Alignment: Overall Summary

The Benchmark Advance 2021 materials for Grade 1 partially meet the expectations of alignment. Texts included are partially of quality, although the rigor and complexity is appropriate for the grade. The program includes opportunities for students to learn and practice most literacy skills while engaging with texts. Included foundational skills instruction meets expectations. The materials partially support knowledge building, with text sets that are connected in different ways. Writing, speaking and listening, and language work is embedded throughout the year.

See Rating Scale Understanding Gateways

Alignment

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Partially Meets Expectations

Gateway 1:

Text Quality

0
27
52
58
53
52-58
Meets Expectations
28-51
Partially Meets Expectations
0-27
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 2:

Building Knowledge

0
15
28
32
26
28-32
Meets Expectations
16-27
Partially Meets Expectations
0-15
Does Not Meet Expectations

Usability

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Not Rated

Not Rated

Gateway 3:

Usability

0
23
30
34
N/A
30-34
Meets Expectations
24-29
Partially Meets Expectations
0-23
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway One

Text Quality & Complexity and Alignment to Standards Components

Meets Expectations

+
-
Gateway One Details

Benchmark Advance 2021 includes some texts of high quality. Texts provide a wide variety of genres including a balance of literary and informational texts to provide students opportunities for a wide range and volume of reading across the year. Texts are of appropriate complexity, and materials include text complexity information. Texts and associated tasks do not grow in sophistication over the course of the year to support student mastery of grade level standards by the end of the year. Text-based questions, tasks, and assignments, and culminating tasks support students’ literacy growth over the course of the school year. Opportunities for students to engage in cooperative discussions occur throughout the year. Frequent writing lesson and tasks engage students in a variety of writing processes, including opportunities to write using text evidence.

While the materials include explicit instruction of all grade-level grammar and conventions standards, there are limited opportunities for students to demonstrate application of skills both in- and out-of-context, including in writing.

Criterion 1a - 1f

Texts are worthy of students' time and attention: texts are of quality and are rigorous, meeting the text complexity criteria for each grade. Materials support students' advancing toward independent reading.
16/20
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-
Criterion Rating Details

Some texts included in the Benchmark Advance 2021 program are of high quality, however a number of the anchor texts are distillations or retellings of classic stories that lack the interest and texture of the original stories. The texts provide students the opportunity to read from a wide variety of genres with a balance of literary and informational texts. The majority of the texts are at the appropriate level of complexity for Grade 1 students, and the materials include text complexity information for most texts. However, the texts and associated tasks do not grow in sophistication over the course of the year to support student mastery of grade level standards by the end of the year. By the end of the year, students have the opportunity to engage in a wide range and volume of reading to support their literacy growth.

Indicator 1a

Anchor texts (including read-aloud texts in K-2 and shared reading texts in Grade 2 used to build knowledge and vocabulary) are of publishable quality and worthy of especially careful reading/listening and consider a range of student interests.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the expectations of Indicator 1a.

Many texts, such as extended reads and poems, are of high quality; however, most mentor reads are not. Many of the mentor reads are short read-alouds that are not published works with a provided author and are oftentimes minimally related to the topic. Some of the vocabulary within the text of mentor reads is directly related to the topic. For example, the texts reviewed in the Mentor Read Aloud book are mostly low-interest texts with simple structures and minimal rich vocabulary.

Examples of anchor texts of high quality include, but are not limited to:

  • Unit 1: “An Oak Tree has a Life Cycle” by Debra Castor. This informational text is engaging with vibrant illustrations and employs many non-fiction text features to engage the reader.
  • Unit 2: “Abuelita's Secret” by Esteli Meza. This fiction text focuses on a narrative that students can identify with at multiple levels. Its vibrant illustrations support the plot of the text as well as everyday experiences. The text also builds suspense as it nears the end.
  • Unit 3: “People Who Made Contributions” by Margaret McNamara. This text features rich vocabulary, engaging pictures, and relevant high-interest topics.
  • Unit 4: “Mother Bruce” by Ryan T. Higgins. This is a highly engaging text worthy of reading with vibrant illustrations and rich language.
  • Unit 5: “Technology Breakdown” by Brenda Parkes and Jeffrey B. Fuerst. This book is very engaging with rich illustrations, exciting rhythm and rhyme, and fun onomatopoeia.
  • Unit 6: “Tall and Small Play Ball” by Jerry Craft. This is a book with engaging illustrations of child characters. School children can easily identify with the setting and plot.
  • Unit 7: “Using Timelines” by Margaret McNamara. This text has powerful illustrations and a variety of non-fiction elements that would increase student vocabulary and knowledge.
  • Unit 8: “Night and Day” by Hilary Maybaum. This nonfiction text is engaging and poses questions; allowing readers to pause-and-think about content. Contains academic vocabulary and is age-appropriate.
  • Unit 10: “The Light Around Us” by Kathy Furgang. This text has vibrant illustrations and is of high interest to the reader. This text expands knowledge.

Examples of anchor texts of low quality include, but are not limited to:

  • Unit 2: “Little Red Riding Hood” (author not cited). This is a condensed version of the original fairytale. It has been simplified to the point that the classic patterns of dialogue are absent and the moral of the story is de-emphasized.
  • Unit 3: “Safe to Go!” (author not cited). This is a condensed version of the biography of Garrett Morgan. The text is composed of simply constructed sentences and some context-dependent words.
  • Unit 4: “City Mouse and Country Mouse” (author not cited). The Mentor Reads are various short selections of stories which have no publisher and contain minimal academic vocabulary. This story is a retelling of a famous story.
  • Unit 5: “I Wonder” (author not cited). The poem does little to introduce academic vocabulary or build knowledge.
  • Unit 6: “The Boy Who Cried Wolf” (author not cited). The “Mentor Read Alouds” are not published stories, although this is a retelling of a famous story.
  • Unit 7: “School Days” (author not cited). This book from the ‘Mentor Read Aloud’ had no rich vocabulary and minimal knowledge building quality, although pictures were vivid.
  • Unit 8: “ Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky” (author not cited). This is from the Mentor Read Aloud and is very short with no published author. This text is meant to support the extended reads and lacks strong academic language.
  • Unit 9: “The Most Important Service” (author not cited). This text from the Mentor Read Alouds presents content in the form of various people’s opinions. The text models how to write in support of an opinion, but the text is not engaging to students.
  • Unit 10: “Sounds I Love” (author not cited). This book is a poem from the “Mentor Read Aloud” that is short and does not develop vocabulary. Building knowledge is limited to contrasting city and country sounds.

Indicator 1b

Materials reflect the distribution of text types and genres required by the standards at each grade level.
4/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1b.

Each unit contains a variety of genres including folktales, plays, biographies, and texts based on social studies concepts. Although there is a balance of both literary and nonfiction texts, there is a significant amount of poetry and rhyming used during Shared Reading which creates more of a literature focus during this part of instruction.

Examples of literary texts include:

  • Unit 2, “Feathers Fall From Tree” by Carol Brendler (realistic fiction)
  • Unit 3, “We Have a Little Garden” by Beatrix Potter (poem)
  • Unit 5, “Technology Breakdown” by Brenda Parkes and Jeffrey B. Fuerst (poem)
  • Unit 7, “When Turtle Grew Feathers" by Tim Tingle (folktale)
  • Unit 9, “One Cool Day” by Kate Cochran (fantasy)
  • Unit 10, “I Know All the Sounds that the Animals Make” by Jack Prelutsky (poem)

Examples of informational texts include:

  • Unit 3, People Who Made Contributions by Margaret McNamara (narrative nonfiction)
  • Unit 5, Working with Technology by Barbara Andrews and Cindy Peattie (expository text)
  • Unit 7, “Who was Harriet Tubman” (author not cited) (biography)
  • Unit 9, “Real Jobs: Apple Farmer” by Abigail Mieko Vargas (expository text)
  • Unit 10, “The Light Around Us” by Kathy Furgang (expository text)

Indicator 1c

Texts (including read-aloud texts and some shared reading texts used to build knowledge and vocabulary) have the appropriate level of complexity for the grade level according to quantitative analysis, qualitative analysis, and a relationship to their associated student task. Read-aloud texts at K-2 are above the complexity levels of what most students can read independently.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1c.

Benchmark for Grade 1 Mentor Read Alouds have a Lexile level above 400 which is appropriate for Grade 1 since the teacher is reading the text aloud. The Shared Readings often include shorter passages and poems that “support foundational literacy skills in context” such as print concepts, fluency, phonics, and high-frequency words. This allows students to access the Shared Reading texts at an independent level.

Texts have the appropriate level of complexity for the grade according to quantitative and qualitative analysis and relationship to their associated student task. Anchor texts are placed at the appropriate grade level. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, students listen to the mentor text, “The Amazing Life Cycle of a Frog.”
    • Quantitative measure: Lexile 490
    • Qualitative measure: Moderately complex. The text structure and purpose is clear, as it chronologically describes the life cycle of a frog, including vivid images to expand student understanding of this content.
    • Task: The informational science text is used for a variety of skills throughout Week 1, including asking questions, learning vocabulary, and sequencing using first, next, then, and last.
  • In Unit 3, Week 1, students listen to the mentor text, “Hello, Community Garden!”
    • Quantitative measure: Lexile 640
    • Qualitative measure: Low complexity. The meaning/purpose of the text is simple. The text structure is moderately complex and is written in chronological order with simple sentences. The language features vocabulary that is either familiar or easily decodable through context. The knowledge demands are low.
    • Task: The teacher reads the text aloud to students and models asking and answering questions about key details in the text.
  • In Unit 4, Week 2, students listen to the mentor text, “Mother Bruce.”
    • Quantitative measure: Lexile 500
    • Qualitative measure: Substantial complexity. The story’s theme is clear (Bruce wants the goslings to go away) but requires readers to make inferences (he comes to love the goslings). The events may be difficult to predict and occur over time. Connections between events and ideas are sometimes subtle. Sentences are both simple and complex. Vocabulary is mostly familiar with occasional unfamiliar terms (mistaken identity, be rid of, got creative). Some prior knowledge of how eggs hatch and their need to be kept warm would be helpful.
    • Task: The text is used for a variety of skills throughout Week 2 including asking questions, describing characters and main events using key details, inferring, describing the setting, and identifying the narrator (first or third person).
  • In Unit 5, Week 1, students listen to the mentor text, “Robots at Work.”
    • Quantitative measure: Lexile 630
    • Qualitative measure: Substantial complexity. The message is simple and the text employs examples and detailed descriptions to build understanding about technology. The reader encounters photos, captions, and sidebars that are intrinsic to text comprehension.
    • Task: The learning targets/tasks are addressed in the Guided Practice Text-Evidence questions (i.e., using several strategies to help us understand what we are reading) and reinforce the Essential Question of the unit, How can technology make a difference in our lives?.
  • In Unit 7, Week 3, students listen to the mentor text, “Who Was Harriet Tubman?”
    • Quantitative measure: Lexile 570
    • Qualitative measure: Moderately complex. The author’s purpose is clear. Connections between ideas are mostly clear. There is some unfamiliar language. The topics of slavery, escape, and freedom may be unfamiliar.
    • Task: Students practice reading the text slowly to think about the words.
  • In Unit 8, Week 1, students listen to the mentor text, “Why Sun and Moon Live in the Sky.”
    • Quantitative measure: Lexile 630
    • Qualitative measure: Moderately complex. The Pourquoi Tale text structure is chronological and the text uses primarily everyday language. The text personifies the sun, moon, and sea which increases the difficulty of access for young students. There are vivid illustrations to depict the fantasy that is described.
    • Task: A sample of the tasks with this text include ask and answer questions and describe major events using key details.
  • In Unit 9, Week 2, students listen to the mentor text, “In My Opinion...Goods and Services are Important.”
    • Quantitative measure: Lexile 560
    • Qualitative measure: Moderately complex. The text has a simple purpose and is easily relatable to the reader. There is limited academic vocabulary.
    • Task: Students make connections to the text.
  • In Unit 10, Week 1, students listen to the mentor text, “Heat is All Around.”
    • Quantitative measure: Lexile 520
    • Qualitative measure: Highly complex. The task associated is for students to discuss the details from the text and the photos.
    • Task: Although the teacher reads aloud the text, the task creates complexity because students are asked to match details from the text to the photos in order to make meaning.

