teams also can ask publishers clarifying questions about their programs throughout the review process.

Once a review is complete, publishers have the opportunity to post a 1,500-word response to the educator report and a 1,500-word document that includes any background information or research on the instructional materials.

Educator-Led Review Teams

Each report found on EdReports.org represents hundreds of hours of work by educator reviewers. Working in teams of 4-5, reviewers use educator-developed review tools, evidence guides, and key documents to thoroughly examine their sets of materials.

After receiving over 25 hours of training on the EdReports.org review tool and process, teams meet weekly over the course of several months to share evidence, come to consensus on scoring, and write the evidence that ultimately is shared on the website.

All team members look at every grade and indicator, ensuring that the entire team considers the program in full. The team lead and calibrator also meet in cross-team PLCs to ensure that the tool is being applied consistently among review teams. Final reports are the result of multiple educators analyzing every page, calibrating all findings, and reaching a unified conclusion.

Rubric Design

The EdReports.org’s rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of standards alignment to the fundamental design elements of the materials and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum as recommended by educators.

Advancing Through Gateways

  • Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators to move along the process. Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?
  • Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Key Terms Used throughout Review Rubric and Reports

  • Indicator Specific item that reviewers look for in materials.
  • Criterion Combination of all of the individual indicators for a single focus area.
  • Gateway Organizing feature of the evaluation rubric that combines criteria and prioritizes order for sequential review.
  • Alignment Rating Degree to which materials meet expectations for alignment, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.
  • Usability Degree to which materials are consistent with effective practices for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, and differentiated instruction.

ELA Foundational Skills Rubric and Evidence Guides

The ELA foundational skills review rubric identifies the criteria and indicators for high quality instructional materials. The rubric supports a sequential review process that reflect the importance of alignment to the standards then consider other high-quality attributes of curriculum as recommended by educators.

The ELA foundational skills rubric evaluates materials based on:

  • Alignment to Standards and Research-Based Practices for Foundational Skills Instruction
  • Implementation, Support Materials & Assessment

The ELA Evidence Guides complement the rubrics by elaborating details for each indicator including the purpose of the indicator, information on how to collect evidence, guiding questions and discussion prompts, and scoring criteria.

NOTE: The ELA foundational skills rubric contains only two gateways. The structural pieces that we normally review as a part of Gateway 3 (e.g. differentiation) in our comprehensive reviews are critical to the success of a program, and are, therefore, interspersed and combined with other indicators in Gateway 2.

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