Indicator 1d

Materials support students' literacy skills (comprehension) over the course of the school year through increasingly complex text to develop independence of grade level skills (leveled readers and series of texts should be at a variety of complexity levels).
2/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the expectations of Indicator 1d.

The complexity of anchor texts and supporting texts that students read/listen to partially provide an opportunity for students’ literacy skills (comprehension) to grow across the year towards independence, encompassing an entire year’s worth of growth. The texts used for Mentor Reads grow somewhat in complexity; however, as texts become more complex, minimal change in support is noted in the units. The Shared Reading Texts (seven per unit) provide students with daily shared reading experiences. While complex for the grade level, these texts are less complex than the mentor texts and extended read-alouds as they are used for applying foundational skills in-context. Additionally, there are 120 leveled texts available at a wide range of levels for small group instruction and independent reading (as appropriate). These texts are accompanied by prompting cards for each text level to support students in decoding, reading fluently, and making meaning from what they read.

Although tasks change slightly in how students access the various texts, there does not seem to be a concrete method for introducing more complex texts with increased support and additional time reading. The routines and amount of time allotted for each part remains the same throughout the year. There are common/routine tasks such as discussing with a partner, that do not seem to change as complexity changes. Grade level appropriate scaffolds and/or materials are reiterated but not enhanced from the beginning to the end of the year as evident in the Model, Guided Practice, and Apply Understanding sections of each daily lesson. Independent tasks are often mentioned in lessons as something to be completed later but there is no time allotted in the lesson, no rubrics for assessing independent work, or other guidance for the tasks. Additionally, practice of skills occurs with previously-encountered independent reading/leveled texts therefore students may not have the opportunity to practice the skills on their own utilizing grade-level text.

Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Finding the main topic and key details is a lesson taught in most units across the year.
    • In Unit 1, Week 2, Day 2, Lesson 3, the teacher models how to find the main topic and key details from a text. The teacher creates an Anchor Chart that is used throughout the year to remind students about clues to find the main topic. The students answer questions the teacher has just answered in the think aloud and then discuss how they determined the main topic and supporting details for the text, An Oak Tree Has a Life Cycle (590L). During independent reading time, students use sticky notes to point out where they found the main topic and supporting details in a familiar leveled reader. They share the findings in a conference or small group time.
    • In Unit 5, Week 2, Day 2, Lesson 3, the teacher models how to find the main topic and supporting details using the text, Working with Technology (520L). Then, pairs read further into the text and practice finding the main topic and supporting details from that chapter. The teacher reminds students to use the Anchor Chart to support them in the task. Volunteers share their findings and the text evidence that supports their determinations. Then, students use a familiar leveled text to practice finding the main topic and two key details. Students mark the key details with a sticky note in the margin and share their findings with the teacher in small group or a conference.
    • In Unit 9, Week 2, Day 2, Lesson 3, the teacher reviews what the main topic and supporting details are in a story. While working in groups of 4–6, students fill out a Key Details Web graphic organizer using the text, “In My Opinion...Goods and Services Are Important (560L). Students take turns providing information for the chart. Later, students discuss how to find the main topic and supporting details of a text and a couple of volunteers share with the class. Later, students find the main topic and key details in a familiar leveled reader.

While the sections of text students read to find the main topic and key details grow over the course of the year, the independent practice remains static and may not always be checked for accuracy. Additionally, students work with familiar texts and, therefore, may already know the main topic and key details prior to re-reading it.

  • Comparing and contrasting the adventures and experiences of characters from texts is practiced a few times throughout the year.
    • In Unit 2, Week 2, Day 5, Lesson 3, the teacher models using a Venn diagram to compare and contrast Little Red and Dot, the main characters from “Little Red Riding Hood” (650L) and Wolfie the Bunny (440L). Then students work with partners to compare and contrast the experiences of the two characters. Partners discuss how the comparison and contrast activity helped them to better understand both stories. Students practice the activity with sticky notes, applying them to two fictional texts they have previously read.
    • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 5, Lesson 3, after the teacher models the process, students use a three-column chart to compare and contrast the experiences of two characters from the texts, “The Boy Who Cried Wolf” (590L) and “The Ant and the Pigeon” (620L). The teacher models how to use the chart, using one column for each character and another column to list the similarities in their experiences. Students continue to work on their own to add to the class chart. Once they’ve completed the activity, they form pairs and discuss how it helped them to better understand the text.
    • In Unit 10, Week 2, Day 5, Lesson 3, after the teacher models the process, students compare and contrast the experiences of characters from I Hear with My Ears (670L) and “Sounds I Love!” (530L). Students share responses orally. Then, students compare and contrast a character in a leveled text they have read previously with the girl in I Hear with My Ears.

While the students practice the skill on their own, there is no accountability for this practice for the teacher to prepare next steps for students learning.

Indicator 1e

Anchor texts (including read-aloud texts in K-2) and series of texts connected to them are accompanied by a text complexity analysis.
2/2
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1e.

The online Teacher Resource System features a Guide to Text Complexity for each unit. The Guide to Text Complexity provides a detailed text complexity analysis of quantitative and qualitative measures for Mentor Read-Alouds and Extended Reads. The quantitative measure for each Mentor Text is a Lexile level, and the qualitative measure is based on an analysis of four criteria: purpose and levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands of the reader. Each of the four dimensions has a score as well as notes justifying the score. The scores for each of the four dimensions are added together to determine an overall qualitative score and a corresponding rubric is used to determine if it is Low Complexity, Moderate Complexity, Substantial Complexity, or Highest Complexity.

Anchor texts and series of texts connected to them are accompanied by a text complexity analysis, including rationale for educational purpose and placement in the grade level. The analysis includes correct information. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, the Extended Read, “The Amazing Life Cycle of a Frog”, has a Lexile of 490. The qualitative complexity is moderate. The Guide to Text Complexity states, “The text has a simple purpose: to explain the stages in the life cycle of a frog. Technical vocabulary words related to frogs (gills, lungs, tadpole, froglet) are defined in context through direct definitions and descriptions. The text requires no prior knowledge of a frog’s life cycle.”
  • In Unit 2, Week 3, the Mentor Read-Aloud, “The Ant and the Grasshopper”, has a Lexile of 620. The total qualitative rating is rated moderately complex. The Guide to Text Complexity notes: “The story has a simple plot, but requires inferences from the reader. The story has a chronological narrative structure and includes a few compound and complex sentences and some sensory language. The story is likely familiar, and requires no prior knowledge of actual animal behavior.”
  • In Unit 3, Week 2, the Extended Read, Being a Responsible Citizen, has a Lexile of 520. The total qualitative rating is moderately complex. The Guide to Text Complexity states: “Text has a simple purpose: to tell about the importance of following rules. The text employs a reasoned explanation to build connections between events and ideas. Readers encounter rhetorical questions to provoke thought and discussion. Nontechnical vocabulary words such as citizen, responsible, honest, decision are defined in context through direct definitions and strong context. The text requires some prior knowledge of the concept of citizenship.”
  • In Unit 4, Week 2, the Extended Read, Mother Bruce, has a Lexile of 500. The qualitative complexity is substantial. The Guide to Text Complexity states, “The story’s theme is clear (Bruce wants the goslings to go away) but requires readers to make inferences (he comes to love the goslings). Events may be difficult to predict and occur over time. Connections between events and ideas are sometimes subtle. Some prior knowledge of how eggs hatch and their need to be kept warm would be helpful.”
  • In Unit 5, Week 1, the Mentor Read-Aloud, “Robots at Work”, has a Lexile of 630. The total qualitative rating is substantially complex. The Guide to Text Complexity states: “The text has a simple purpose: to explain the role of robots in today’s society. The text employs examples and detailed descriptions to build understanding about technology. Students encounter photos, captions, and sidebars that are intrinsic to text comprehension. The text uses few technical vocabulary words, such as recharged, which will be readily understood by readers. The text requires prior knowledge of simple mechanical functions and a grasp of the difference between human and technological capabilities.”
  • In Unit 6, Week 1, the first Mentor Read-Aloud, “The Boy Who Cried Wolf”, has a Lexile of 590. The total qualitative rating is slightly complex. The Guide to Text Complexity states: “Story has a simple moral that many readers will likely already know—don’t cry wolf. The narrative follows a chronological order. Plot events shape a straightforward, familiar structure. Language is everyday usage, with only one or two compound or complex sentences. The text requires no prior knowledge and should be familiar.”
  • In Unit 8, Week 1, the Mentor Read Aloud, “Why Sun and Moon Live in the Sky”, has a Lexile of 630. The total qualitative rating is moderately complex. The Guide to Text Complexity states: “This origin myth has a single purpose, but requires readers to make some inferences. The story is unique and fantastical, and therefore difficult to predict. For a reader to be at ease with the text, prior knowledge of creation or origin myths is helpful.”
  • In Unit 9, Week 2, the Extended Read, “In My Opinion...Goods and Services Are Important”, has a Lexile of 560. The total qualitative rating is moderately complex. The Guide to Text Complexity states: “Text has a simple purpose: to explain why goods and services are important. The predominant text structure is thematic, with chapters on each different type of good or service. The format uses thought bubbles to delineate each of four different narrators and adds a level of complication. There is little or no technical vocabulary, but there are several complex and compound sentences. Understanding the text would benefit from experience or familiarity with the role of services in daily life.”
  • In Unit 10, Week 1, the Mentor Read-Aloud, “Heat is All Around”, has a Lexile of 520. This total qualitative rating is highly complex. The Guide to Text Complexity states: The text “describes a number of scientific concepts. The text asks readers to make connections between energy and matter. The text contains domain-specific vocabulary. Some previous knowledge of the different states of matter and how matter can change...would greatly help students understand the text.”

Indicator 1f

Anchor text(s), including support materials, provide opportunities for students to engage in a range and volume of reading to achieve grade level reading.
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1f.

Instructional materials clearly identify opportunities and supports for students to engage in reading (and read aloud) a variety and volume of texts to become independent readers at grade level. Shared reading, small-group reading, decodable texts, and independent reading are included in every unit. There are a variety of text types throughout the materials and a significant amount of time spent on both reading instruction and reading practice daily. In a typical week, the materials suggest spending 7–11 minutes on the Unit Introduction with a Mentor Read-Aloud book of choice, 10 minutes on Shared Reading, 15 minutes on the mini-lesson using a Mentor Read-Aloud assigned text, and 30–60 minutes on Small-Group Reading, Independent Reading, and Conferring. Students access a variety of texts each day and the program provides teacher guidance on suggested trade books to augment student exposure to the unit topic with related texts. Students grow towards independence throughout the year.

The curriculum has two shared readings per week (six per unit) and one Poetry Out loud each week (three per unit). These lessons take 10–15 minutes each. The 20-minute phonics lessons include short decodable reads from My Reading and Writing book (one a week/three per unit) and a separate decodable book (one a week/three per unit). There are two Mentor Read-Alouds to build reading and vocabulary skills in the first week of the unit. There are also two Extended Reads (one per week) for the other two weeks of the unit. These lessons are 15 minutes each. Small-group reading includes 12 book titles per unit. However, students may not always read these due to flexibility in the lessons. There are two Reader’s Theater options for each unit, one for lower levels and one for higher levels. Small-group reading, including Reader’s Theater, is 15–20 minutes per group.

The Foundations and Routines book outlines an overview of Independent Reading routines, including center rotations. Center rotations can include computer workstations, listening centers, writing centers, buddy reading, and self-selecting books which are listed in mini-lessons. Students also have access to “e-books and trade books and magazines” as ideas for topic-related texts.

Examples of anchor and supporting texts include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, the topic is “Plants and Animals Grow and Change” and the Essential Question is “Why do living things change?”. The texts, including small-group texts, are informational and literary in this unit: informational, realistic fiction, personal narratives, science, folktales, and animal fantasy.
  • In Unit 2, the topic is “Many Kinds of Characters” and the Essential Question is “How do we learn about characters?”. The unit contains two short Mentor Read-Alouds and two Extended Reads. The unit contains three texts in the Decodable Texts section. These texts focus on specific skills: short /e/, short /u/, and L blends.
  • In Unit 4, the topic is “Stories have a Narrator” and the Essential Question is “How do people create stories?”. The texts, including small-group texts, are all literary in this unit. Text types are as follows: fiction, realistic fiction, historical fiction, and animal fantasy.
  • In Unit 7, the topic is “Past, Present, and Future” and the Essential Question is “Why is the past important?”. Students listen to six brief Shared Readings, two short Mentor-Read Alouds, and two longer Extended Reads that are focused on the Essential Question. During Shared Reading time, students also revisit the poem, “Now We Are Six” by A. A. Milne, three times over the course of the unit. In Unit 7, options for Interactive Read-Aloud texts include two informational texts and two literary texts. Students also have opportunities to read three decodable readers during phonics mini-lessons.
  • In Unit 8, the topic is “Plants and Animals Grow and Change” and the Essential Question is “Why do Living Things Change?” Text types in this unit include realistic fiction, science, pourquoi tales, and fantasy.
  • In Unit 10, the topic is “Exploring Sound, Light, and Heat” and the Essential Question is “How would our lives be different without sound, light, and heat?”. Students listen to six brief Shared Readings, two short Mentor Read-Alouds, and two longer Extended Reads that are focused on the topic of light, sound, and heat energy. During Shared Reading time, students also revisit the poem, “I Know All the Sounds the Animals Make” by Jack Prelutsky, three times over the course of the unit. Options for Interactive Read-Aloud texts include two informational texts and two literary texts related to the Essential Question. Students also have opportunities to read three decodable readers during phonics mini-lessons.
  • Teachers provide small-group reading daily for 30–60 minutes, depending on how many groups are done a day. The materials provide instructional level groups with leveled texts appropriate for each instructional level. Students needing more intensive instruction also spend more time practicing the weekly decodable texts and therefore may not have the opportunity to read as many small-group texts. More advanced readers reread previous stories independently.

Criterion 1g - 1n

Materials provide opportunities for rich and rigorous evidence-based discussions and writing about texts to build strong literacy skills.
15/16
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Criterion Rating Details

The program’s text-based questions, tasks, and assignments support students’ literacy growth over the course of the school year. Culminating tasks provide opportunities for students to write and present information about what they have learned throughout the unit. Protocols for speaking and listening are present throughout all units and provide students opportunities to learn to engage in cooperative discussions with peers and teachers. Speaking and listening instruction is applied frequently over the course of the school year and includes facilitation, monitoring, and instructional supports for teachers.

Materials include an even mix of short and longer writing tasks, including Inquiry and Research projects which accompany all units. Opportunities to engage in multiple text types of writing are present in the materials, including opportunities to write using text evidence.

Materials include explicit instruction of all grammar and conventions standards for the grade level, but contain limited opportunities for students to demonstrate application of skills both in- and out-of-context. Opportunities for students to apply skills to their writing is limited.

Indicator 1g

Most questions, tasks, and assignments are text-based, requiring students to engage with the text directly (drawing on textual evidence to support both what is explicit as well as valid inferences from the text).
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1g.

Text-based questions, tasks, and assignments support students’ literacy growth over the course of the school year. Questions are text-based for mentor read alouds. Teacher materials provide support for planning and implementation of text-dependent writing, speaking, and activities. Questions include both explicit questions and inferences. Text-based questions support daily practice for writing, speaking, and activities. Where activities are text-based, teachers are given support for planning and implementation of the activities. The “Integrated ELD” section for the teacher provides two to five tasks/questions/sentence frames to give light, moderate, or substantial support to students who are struggling with the task. The Teacher Edition provides text-based questions to ask students. The questions correspond with specific pages in the text. The Teacher Edition also provides examples for the teacher on how to think aloud when modeling how to answer the questions, as well as sample responses for questions that students answer during Guide Practice. Culminating Research and Inquiry projects also include using the unit texts and text evidence. Examples of text-based questions, tasks, and assignments include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 3, Week 2, Day 2, students use text evidence multiple times to “use photographs to describe key details.” One example question is: “Which details in the photographs on pages 8-9 show what the author means in the text with the word ‘respect’? ‘Do any of the photos show something else?”
  • In Unit 4, Week 1, Day 2, the students use text evidence to identify the narrator of the Mentor Read-Aloud, “The City Mouse and the Country Mouse.” The students look for signal words in the text and analyze what the character is saying about his or her experiences. The teacher also asks the students text-based questions, including “Who was the narrator in the first part of the story? How do you know? How does the phrase, ‘I headed home, where it’s peaceful,’ differ from ‘Country life was so boring’? How do the two phrases help explain the reactions of each narrator?”
  • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 4, the mentor read task is “summarize and synthesize.” Students are explicitly taught that summarize means to “tell what the text is mostly about” while synthesize means to “think about details from the text along with your own knowledge to create a new understanding or idea.” The task for students is to read a familiar fictional text and summarize it, then synthesize a new idea.
  • In Unit 6, the Culminating Research and Inquiry Project is for students to “compare the messages of two fables from the unit texts, and look for other fables that have similar messages.” Students answer text-dependent questions in their projects: “What mistakes do the characters make in the fables you studied? What do they learn from these mistakes? What similarities did you find between the messages in the unit text and the message in the other fable you researched? How were the messages presented differently?”
  • In Unit 10, Week 2, Day 5, students engage in a mentor read cross-text of I Hear With My Ears and Sounds I Love. Students are asked to contrast texts to see how they’re different. Questions to support this task include, “How can you compare and contrast the experiences of the narrator on pages 5–6 and 10–11 of I Hear with My Ears with the experiences of the narrator on page 44 of 'Sounds I Love!'? How can you compare and contrast the experiences of the narrator on pages 10–15 of I Hear with My Ears with the experiences of the narrator on page 45 of 'Sounds I Love!'?"

Indicator 1h

Materials contain sets of high-quality sequences of text-based questions with activities that build to a culminating task which integrates skills to demonstrate understanding (as appropriate, may be drawing, dictating, writing, speaking, or a combination).
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1h.

Culminating tasks are rich and of quality, provide opportunities for students to demonstrate what they know and are able to do in speaking and writing, and are varied and evident across a year’s worth of material. Text-dependent questions and smaller daily tasks lead up to the culminating tasks. Inquiry and Research projects are only slightly varied every unit, but offer choices for presentations. Both the Inquiry and Research projects as well as the weekly and unit assessments provide opportunities for students to demonstrate understanding of unit content. During the Inquiry and Research project and Unit Reflection, teachers use a “Constructive Conversation” approach that is centered around the Essential Question and Unit Topic. Process writing tasks are ample in the curriculum as culminating writing tasks. Each week contains texts, writing tasks, and discussions leading to the culminating tasks for the unit. Assessments contain related texts that are “cold reads” for the students, but use unit vocabulary and assess skills taught throughout the unit. It should be noted that although students have choice in the product they create for a culminating task, the structure and routines of each culminating task are not varied, including the three questions that frame each culminating task.

Culminating tasks are supported with coherent sequences of text-based questions and tasks. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 2, the Essential Question is “How do we learn about characters?” and the Unit Topic is “Many Kinds of Characters.” Students write a narrative over three days. On Day 1, students read “The Ant and the Grasshopper” and write an ending to the story. On Day 2, students review the story and add details to their writing. On Day 3, students add a conclusion to their writing.
  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 2, students respond to the following sequence of text-based questions: “We asked ourselves, ‘Why was the plot a problem?’ Now, let’s answer another question, ‘Why might a vacant lot in a neighborhood become a problem? How are the products of the community garden different than the products of the vacant lot?’ This community garden is inside a city. How might the community garden be different if it was outside of a city?”
  • In Unit 4, the Essential Question is “How do People Create Stories?” and the Unit Topic is “Stories have a narrator.” During Week 1, Day 2, students find signal words and key details to identify the narrator of “The City Mouse and the Country Mouse.” Students work on opinion writing about their favorite characters during Weeks 2 and 3. On the Unit 4 Assessment, students listen to “Ali learns a lesson” and answer “Who is telling this story?” Students listen to “Tomorrow” and answer “Who is telling this story?” Students then compare and contrast the narrators while responding to the question, “Think about the two passages you have listened to. How is Sid the chipmunk like Ali?”
  • In Unit 5, the Essential Question is “How can technology make a difference in our lives?” and the Unit Topic is “Technology at work.” On Week 3, Day 5, students reflect on the Unit Topic in a Constructive Conversation. Students discuss the Essential Question and build upon their peers’ responses in small groups. Then each group shares with the class. Each group makes a digital newscast about a new kind of robot. Students also demonstrate their topic knowledge through writing by answering questions about the Essential Question and unit topic.
  • In Unit 6, students read Tall and Small Play Ball during Week 3, Day 2. The following sequence of text-based questions is used: “How are Aren and Carrie able to use their sizes to win the last game? How do Carrie and Aren feel after the last game? How do Zach and Emma feel about Carrie and Aren at first? What does Zach say after the game after he and Emma lose? Is it true?”
  • In Unit 7, Week 3, students complete a Demonstrate Knowledge through Drawing and Writing culminating task where they share what they have learned throughout the unit by answering these text-dependent questions: “Why is it important to understand, honor, and remember special people, places, and events from the past? (Essential Question)” and “How does studying the past help us understand our traditions today? (Enduring Understanding)”
  • In Unit 8, the Essential Question is “Why do the sun and moon capture our imagination?” and the Unit Topic is “Observing the sky.” On Week 3, Day 5, students reflect on the Unit Topic in a Constructive Conversation. Students discuss the Essential Question and build upon their peers’ responses in small groups. Then each group shares with the class. Each group makes a digital slideshow about the sun, moon, and sky. Students also demonstrate their topic knowledge through writing by answering questions about the Essential question and unit topic.
  • In Unit 9, the Essential Question is “Why do people trade with each other?” and the Unit Topic is “We use goods and services.” One culminating writing task for the unit is a research report about a good or a service. Students write the research report over the entire unit. During Week 1, students read “Sea Turtle Hatchlings” and discuss the key features of a research report. In Week 2, students read In My Opinion, Goods and Services are Important and discuss the different kinds of goods and services in the text. Students also complete guided lessons to draft and revise their reports. In Week 3, students finish their reports and share them with the class.
  • In Unit 10, throughout the three-week unit, students engage in a culminating Research and Inquiry project where they deepen their understanding of the unit topic, Exploring Sound, Light, and Heat. Students combine information from the unit texts with information from their research to create and deliver a presentation that shows what they have learned, using the following questions as a guide: “If the thing you studied did not make sound, light, or heat, how would that change the way people experience it? (Essential Question)” and “What did you learn from your investigation that helped you better understand how the thing you studied makes sound or light?” (text evidence, cross-text analysis).

Indicator 1i

Materials provide frequent opportunities and protocols for evidence-based discussions (small group, peer-to-peer, whole class) that encourage the modeling and use of academic vocabulary and syntax.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1i.

Teacher materials support the implementation of Speaking and Listening, as well as vocabulary standards, to grow students’ skills. The Foundations and Routines book and the Instructional Routines and Strategies for Vocabulary include Turn and Talk, Constructive Conversations, and Being a Good Listener routines. The materials provide opportunities for teacher modeling and review of discussion protocols. Most lessons include opportunities for students to engage in text-based discussions with the class or partners. Writing lessons include an Oral Rehearsal, which gives students opportunities to practice saying the sentences that they will write before writing them. In some lessons, the students participate in Constructive Conversation protocols. Many lessons provide the teacher with sentence frames in order to support student discussion. Lessons provide opportunities for students to discuss texts in response to text-based questions and Close Reading prompts. Academic vocabulary is used in both questions and teacher modeling and sentence stems for discussions. Students also have opportunities to practice speaking and listening during the presentation phase of the Unit Inquiry projects. The Teacher Resource System has additional resources for Instructional Routines and Strategies as well as Constructive Conversation. The Instructional Routines resource briefly outlines routines for daily read-alouds, activities to extend read-alouds, and routines for modeling and teaching skills, such as retelling, phonological awareness, and blending. The Constructive Conversation resource has information that the teacher can use to support students’ conversations.

Materials provide multiple opportunities and protocols for evidence-based discussions across the whole year’s scope of instructional materials. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • As described in the Foundations and Routines lessons Day 1, there is an anchor chart for what a strong listener does: "A listener takes a listening position. A listener remains seated. A listener keeps hands and feet to himself/herself. A listener raises his/her hand to speak. A listener looks at the person who is talking. A listener is ready to ask and answer questions. A listener can repeat what someone else has said. A listener waits to hear what someone is thinking and may add on. A listener does not interrupt.”
  • As described in the Foundations and Routines lessons Day 2, the teacher introduces and models Constructive Conversations. “When strong readers talk about what they’ve read, they take turns. We can’t hear everyone at once, so one person talks at a time. Everyone listens to that person. Then another person can talk.”
  • As described in the Instructional Routines and Strategies document, the Vocabulary Routine: Define/Example/Ask (page AR10) was “Developed by Isabel Beck and is ideal for introducing new words to students. It provides a student-friendly definition, connecting the word to students’ experiences, and asks students to use the word in speaking to check understanding.”
  • As described in the Instructional Routines and Strategies document, the Vocabulary Routine: Academic Vocabulary section (page AR12) states: “This routine, developed by Kate Kinsella, is an alternate routine for working with new words. It is especially strong for English learners and can be used to extend vocabulary work after the initial Define/Example/Ask introduction.” The teacher tips box gives grade-level appropriate activities for this. For example, “[H]ave students create nonlinguistic representations of the word (e.g., pictures).”
  • In Unit 2, Week 1, Day 1, students participate in a Constructive Conversation during the unit introduction. The teacher reminds students of Constructive Conversation protocols: participants take turns, listen carefully to each other, and build on each other’s ideas. The teacher states, “The narrator said that when we read stories, we think about what the characters think, say, and do. To me, that sounds a lot like what I do when I learn about people in real life. The narrator also said characters can be people or animals. Now I’ve got a question. ‘How do animals act like people in a story?’ I’m going to jot down my question. Let’s make a list of ideas and questions we have after watching this video.” Next, partners take turns sharing a question or idea they have about characters. Then, the teacher invites them to share the questions and ideas they had. The teacher writes these questions and ideas on a chart.
  • In Unit 2, Week 2, Day 5, students work with a partner to compare and contrast the experiences of characters in the Mentor Read-Aloud, “Little Red Riding Hood” and the Extended Read, Wolfie the Bunny. The Teacher Edition includes the following guidance: “Have partners compare and contrast Dot’s experiences and Little Red’s experiences. Display and read aloud sentence frames one at a time. Have partners discuss their answers then share with the class. Add students’ findings to the Venn diagram before continuing to the next sentence.” Examples of sentence frames include, “Both Little Red Riding Hood and Dot meet a _____,” and “Little Red meets a wolf who is _____, but Dot’s brother is _____.”
  • In Unit 5, Week 2, Day 1, the students work in partners to summarize all of the events in the Shared Reading text, “We’re Going to the Moon.” The teacher instructs students to use the “Turn, Talk, and Listen” protocol to summarize the events of the poem in sequential order. Invite one or two students to paraphrase what their partners told them.
  • In Unit 7, Week 3, Day 5, students engage in the Constructive Conversations protocol for evidence-based discussion regarding the content from the unit. The materials provide specifics for speaking and listening expectations, as well as specific guidelines for teachers with students to support them with answering the Essential Question, build on each other’s ideas, synthesize their group’s thoughts into one answer, and share the answer with others.
  • In Unit 9, Week 3, Day 5, students present their research reports. They also learn how to give feedback to each other. The teacher models how to present a written text to the class by speaking clearly and looking students in the eye. The teacher also models sharing feedback about the work. The teacher instructs students to use strong voices and to read clearly with good pacing when they are presenting. The teacher provides students with sentence frames for students who need support expressing what they like about a piece of writing. Sentence frames include, “I like how you ____. The most interesting part is ____.” The students present their writing to each other in small groups. Group members can also ask the speaker questions after their presentation.
  • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 5, students engage in the Constructive Conversations protocol for evidence-based discussion regarding the content from the unit. The materials provide specifics for speaking and listening expectations, as well as specific guidelines for teachers with students to support them with answering the Essential Question, build on each other’s ideas, synthesize their group’s thoughts into one answer, and share the answer with others.

Support for evidence-based discussions encourages modeling and a focus on academic vocabulary and syntax. Some examples are as follows:

  • In Unit 2, Week 3, Day 2, the students engage in a shared reading of the poem, “The Boy Who Cried Wolf.” After fluently modelling how to read the text, the teacher asks the students to “Read the second paragraph. When you get to the shepherd boy’s words, make your voice express exaggerated fear and distress. What did you notice about how I read that part? Ask students to read the lines with you, putting a frightened expression into their voices.”
  • In Unit 9, Week 3, Day 2, the students participate in a Constructive Conversation with partners. Students practice retelling story details and identifying the central message using the Extended Read text, The Shoemaker and the Elves. The teacher reminds students to think about how the elves help the shoemaker. The teacher asks, “What do the shoemaker and his wife do in return for the elves’ help?” For students who need support to retell story details and identify the central message, the Teacher Edition provides additional modeling. In this situation, teacher guidance is as follows: “As I read, I thought about how the elves helped the shoemaker by making beautiful shoes each night. The elves’ kindness helped the shoemaker sell shoes and make money. The shoemaker appreciates that the elves did something nice for him. Then he decides to do something nice for them. He makes new clothes for them. These events help me figure out the central message of the story. I think the author wants us to understand that it is nice to do something for someone who has been kind to you and helped you, the way the elves helped the shoemaker.”
  • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 5, students participate in a Constructive Conversation in small groups about the unit’s Essential Question: “How would our lives be different without sound, light, and heat?” The teacher reminds students of the Constructive Conversation routine: “First, students in the group take turns stating and answering the Essential Question in their own words. Next, students take turns building on each other’s ideas.” The teacher models the routine.

Indicator 1j

Materials support students' listening and speaking about what they are reading (or read aloud) and researching (shared projects) with relevant follow-up questions and supports.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1j.

Speaking and listening instruction is applied frequently over the course of the school year and includes facilitation, monitoring, and instructional supports for teachers. The teacher’s guide also includes directions to monitor Constructive Conversations. Materials include practice of speaking and listening skills that support students’ increase in ability over the course of the school year. Speaking and listening is included daily in lessons. There are Research and Inquiry projects for each unit which provide opportunities for students to present on a topic familiar to that unit and answer the Essential Question. Speaking and listening work requires students to gather evidence from texts and sources. Constructive Conversations involve text-based questions and discussions. Students use texts to do unit Research and Inquiry projects but there is no specific guidance for speaking and listening for the projects except for the presentation component.

Students have multiple opportunities over the school year to demonstrate what they are reading (or read aloud) and researching through varied speaking and listening opportunities. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 2, the unit Inquiry Project focuses on the unit theme, Many Kinds of Characters. Students pick one of the animal characters from a story in this unit, and then research to find other stories that also have that animal as a character. Students use their research project to answer questions including, “What were you able to learn about the characters from the way they look, feel, act, and talk? Why do you think each author chose this type of animal for a character? Do the animal characters in these stories act the way people would expect this type of animal to behave?” After students present their research projects, the class engages in a discussion about how the project helps them understand the Essential Question. Students take turns asking the speaker questions, using question stems from the Think-Speak-Listen Bookmarks.
  • In Unit 5, Week 3, Day 4, students engage in an extended reading of the text, Technology Breakdown by Brenda Parkes. In Guided Practice, the teacher reads aloud pages 8–13: “Have students turn and talk with a partner to answer the question by describing events from the text. Call on a few students to share their descriptions with the class, pointing out evidence in the text and illustrations as they give their descriptions.” Afterward in a Share and Reflect session, partners discuss how using key details to describe major events can help readers remember and better understand a story. Teachers invite one or two students to share their ideas with the class.
  • In Unit 9, Week 3, Day 5, students engage in a reflection of the unit in various activities. During Engage, Thinking, teachers encourage a brief whole-group discussion: “Have students recall and retell particularly interesting information and ideas from the texts they read and listened to during the unit.” In View and Discuss Multimedia, the teacher reminds students that they watched a short video at the beginning of the unit before they read the text selections. Students view the video again and discuss how the video helps them think about goods and services as well as the Essential Question. Students share how their ideas about the video have changed since the first viewing. In Constructive Conversations with Peer Groups, students collaborate to develop a group answer to the Essential Question. First, students in the group take turns stating and answering the Essential Question in their own words. Next, students take turns clarifying and building on each other’s ideas. The teacher models how to do this. Lastly, group members use the conversation to develop one answer to share with the class.
  • In Unit 10, during the Inquiry and Research Project, students write about ”one thing from our Unit texts that makes sound or light.” The teacher models the project’s guiding questions and students work in partners or small groups to complete the project. However, there is no specific guidance on speaking and listening associated with the weekly tasks for the project. Students present their projects and other students write questions to ask the presenters. Then students discuss how the projects help deepen their understanding of the topic.

Indicator 1k

Materials include a mix of on-demand and process writing (e.g. multiple drafts, revisions over time) and short, focused projects, incorporating digital resources where appropriate.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations for Indicator 1k.

Materials include an even mix of short and longer writing tasks. Every unit also has an Inquiry and Research project which lasts three weeks. Writing tasks and projects are aligned to the grade-level standards being reviewed. There is more emphasis on process writing in Grade 1 than Kindergarten. Students learn and practice both on-demand and process writing throughout the school year. In Writing lessons, students learn and practice process writing. Units include opportunities for students to revise and edit their work under teacher guidance. Units include skill introduction, modeling, guided practice with Shared Writing, and independent practice. Each daily writing lesson includes a mini-lesson in which the teacher models and guides students in practicing their writing skills.

On-demand writing examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, each day of the week students complete a Personal Response writing task based on the text, “The Amazing Life Cycle of a Frog,” in which they write a different connection to the text. Each day, the TRS gives a very clear Shared Writing example so the teacher knows and presents the expectation of the Grade 1 writing standards. The TRS includes Oral Rehearsal for Independent Writing and Share and Reflect sections, during which students speak to partners about their writing.
  • In Unit 3, Week 2, Day 3, students complete the Phonics and Word Study session on page 22 of the My Reading and Writing workbook. To deepen comprehension, students draw and write about one of Tim’s problems in response to their reading of “Tim Can Clean.”
  • In Unit 5, Week 1, Day 3, students write about the text, "Make a Robot," by drawing and writing ways a robot can help. In Unit 5, Week 2, Day 3, students write about the text, “You Can Find It,” by drawing and writing how tools can help solve problems. In Unit 5, Week 3, Day 3, students write about the text, “Dear Family,” by drawing a picture and writing an email to a family member.
  • In Unit 7, students write about texts in their My Reading and Writing workbooks. On Week 2, Day 3, students read “My Fun and Games” and draw and write directions to play a game.
  • In Unit 9, Week 1, Day 3, students write about the text, “Trading Then and Now.” Students discuss and draw and/or write about why people trade. In Unit 9, Week 2, Day 3, students write about the text “Good Boy, Scruffs!” Students discuss and draw and/or write about what Scruffs does next. In Unit 9, Week 3, Day 3, students write about the text, “Jack’s Jobs.” Students discuss and draw and/or write about chores they do around the house.
  • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 2, students review their completed informational/explanatory writing from the year and evaluate their own writing with a rubric. They pick the piece they think is the best and write reflections on their writing.

Examples of process writing include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 3, students complete an informative writing task where they focus on the craft of writing by spending three weeks brainstorming, drafting, revising and expanding, and sharing. While referencing the Mentor Text, Hello, Community Garden! (author not cited), students write an informative text about places in their community.
  • In Unit 5, students practice writing explanatory texts. On Week 1, Day 1, the teacher and students analyze the Mentor Text, “Technology in Flight,” to learn about the features of a strong explanatory text. In Weeks 1-3, students follow the steps of the writing process as they craft an explanatory text about technology that is helpful in the home. The teacher uses “Technology in Flight” to model the characteristics of explanatory texts and to provide models for the writing and revision process. The teacher guides the informative writing process using the Shared Writing process to create brainstorming lists, plans, and drafts. The students participate in all phases of the writing process by discussing and writing their ideas.
  • In Unit 6, students revisit process writing opinion pieces of work throughout the three-week unit. In Week 1, students read and analyze the mentor text, Mother Bruce by Ryan Higgins, and discuss features of a strong opinion text. They also brainstorm opinions about the text, its characters, the illustrations, and any other features. They choose a topic, identify reasons and evidence, and begin drafting their writing. In Week 2, students continue drafting as well as revising and expanding on their pieces of work. In Week 3, students edit, publish, and share their work.
  • In Unit 7, the students spend three weeks writing how-to procedural writings about their morning routines. The teacher uses the Mentor Text, “How to Send a Letter,” to explain the parts of procedural writing. Students discuss their routine with a partner but do individual writing. In Week 1, students brainstorm ideas and draft their writing. In Week 2, students complete the final draft and revise. In Week 3, students edit, add visuals, publish, and share.
  • In Unit 9, students learn about and practice writing informative research texts. In Week 1, the teacher and students analyze the Mentor Text,“Sea Turtle Hatchlings,” to learn about the features of a research report. In Week 1, the students plan and begin to write a research report about goods and services. In Weeks 1-3, the students follow the steps of the informative writing process to write a research report about a chosen good or service. The teacher models the research and report writing process using model brainstorming lists, note-taking charts, planning charts, and drafts. The teacher uses a Shared Writing text to guide students in writing, revising, and editing. The students participate in all phases of the writing process by discussing and writing their ideas.
  • In Unit 10, Week 2, students read and write acrostic poems. The teacher uses the Mentor Text, “Sounds,” to explain an acrostic poem. Students then analyze another Mentor text, the acrostic poem “Light.” Students come up with a topic for an acrostic poem, discuss their ideas with a partner but do individual writing. On Day 2, students brainstorm ideas. On Day 3, they draft. On Day 4, students revise their work. On Day 5, they publish and share.

Opportunities for students to revise and/or edit include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, students write a personal response to the texts, “The Amazing Life Cycle of a Frog” and “The Fox and the Robin.” There is no guidance in the TRS about revising or editing, except notes to the teacher in the Conferring Prompts section of the margin. During Writing, teachers “observe students and look for ways to support their writing development. Confer with a few students about their writing...Use these first writing experiences to help you understand students’ current stage of writing development and determine ways to support them.”
  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 3, students continue drafting their informative writing pieces, using the mentor text, Hello, Community Garden! (author not cited). They continue the drafting process by adding some new details to their text, then restating the topic sentence to bring closure to their writing.
  • In Unit 4, Weeks 2–3, students write an opinion text about a character using details from a text from Units 1–4. Week 2 includes one day for brainstorming, two days for drafting, and two days for revising and expanding. Week 3 includes two days for Focus on Writer’s Craft lessons, one day to edit, one day to publish, and one day to share.
  • In Unit 5, Week 2, Day 4, students revise their explanatory drafts again by adding words and phrases to make their ideas stronger and clearer. The teacher shows examples of transition words and phrases such as, for example, finally, and, but, using the Mentor Text, “Technology in Flight.” Then, the teacher guides students in adding transition words and phrases to the Shared Writing draft. The teacher also guides students in combining sentences. Students discuss their ideas with partners, and then practice revising and extending their drafts during Independent Writing. The teacher challenges the students to add linking words and phrases to connect ideas.
  • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 3, students revise their writing to make it stronger. Teacher guidance states: “During writer’s workshop time or at a station during small-group reading time, have students consider their partners’ suggestions and make at least one revision to their text that makes it stronger.”
  • In Unit 8, students complete an opinion writing task spanning three weeks. During Week 2, Day 4, students revise and expand. During Week 3, Days 2 and 3, students edit.
  • In Unit 9, Week 2, Day 4, students practice revising their research reports about a chosen good or service. The teacher uses a Shared Writing text to show students how to expand and revise ideas and make sentences more clear or interesting. The teacher asks the students to think about the writing in their own drafts: “What ideas need more explanation? What would you like to add? Are there any sentences you could change so that they sound more interesting? If you were reading this, what else would you like to know? Tell your partner about your thoughts for changes.” Students work with partners to discuss their ideas for changes and then make at least one revision during Independent Writing.

Examples of the use of digital tools include, but are not limited to:

  • Teachers are encouraged to allow students to publish finished writing digitally if resources are available.
  • In Unit 5, Week 1, Day 1, students watch the Unit Opener video, “Technology at Work,” to engage in the unit topic, activate background knowledge, and introduce vocabulary. Students discuss questions about the content of the video. The teacher observes students’ conversations to gauge their knowledge about unit content and to build interest.

Indicator 1l

Materials provide opportunities for students to address different text types of writing that reflect the distribution required by the standards.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1l.

Materials provide opportunities for students and teachers to monitor progress in writing skills. Lessons contain sample Conferring Prompts for teachers to use when giving students feedback to support them with improving their writing. The materials provide writing exemplars along with explanations and rubrics for each type of writing. The materials also include rubrics for the Inquiry and Research projects. Where appropriate, writing opportunities are connected to texts and/or text sets (either as prompts, models, anchors, or supports). Short and longer writing tasks use the texts from the unit. The Teacher Edition includes sample models for teachers to use when modeling and guiding each part of the writing process. Writing lessons also use previously read Extended Reads as model texts to introduce and review skills needed in the writing process. Materials include sufficient writing opportunities for a whole year’s use.

Materials provide multiple opportunities across the school year for students to learn, practice, and apply different genres/modes/types of writing that reflect the distribution required by the standards. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • Students have opportunities to engage in opinion writing:
    • In Unit 4, Weeks 2–3, students choose a character from a text in Units 1–4 and write an opinion piece about the character using details from the text during shared writing. For example, in Week 2, Day 2, the teacher works with the group to narrow their choices down to one character who is their favorite from the story practicing a think-aloud to talk through how to encode their thoughts. Then, students work in partners to repeat the process of narrowing down to a single character, talking through their reasons. Finally, they write or draw their opinion statements.
    • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 3, students review their completed opinion writing from the year and evaluate their own writing with a rubric. They pick the piece they think is the best and write reflections on their writing.
  • Students have opportunities to engage in informative/explanatory writing.
    • In Unit 3, Week 1, students learn about the informative writing process and practice writing informational texts. The teacher uses the Mentor Read-Aloud, "Hello, Community Garden!”, as inspiration for the students as they brainstorm, plan, write, revise, publish, and present their own informational texts about special places in the community. The teacher models the informative writing process using model brainstorming lists, plans, and drafts. Students participate in all phases of the writing process by first discussing and then writing their ideas.
    • In Unit 5, students practice writing explanatory texts. On Week 1, Day 1, the teacher and students analyze the Mentor Text, “Technology in Flight,” to learn about the features of a strong explanatory text. In Weeks 1–3, the students follow the steps in the writing process to write an explanatory text about technology that is helpful in the home. The teacher models the informative writing process using model brainstorming lists, plans, and drafts. Students participate in all phases of the writing process by discussing and writing their ideas.
    • In Unit 7, over the course of three weeks, students write how-to procedural writings about their morning routines. The teacher uses the Mentor Text, “How to Send a Letter,” to explain the parts of procedural writing. Students discuss their routine with a partner but do individual writing.
    • In Unit 9, students learn about and practice writing informative research texts. In Week 1, the teacher and students analyze the Mentor Text, “Sea Turtle Hatchlings,” to learn about the features of a research report. During Week 1, students plan and begin to write a research report about goods and services. In Weeks 1–3, students follow the steps of the informative writing process to write a research report about a chosen good or service. The teacher models the research and report writing process using model brainstorming lists, note-taking charts, planning charts, and drafts. The teacher uses a Shared Writing text to guide students in writing, revising, and editing. Students participate in all phases of the writing process by discussing and writing their ideas.
    • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 2, students review their completed informational/explanatory writing from the year and evaluate their own writing with a rubric. They pick the piece they think is the best and write reflections on their writing.
  • Students have opportunities to engage in narrative writing.
    • In Unit 1, students write Personal Responses to different texts each week. In Unit 1, Week 2, students write a personal response to The Life Cycle of an Oak Tree. The teacher models the steps of the process for writing the personal response with students engaging in their own writing, first in pairs, and then on their own, writing or drawing as they are able.
    • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 1, students review their completed narrative writing from the year and evaluate their writing with a rubric. They pick the narrative piece they think is the best and write a reflection on their writing.

Indicator 1m

Materials include regular opportunities for evidence-based writing to support recall of information, opinions with reasons, and relevant information appropriate for the grade level.
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 1m.

Materials provide frequent opportunities across the school year for students to learn, practice, and apply writing using evidence. Throughout the various writing tasks both in the writing lessons and in other mini-lessons, students have many opportunities to write in response to text. Students write daily about texts they are reading, by either drawing a picture, completing a sentence frame, dictating a response, or writing an answer. Materials provide opportunities that build students’ writing skills over the course of the school year. Beginning of the year writing consists of more daily writing and end of the year writing is more multi-week, process writing. In the beginning of the year, students learn and practice writing and drawing about their personal responses to texts. Writing lessons at the beginning of the year include Guided Shared Writing as well as familiar writing protocols, such as the Three-Step Writing Strategy, which the students practiced in Kindergarten. In the middle of the year, students learn about and practice writing how-to texts. At the end of the year, students learn about and practice the poetry writing process. Lessons at the middle and end of the year continue to use Guided Shared Writing, detailed anchor charts, and Oral Rehearsal for Independent Writing, as students practice saying what they will write before they write.

Writing opportunities are focused on students’ recall of information to develop opinions from reading closely and working with evidence from texts and sources. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In the Unit 1 Assessment, students complete a writing task. The teacher reads “The Sunflower” and “The Dragonfly” as the students follow along. The writing task states: “What does a sunflower grow from? What does a dragonfly grow from? Use pictures and words to show your answers.”
  • In Unit 2, Week 2, Day 1, students write a diary entry about the text Wolfie the Bunny. Students discuss their idea for the diary entry with a partner and “return to the text and look at the illustrations” to help them get ideas for their diary entry.
  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 3, students refer to the Mentor Read Aloud, Hello, Community Garden (author not cited), and draft an informative writing essay about a special place in their community.
  • In Unit 4, Week 2, students write opinions about their favorite characters from the stories they have read so far.
  • In Unit 5, Week 1, Day 1, students begin a three-week informational writing task. The teacher refers “Technology in Flight” to explain the structure of the informational text. During the Independent and Small Group time, the teacher reminds students that they can “get their ideas from their own ideas by drawing on their own experiences in addition to the information they gather from books and other sources of information.”
  • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 2, students complete a shared reading of the poem, "When I Hurry," and write descriptive sentences in their My Reading and Writing workbook about what happened when the boy hurried.
  • In Unit 10, Week 1, Day 1, students learn about writing poetry. The teacher introduces poetry by modeling how to analyze the Mentor Text, “At the Beach," a sensory poem. The teacher displays and reads the poem aloud, pointing out the key sensory phrases, “I see” and “I smell”. Next, the teacher guides the students in using the Mentor Text to identify the features of a sensory poem. During Independent Writing, students describe and discuss other things they might see, hear, smell, taste, and touch at the beach. They use strong, vivid words and phrases in their descriptions. The teacher reminds students to use strong, vivid words and phrases in their descriptions, interesting adjectives, and exciting action verbs to help their partner visualize what they experience. Then, students write a new ending for the Mentor Text.

Indicator 1n

Materials include explicit instruction of the grammar and conventions standards for grade level as applied in increasingly sophisticated contexts, with opportunities for application both in and out of context.
1/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the criteria for materials including explicit instruction of the grammar and conventions standards for grade level as applied in increasingly sophisticated contexts, with opportunities for application both in and out of context.

All units contain grammar lessons which follow the same format and provide teachers with explicit instruction, including modeling and guided practice. Shared reading lessons provide students with opportunities to apply and practice grammar and convention concepts in context. Students apply skills in grammar workbook pages; however, opportunities to apply skills to student writing is limited. Materials include explicit instruction of all grammar and conventions standards for the grade level. Examples include, but are not limited to:

Students have opportunities to print all upper- and lowercase letters.

  • In Unit 1, Week 2, Day 1, students use the Handwriting Practice Page to practice writing letters w, n, I by tracing and copying the sentence, "It’s cold in the winter."

Students have opportunities to use common, proper, and possessive nouns.

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher introduces common nouns by creating a chart labeled people, animals, place, thing, idea and using each noun in a sentence. Students work in pairs; one partner says a noun then the other partner uses the noun in a sentence orally. The teacher listens in and provides corrective feedback as necessary. Students share sentences with the group at the end of the activity.
  • In Unit 7, Week 1, Day 4, the teacher reviews possessive nouns using a table labeled noun 1, noun 2, sentence. The teacher guides students through creating a sentence using nouns, Maggie and toy. Students work in pairs to create sentences for the remaining nouns listed in the chart.

Students have opportunities to use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hop. We hop).

  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher reviews singular and plural nouns with students and says, “We have explored that verbs must agree with nouns in sentences. The verb ending changes, based on whether our noun is singular or plural.” The teacher guides students using sentence frames to choose the correct form of the verb, look. Students practice with partners.

Students have opportunities to use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).

  • In Unit 8, Week 3, Day 3, students tell what they know about personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns. The teacher displays a paragraph and guides students to complete sentences with an appropriate pronoun.

Students have opportunities to use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home. Today I walk home. Tomorrow I will walk home.).

  • In Unit 1, Week 2, Day 2, the teacher explains that actions happen all of the time, and we have different ways of saying when something happens. During this lesson, the class discusses verbs that represent actions happening right now. The teacher explains that these verbs are called present tense verbs. What is happening now is called the present. The teacher displays sentences and reads them with students. The teacher guides students to identify the present tense verb in each sentence and underlines each verb. Students work with partners taking turns changing the verbs in the displayed sentences.
  • In Unit 1, Week 2, Day 4, students work on past tense verbs. The teacher explains that a past tense verb is a word that represents actions that have already happened. The teacher provides examples of regular present tense verbs and then changes them to past tense verbs. The teacher tells students that many past tense verbs end in -ed, but they should be aware that some do not. The teacher displays specific sentences and reads them aloud. The teacher guides students to identify the past tense verb and then writes the past tense verb in the second column, underlining the -ed. Students work with partners to use the displayed past tense verbs in sentences.
  • In Unit 1, Week 3, Day 3, students engage in a 5-7 minute Grammar lesson about future tense verbs. The teacher reminds students that a verb is a word that represents actions. The teacher reminds students that just as they used present tense and past tense verbs to express actions that happen now, and actions that happened before, we use verbs in future tense to tell about things that will happen in the future. The teacher creates a class chart with examples of present, past, and future tense verbs. The teacher points out that we use the word ‘will’ before future tense verbs. Students use the lists of verbs from previous present and past tense lessons to practice. Students pick verbs and then say all three forms of the verb (past, present, future). Students use the different forms in sentences that indicate time.

Students have opportunities to use frequently occurring adjectives.

  • In Unit 4, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher tells students that they will discuss another part of speech, adjectives. The teacher displays a chart and works with students to come up with different adjectives that describe the city and the country (two places displayed on the chart). Students work with partners and take turns pointing at classroom objects and using adjectives to describe them. The teacher invites volunteers to share their adjectives for a classroom object without point to or naming the object they are describing. Students should use the pronouns it or they in their descriptions. The rest of the class will try to guess what object is being described. Students continue working on adjectives on Day 2, 3, 4, and 5 during the writing lessons for the remainder of the week.

Students have opportunities to use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).

  • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher displays the words and, but, or, so, because. The teacher explains that students will talk about a new part of speech: conjunctions. Sometimes conjunctions are used to connect lists, and sometimes they are used to connect two parts of a sentence. The teacher displays a chart with the conjunctions and reads example sentences for each conjunction and their meanings. Students work with partners and tell each other how each conjunction was used in each sentence in the chart. Partners take turns using each conjunction in a new sentence. Students continue working on conjunctions on Day 2, 3, 4, and 5 during the writing lessons for the remainder of the week.

Students have opportunities to use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).

  • In Unit 2, Week 2, Day 1, the teacher displays the words a, an, the. The teacher reminds the students that they have learned two parts of speech, nouns and verbs, and now will learn about articles. The teacher points to a, an, the explaining that these words are called articles. The teacher explains that in writing, articles are used before nouns. The teacher displays and reads aloud specific sentences, underlining the articles as they are said. Students practice with partners by writing or saying three sentences using a, an, the.

Students have opportunities to use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).

  • In Unit 5, Week 2, Day 1, the teacher explains that prepositions are joining words that show connections. For example, they show where something is or when something happens. The teacher displays a chart with three columns titled: sentences, preposition, and what it tells. The teacher reads each sentence, underlines the preposition, and discusses what it tells. The teacher explains that ‘beyond’ can tell both when and where and offer a secondary example such as, “I have not planned class beyond next month.” Then, students practice with a partner by taking turns making oral sentences that include the prepositions shown in the chart. Students continue working on prepositions on Day 2, 3, 4, and 5 during the writing lessons for the remainder of the week.

Students have opportunities to produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.

  • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 1, the teacher begins by explaining that a sentence is a group of words that tells a complete thought. The teacher states, “We also know that every sentence has a subject (who or what is doing the action) and a predicate (what is happening). Today we will discuss the differences between simple sentences and compound sentences.” The teacher displays a chart with two rows. One row displays information about simple sentences, and the other row displays information about compound sentences. The teacher reads the definitions and examples, pointing out the subject(s) and predicate(s) in each sentence. Then, the teacher provides two simple sentences and guides students to combine them to make compound sentences. The teacher explains that when writing compound sentences that we often replace repeated nouns with pronouns. Students continue working on compound sentences on Day 2, 3, 4, and 5 during the writing lessons for the remainder of the week.

Students have opportunities to capitalize dates and names of people.

  • In Unit 2, Week 1, Day 3, while reading “Old Mother Hubbard” the teacher has students look at the name, Mother Hubbard, in the first line and asks students what they notice about those words. The teacher tells students that each word begins with a capital letter as in their names: “We always use an uppercase letter at the beginning of a name.”
  • In Unit 4, Week 3, Day 2, the teacher reviews with students how commas are used to separate the day and year in the date, and that they are used to separate three or more words in a series. The teacher reminds students that days of the week, months, and names are proper nouns, and they always begin with a capital letter. Students work in partners to practice using commas and capitalizing correctly responding to sentence frames: Today is___. ; I like the names ___.

Students have opportunities to use end punctuation for sentences.

  • In Unit 5, Week 1, Day 1, students are introduced to sentence types. The teacher states, “Each sentence has a different purpose and ends with a certain punctuation mark.” The teacher is given a chart to recreate which contains kinds of sentences, what they do, their end marks, and sample sentences. Types of sentences and their end marks included are declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory.

Students have opportunities to use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.

  • In Unit 4, Week 2, Day 2, the teacher states, “We know that commas can be used to separate words in a series and the day and year in a date.” The teacher is provided with sentences to display without commas and have students help place commas in the sentences, then read the sentences with slight pauses after each comma. For practice, students write and place commas correctly in a sentence provided without commas. Students practice reading the sentence out loud with a partner.
  • In Unit 9, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher states, “Commas are punctuation that makes sentences easier to read and understand.” The teacher is to display the sentences provided without commas, read the sentences, and guide students to place commas in the appropriate places. Additional sentences without commas are provided for students to practice reading and determine where to place commas and add them appropriately in the sentences.

Students have opportunities to use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

  • In Unit 3, Week 2, Day 2, the teacher models how to sound out and spell skin and skip. The teacher tells students to watch and listen as they say skin slowly. Teacher scripting is provided: “I know the letter s stands for /s/. I’ll write s.” The teacher uses Elkonin boxes, and as students say each phoneme they move a marker. The teacher continues this routine until they finish spelling skin, then follows the same steps to spell skip.
  • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 3, the teacher displays after, call, her, and large. The teacher has the students read and spell the words together, then dictates the words without showing them. Students are to close their eyes and write the words as they see them. The teacher displays the words again and has the students self correct their writing.

Students have opportunities to spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

  • In Unit 8, Week 1, Day 2, the teacher builds and spells the words with -ar: farm, harm, charm. The teacher displays letter cards and blends phonemes for each word.

Materials include limited opportunities for students to demonstrate application of skills both in- and out-of-context. Opportunities for students to apply skills to their writing is limited. For example:

  • In Unit 4, Week 2, Day 5 students practice in context with writing. In Grammar Practice, the teacher guides students to write a sentence about steps in a classroom procedure. The model sentences include using commas: "Tisha will wake up, get dressed, and go to school."
  • In Unit 8, Week 1, Day 2, students use letter cards to build other words with -ar as the middle sounds, then students write the words as the teacher dictates them. In the Spelling/Dictation lesson on the same day, students use their knowledge of -ar as a middle vowel sound in words to write the sentence, “It is not hard to see the star in the far away sky.”, in their My Reading and Writing books.

Criterion 1o - 1t

Materials in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language targeted to support foundational reading development are aligned to the standards.
22/22
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Criterion Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials, questions, and tasks directly teach foundational skills to build reading acquisition by providing systematic and explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle, letter-sound relationships, phonemic awareness, and phonological awareness, and phonics that demonstrate a transparent and research-based progression for application both in and out of context. Materials include a clear scope and sequence and use a synthetic approach to phonics instruction. The materials include one decodable text each week to address securing phonics and high-frequency words. The decodable texts contain grade-level phonics skills and high-frequency words that are aligned to the weekly phonics and targeted high-frequency words focus and the program’s scope and sequence for phonics instruction. Materials provide systematic and explicit instruction of high-frequency words primarily through High-Frequency Words lessons, which provide teacher modeling and directions for the Say, Spell, Read and Write routine, which applying high-frequency word knowledge to tasks. The Grade 1 Phonics Scope and Sequence include 124 high-frequency words for the school year. Students are provided with frequent opportunities to learn, practice, and apply word analysis strategies over the course of the year. Materials include ongoing and frequent assessments to determine student mastery and inform meaningful differentiation of foundational skills, including a clear and specific protocol as to how students performing below standard on these assessments will be supported. Materials also include a Year-Long Assessment plan.

Indicator 1o

Materials, questions, and tasks directly teach foundational skills to build reading acquisition by providing systematic and explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle, letter-sound relations, phonemic awareness, phonological awareness (K-1), and phonics (K-2) that demonstrate a transparent and research-based progression with opportunities for application both in and out of context.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria that materials, questions, and tasks directly teach foundational skills to build reading acquisition by providing systematic and explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle, letter-sound relationships, phonemic awareness, and phonological awareness (K-1), and phonics (K-2) that demonstrate a transparent and research-based progression for application both in and out of context.

Materials provide systematic, explicit modeling for instruction in phonological awareness and phonics. In the Phonics and Word Study section, daily instruction is dedicated to modeling and practicing phonological awareness skills. In all 10 units, there are a variety of student opportunities to practice phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness lessons offer limited multi-sensory and multi-modal activities. Materials have an explanation of phonological awareness instruction, explaining when phonological awareness skills are taught within the instructional day. A grade-level phonological awareness scope and sequence shows an implicit hierarchy for teaching phonological awareness skills. In the Phonics and Word Study and Shared Reading programs, there is a cohesive sequence of phonemic awareness skills based on the hierarchy. Within the Phonics and Word Study program support document, materials clearly delineate a phonics scope and sequence for the year. Within the Teacher’s Resource System for each unit, a document called Strategies and Skills outlines the scope and sequence for each unit of instruction. The phonics patterns taught throughout the year are based on high utility patterns, mainly focusing on short and long vowel word families, r-controlled word families, and other vowel word families taught over the course of the year. A manageable number of phonics patterns and common generalizations are introduced each week, with new word families introduced at the rate of one new sound per week. Consonant digraphs are presented at the rate of three to four new digraphs per week. Previously taught letters and patterns are reviewed in subsequent weeks during spiral review opportunities. Materials include a scope and sequence and a clear research-based explanation for the order of the phonics sequence.

Students have frequent opportunities to learn and understand phonemes (e.g. distinguish long and short vowels, blend sounds, pronounce vowels in single-syllable words, and segment single-syllable words). For example:

  • Students have opportunities to distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
    • In Unit 5, Week 2, Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models deleting and substituting medial sounds with words bot, boat and oat. The teacher says, “Listen as I say a word with three sounds /b/ /o/ /t/ bot.” Students change the short /ŏ/ to the long /ō/, and the teacher asks the students for the new word boat.
    • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models phoneme categorization with short and long /i/. The teacher directions state, “Listen carefully as I say three words: like, nice, fit. The words like and nice have long i /ī/ in the middle. The word fit has the short i /ĭ/ in the middle. It does not belong.” The teacher models with the words prize, ship, and white.
    • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models phoneme substitution using short and long /u/ words. For example, “Listen as I say a word with three sounds /k/ /u/ /t/, cut. Now I’m going to change the /u/ in the middle to /u-e/. What is the new word? The new word is /k/ /u-e/ /t/, cute.”
  • Students have opportunities to orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
    • In Unit 2, Week 2, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models phoneme blending with the word run. Teacher directions state, “Listen as I say the sounds in a word /r/ /u/ /n/. I will blend the sounds together and say the word: /rrruuunnn/, run.” The teacher has the students say the word together.
    • In Unit 3, Week 3, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, students practice blending sp- words. Teacher directions state, “Listen as I say three words: spot, seeds, spin. The words spot and spin begin with /s//p/. The word seed starts with /s/ but does not have /p/. It does not belong.” Students then practice as the teacher says words in a set to identify which word does not belong.
    • In Unit 4, Week 1, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, students practice phoneme blending with words think, shark, wish, bath, and wrong. The students are to say the words sound by sound and blend the sounds together again to say the words.
  • Students have opportunities to isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
    • In Foundations and Routines, Day 2, students work on phoneme isolation. The teacher models isolating the initial sound by comparing three words: map, moon, and apple. Students practice isolating the initial sound with other groups of words.
    • In Foundations and Routines, Day 4, the teacher models phoneme isolation of ending sounds. The teacher directions state, “Say the words tap, top, and sun. Have students repeat the words. Ask students if they hear the same sound at the end of the words.” Students practice identifying ending sounds in sets of words read by the teacher.
    • In Unit 1, Week 1, Day 2, Shared Reading, the teacher points to the word legs in the reading and says, “The word legs has /z/ at the end. Listen: /llleeegzzz/.” The teacher asks students what words they hear that end with /z/.
    • In Unit 7, Week 1, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models phoneme isolation for the medial sound in words. The teacher says, “Listen carefully as I say the words soap, road, foam.” The teacher tells students that they all have the long /ō/ sound in the middle. The teacher models again with words goat, sold, soak, asking students what vowel sound they hear in all three words.
  • Students have opportunities to segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).
    • In Foundations and Routines, Day 9, students work on phoneme segmentation. The teacher models segmenting by saying a word out loud, then segmenting the word into the complete sequence of individual sounds: mat /mmmm/ /aaa/ /t/. The teacher identifies that the word mat has three sounds. The students segment the word with the teacher. Students practice segmenting other words into their complete sequence of individual phonemes.
    • In Unit 1, Week 1 Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models segmenting the word man into individual sounds, “I’m going to say the sounds in the word man: /m/ /a/ /n/. The word man has three sounds.”
    • In Unit 2, Week 1, Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models segmenting the words legs and set into individual sounds. The teacher is provided with the script, “Listen carefully as I say the sounds in the word legs: /l/ /e/ /g/ /z/. The word legs has four sounds.” The teacher then has the students blend the sounds together again and say legs. The teacher models again with set.
    • In Unit 7, Week 3, Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, students practice phoneme segmentation with words containing long i spelling patterns.

Lessons and activities provide students opportunities to learn grade-level phonics skills while decoding words (e.g. spelling-sound correspondences of digraphs, decode one-syllable words, know final-e and long vowels, syllable and vowel relationship). For example:

Students have opportunities to know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.

  • In Unit 4, Week 1, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, students learn the spelling-sound correspondences for the common consonant digraphs th, sh, and -ng. The teacher models identifying the placement of each digraph within words. For example, the teacher shows picture cards and says, “This picture shows a swing. The ending sound in swing is /ng/. The /ng/ sound is spelled with the letter ng. Say the sound with me: /ng/.” The teacher repeats this with sh and th.
  • In Unit 4, Week 2, Day 2, teacher models building and blending words with consonant digraphs ch and sh using ePocket Chart.

Students have opportunities to decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

  • In Unit 2, Week 1, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models building and blending CVC words using ePocket Chart.
  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, using the ePocket Chart, the teacher builds words with r-blends such as drip, grip, and trip. The teacher has students blend the sounds together and read the word.
  • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models building and blending short and long e words using the ePocket Chart. Students then practice building short and long e and u words.

Students have opportunities to know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.

  • In Unit 5, Week 1, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, teachers are provided modeling and scripting for a final -e lesson. The teacher is to display letters for cake, wake, and wade with the ePocket chart.The script is provided, “Remember that the vowels a and final -e work together to make the a say its name.”
  • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models building and blending long /ē/ words by displaying letter cards c, u, t. The teacher models blending cut. The teacher adds -e to the end saying, “Now I can add an e to the word cut. The u and e work together to stand for the long /u/ sound. Listen as I blend the new word: /kuuut/. Say the word with me, cute.”
  • In Unit 7, Week 2, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher displays Spelling-Sound Correspondence card ee, “These are feet. The middle sound in the word feet is /ee/. One way to spell /ē/ is with two e’s together.
  • In Unit 9, Week 2, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, in a blending words lesson with /oi/, students learn that /oi/ can be spelled with oi or oy diphthongs. Students alphabetize letter cards and use the letter cards to sound out and create practice words. As the teacher tells them words, students choose the correct letters and manipulate them with guidance from the teacher to spell all their practice words. Once students finish building their list of practice words, the teacher dictates the words and has students write them.

Students have opportunities to use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.

  • In Unit 4, Week 2, Day 3, Shared Reading activity Focus on Foundational Skills: Analyze Structure, students review that every syllable has one vowel sound and closed syllables have short vowel sounds and end with single consonants or consonant digraphs. Students divide the words between the syllables to determine which syllables are closed, and they work on identifying the vowel and consonant or digraph.
  • In Unit 8, Week 1, Day 2, Shared Reading, students practice decoding two syllable words. The teacher displays the words birdhouse and seashell and is instructed,“As students decode the words, they should follow syllabication rules, noting that each syllable has only one vowel sound.”
  • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher says, “We know that a syllable is a word or word part with one vowel sound.” The teacher introduces the sound spelling -le and open/closed syllables. Students practice dividing words into syllables and deciding if the syllable is open or closed.

Students have opportunities to decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.

  • In Unit 7, Week 3, Day 2, Shared Reading, students are introduced to open syllables with the two syllable word baby. The teacher models, “Display the word baby. Separate the words into two syllables: ba and by. Explain that both syllables in this word are open syllables.”
  • In Unit 8, Week 3, Day 2, Shared Reading, the teacher is provided with modeling to display words and draw a line to divide the words into syllables. The words to be displayed are: tar/get, bor/ing, per/son, hair/y, se/vere.
  • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 3, Shared Reading, the teacher displays purple and battle and guides students to read the words using syllables (pur/ple, batt/le).

Students have opportunities to read words with inflectional endings.

  • In Unit 3, Week 3, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher displays letter cards b, e, n, d and says, “Let’s blend all the sounds together and read the word: /beeend/, bend.” The teacher and students practice building and blending more words that end with -nd. The teacher adds -ed to the end of the word land and tells students to say both words and listen for the difference. The teacher explains that -ed at the end of a verb means the action took place in the past. “Let’s blend the sounds and read the word: /laaanded/, landed.
  • In Unit 4, Week 1, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, students learn to read words with the inflectional ending -ing. The teacher displays the sentence: “The girl reads.” The teacher thinks aloud and says “We don’t know exactly when the girl reads. In order to show that an action is happening right now, we add -ing to the end of the verb and put a helping verb before it.” The teacher shows the following sentence: “The girl is reading.” The teacher circles -ing at the end of reading. The teacher mentions that if girl was plural (girls) then the helping verb would be are. “The girls are reading.”
  • In Unit 6, Week 3, Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher models inflectional ending -ing. “Remember, endings are added to verbs to help us understand when things happen. We have discussed that when adding -ed or -ing to a short vowel word ending in one consonant like hop, you double the final consonant before adding the ending.” Students practice adding endings to the verbs stop, bid, hug, rap, beg.

Materials have a cohesive sequence of phonemic awareness instruction to build toward application. For example:

  • K-6 Phonics Word Study provides a Phonics Scope and Sequence which includes the Kindergarten scope and sequence of phonological awareness lessons, which are stated to be built around a strong scope and sequence that introduces and allows for spiral review of phonics over time. The sequence of phonological awareness skills taught per unit is provided:
    • Unit 1: recognize and produce rhyme, phoneme blending, segmentation, categorization
    • Unit 2: recognize and produce rhyme, phoneme blending, segmentation, substitution, categorization
    • Unit 3: phoneme categorization, substitution, recognize and produce rhyme
    • Unit 4: phoneme identification, blending, substitution, categorization, addition
    • Unit 5: phoneme categorization, blending, substitution
    • Unit 6: phoneme categorization, blending, substitution
    • Unit 7: phoneme isolation, blending, categorization, segmentation
    • Unit 8: phoneme identification, blending, substitution, categorization
    • Unit 9: phoneme categorization, blending, segmentation, isolation
    • Unit 10: phoneme categorization, blending, segmentation, isolation

Materials have a cohesive sequence of phonics instruction to build toward application. For example:

  • In K-6 Phonics Word Study, the Phonics Scope and Sequence includes Primary Skill, Secondary Skill and Word Families, and Spiral Skills. The Primary Skills Scope and Sequence is listed as follows:
    • Unit 1: short /ă/; short /ĭ/, short /ŏ/
    • Unit 2: short /ĕ/; short /ŭ/; l blends
    • Unit 3: r blends; s blends; final consonant blends
    • Unit 4: consonant digraphs th, sh, ng; consonant digraphs ch, tch, wh; three letter blends spl, spr, squ, str
    • Unit 5: long /ā/ (final e); long /ō/ (final e); soft c, g
    • Unit 6: long /ī/ (final e); long /ē/ (final e) long /ū/ (final e); long /ā/ spellings (a, ai, ay)
    • Unit 7: long /ō/ spellings (o, oa, ow, oe); long /ē/ spellings (e, ee, ea, ie); long /ī/ spellings (i, iy, igh)
    • Unit 8: long /ar/ (farm); /or/ (for, ore, oar); /ur/ (girl, herb, spur)
    • Unit 9: /ou/ (house, clown); /oi/ (join, boy); /ü/ /oo/ (broom, book)
    • Unit 10: silent letters (wr, kn,gn); /ȯ/ (aw, au, al, augh); long /ē/ (y, ey)

Indicator 1p

Materials, questions, and tasks provide explicit instruction for and regular practice to address the acqusition of print concepts, including alphabetic knowledge, directionality, and function (K-1), structures and features of text (1-2).
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials, questions, and tasks provide explicit instruction for and regular practice to address the acquisition of print concepts, including alphabetic knowledge, and directionality (K-1), structures and features of text (1-2).

The materials include sufficient and explicit instruction for all students about print concepts, with frequent and adequate tasks found within the Teacher’s Resource System in most daily lessons. Materials include opportunities to engage in authentic shared reading text, including poems and digital big books. Spiral review affords students the opportunity to practice previously learned grade level print concepts. Students have frequent opportunities to learn and identify text features and structures over the course of the year. The teacher models the use of the text structure or feature and often creates an anchor chart that students help to fill-in as the teacher reads the text aloud. Examples include, but are not limited to:

Materials include frequent, adequate lessons and tasks/questions about the organization of print concepts (e.g. recognize features of a sentence).

  • Students have opportunities to recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).
    • In Unit 1, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher models writing and thinks aloud, “I know that I write the word I with an uppercase letter."
    • In Unit 1, Week 1, Day 5, the teacher shows writing with quotation marks and exclamation marks.
    • In Unit 1, Week 2, Day 1, students learn how to recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence within the Shared Reading text, “Baby Animals.” Students use their My Reading and Writing book to discuss end punctuation. The teacher guides them: “Look at the word animals at the end of the first line. What do you see right after the word? That mark is a type of punctuation called period. Most sentences end in periods.”
    • In Unit 2, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher discusses ending punctuation in context with explicit instruction: “That dot is a period. It shows the end of a sentence. This is a special mark called a question mark.”
    • In Unit 2, Week 2, Day 1, the teacher discusses end marks in context. The teacher asks students what they see at the end of the fourth line and tells the students there are often end marks such as periods and question marks at the end of a sentence. The teacher goes on to provide an explanation for the purpose of end marks.
    • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 1, Shared Reading, the teacher discusses end punctuation with the students. The teacher asks students to look at the end of a sentence and tell what they see. The teacher reviews the concepts of the exclamation points and question marks. The teacher tells students all sentences must end with an end mark.
    • In Unit 5, Week 3, Day 3, Shared Reading, the teacher discusses uppercase letters in context. The teacher has students look at the first words of sentences in the text and asks what students notice. The teacher tells the students the first word of each sentence is an uppercase letter.
    • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 3, Shared Reading, the teacher tells the students there are five sentences in the first paragraph of the fable and points out they are all uppercase letters. The teacher tells students they know these are the first words because they start with uppercase letters.

Students have frequent and adequate opportunities to identify text structures (e.g. main idea and details, sequence of events, problem & solution, compare and contrast, cause and effect).

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, Day 3, students learn about a sequence of events using the text, “The Amazing Lifecycle of a Frog”. The teacher creates a Sequence of Events chart using first, next, last. Students listen for the events and help to fill out the chart as the teacher reads the text aloud.
  • In Unit 2, Week 1, Day 3, students identify the main idea and events in the text, “The Ant and the Grasshopper”. The teacher creates a Story Map anchor chart and students help to fill it out as the teacher reads aloud.
  • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 5, students compare and contrast characters in the stories, “The Boy Who Cried Wolf” and “The Ant and the Pigeon”.

Materials include frequent and adequate lessons and activities about text features (e.g. title, byline, headings, table of contents, glossary, pictures, illustrations).

  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 3, students learn how to use illustrations to determine relevant information. The teacher creates an anchor chart, Finding Information in Texts and Pictures, and creates two columns, one column for text and the other for pictures. Students help the teacher fill out the chart as the teacher reads the text aloud.
  • In Unit 3, Week 2, Day 4, students learn how to use the Table of Contents to locate chapters to help find information to answer questions.
  • In Unit 5, Week 1, Day 2, students use illustrations to identify key details in the text, “Robots at Work.”
  • In Unit 7, Week 1, Day 3, students learn how to use captions to learn more information about the photographs in the text, “School Days.”
  • In Unit 7, Week 2, Lesson 3, students learn how to use the glossary to find the meaning of important words in the text, “Using Time Lines.”
  • In Unit 7, Week 2, Lesson 4, students use the timeline in the text, “Using Time Lines,” to answer text-dependent questions.
  • In Unit 7, Week 3, Day 2, students learn how to locate text evidence in captions to answer text-dependent questions.
  • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 2, students use the illustrations from the text, “The Light Around Us,” to locate details to describe key ideas.

Indicator 1q

Instructional opportunities are frequently built into the materials for students to practice and gain decoding automaticity and sight-based recognition of high frequency words. This includes reading fluency in oral reading beginning in mid-Grade 1 and through Grade 2.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for instructional opportunities are frequently built into the materials for students to practice and gain decoding automaticity and sight-based recognition of high-frequency words. This includes reading fluency in oral reading beginning in mid Grade 1 and through Grade 2.

Materials provide systematic and explicit instruction of high-frequency words primarily through High-Frequency Words lessons, which provide teacher modeling and directions for the Say, Spell, Read, and Write routine, which includes applying high-frequency word knowledge to tasks. The Grade 1 Phonics Scope and Sequence include 124 high-frequency words for the school year. Most units introduce four new high-frequency words weekly throughout all ten units. There are multiple opportunities over the course of the year for students to read emergent-reader texts during activities with text in the Big Book of Shared Reading and Poetry, the My Reading and Writing Books, the Small Group texts, the Reader’s Theater Handbook texts, the Fluency Intervention materials, and the Decodable Readers. Students have opportunities to use the strategy to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding through the fix-up strategy of reading more slowly and thinking about the words. There are frequent opportunities for explicit, systematic instruction in fluency elements, such as pausing, expression, rate, accuracy, and mood, using grade-level text during the Shared Reading portion of the lessons using Fluency Routines. Materials provide opportunities for students to hear fluent reading by the teacher as the teacher reads selected text out loud, and students chorally read the same text to focus on fluency skills. Examples include, but are not limited to:

Multiple opportunities are provided over the course of the year in core materials for students to purposefully read on-level text.

  • Students have opportunities to read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
    • In Unit 1, Week 3, Day 3, in Phonics and Word Study, students reread “Let’s Plant Seeds.” Students are told they will find the high-frequency words for, no, jump, one, have, and the in the text, and they should be able to read them fluently. The teacher reminds students to use what they know about decoding short /o/ when they come across a word that contains it.
    • In Unit 4, Week 3, Day 3, in Shared Reading, teacher modeling and scripting is provided for the reading of the poem, “The Secret." The teacher tells students that the speaker doesn’t tell what the secret is directly, but does provide clues. Teacher scripting is provided, “As I read, listen for clues and try to figure out the secret.”
    • In Unit 9, Week 1, Day 3, in Shared Reading, teaching modeling and scripting is provided for the reading of “Cushy Cow Bonny.” The teacher tells students they will hear about a cow and how it turns milk into different foods. Teacher scripting is provided, “Listen and follow along as I read. As you listen, identify key details in the poem.”

Multiple opportunities are provided over the course of the year in core materials for students to demonstrate sufficient accuracy, rate, and expression in oral reading with on-level text and decodable words.

  • Students have opportunities to read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
    • In Unit 4 of the Teacher’s Resource System, Additional Resources: Instructional Routines outline the Fluency Routines, there is a Fluency Routine for Letter-Sound Fluency; Word Fluency; Sentence Fluency; and Model Fluent Reading. For example, Word Fluency says, “As a warm-up or transition activity, display a set of word cards with words containing the letter-sounds taught up to that point in the year. Write 2-3 words for each letter-sound taught. Display the cards one at a time as students chorally read the words. Repeat at varying speeds. Periodically mix the cards so students don’t become overly familiar with the sequence.”
    • In Unit 4, Week 1, Day 2, the teacher discusses the fluency skill of pausing by modeling reading the first stanza, emphasizing punctuation. Students echo-read, then read chorally while the teacher reminds students to pause at punctuation and end of lines in “Fairy Tale Song.”
    • In Unit 5, Week 1, Day 2, Shared Reading, the teacher models pausing: “When we talk or read, we take pauses or short breaths.” The teacher demonstrates by reading the poem, “Go Robot, Go.” Students re-read the poem with the teacher.
    • In Unit 8, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher models fluency skill of rate, explaining that rate is the speed, or how fast or slowly a person reads. “When I read, I read at a rate that is not too fast or too slow. I read at the same rate throughout the poem. This makes it easier to understand the poem.”

Materials support reading of texts with attention to reading strategies such as rereading, self-correction, and the use of context clues.

  • Students have opportunities to use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
    • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 4, Shared Reading, students engage in a Fix-Up Strategy during Shared Reading. The teacher models how to fix-up reading to confirm and self-correct errors in fluency. The teacher explains to students that readers think about the words they are reading. Reading slowly is a useful strategy that readers can use to help them think more deeply about words. The teacher says, “I want to make sure that I understand what I’m reading. I don’t want to miss words that might help me understand the meaning of this text. If I read too fast, I might miss important words.” The teacher models reading a stanza and then thinking aloud wondering what they read, so the teacher stops, goes back, and rereads the stanza. After modeling, the teacher reminds students to use this strategy when they read independently.
    • In Unit 5, Week 1, Day 2, Shared Reading, the teacher models how to blend decodable words that students struggle with then prompts students to re-read from the beginning of the sentence. “With words that are not high-frequency or decodable, model how to use sounds, picture clues, and the context of the sentence to confirm both pronunciation and meaning.”
    • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 5, Shared Reading, students reread the poem again, pausing to self-correct words they think they may have pronounced incorrectly, and asks them to share their strategies for self-correcting their words.

Students have opportunities to practice and read irregularly spelled words.

  • In Unit 1, Additional Resources: Instructional Routines and Strategies, a systematic and explicit high-frequency word routine is presented. The routine includes four steps:
    • Step 1: Read - Display the high-frequency word card. Point to the word and read it aloud. Ask students to repeat after you.
    • Step 2: Spell - Spell each letter in the word as you point to it. Then ask students to chorally read and spell aloud the word.
    • Step 3: Write - Write the word as you spell it aloud. Then have students write the word several times as they say each letter.
    • Step 4: Apply - Have students use the word in an oral sentence.
  • In Unit 2, Week 2, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher introduces the high-frequency words come, here, to, of using the “Say, Spell, Read, Write” routine. The teacher displays word cards one at a time, points to the word, and says it aloud. Students repeat the word and spell it as the teacher points to each letter. Students write the word and take turns using the word in a sentence orally.
  • In Unit 3, Week 5, Day 5, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher says each word without covering them up and has students write the words in a sentence. The words provided are: jump, mist, west, send, bland, clamp, who and good.
  • In Unit 8, Week 1, Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, students review previously learned high-frequency words boy, city, four, great in isolation before building high-frequency words with letter cards.
  • In Unit 8, Week 1, Day 3, Shared Reading, the teacher asks students to use a pointer to point to and read decodable words and high-frequency words they have previously learned (they, are, far, that, where, live, the, you, little, large) in the text provided. The teacher is provided modeling, “Add known words to your class word wall and remind students that they are accountable for writing these words in their reading and writing.”
  • In Unit 9, Week 2, Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher displays high-frequency words, and students are to read each word then spell each word in a group.
  • In Unit 10, Week 1, Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, students reread the story, Do You Know Me?, which also includes high-frequency words better and very.

Indicator 1r

Materials, questions, and tasks provide systematic and explicit instruction in and practice of word recognition and analysis skills in a research-based progression in connected text and tasks.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials, questions, and tasks providing systematic and explicit instruction in and practice of word recognition and analysis skills in a research-based progression in connected text and tasks.

Materials include one decodable text each week to address securing phonics and high-frequency words. The decodable texts contain grade-level phonics skills and high-frequency words that are aligned to the weekly phonics and targeted high-frequency words focus and the program’s scope and sequence for phonics instruction. There are frequent opportunities to read grade-level high-frequency words during the I Read routine. Students use their My Reading and Writing books to read high-frequency words in context. Lessons provide frequent opportunities to write grade level high-frequency words in tasks within the explicit Say, Spell, Read, and Write high-frequency word routine. Word cards and letter cards are used as student-friendly reference materials to teach high-frequency words. Frequent explicit instruction and opportunities to practice word solving strategies are seen within the Phonics and Word Study parts of the lessons called Blend and Build Words. The materials contain opportunities provided over the course of the year for students to learn, practice, and apply word analysis strategies.

Materials support students’ development to learn grade-level word recognition and analysis skills (e.g. spelling-sound correspondences of digraphs, decode one-syllable words, syllable and vowel relationship, decode two-syllable words, read words with inflectional endings) in connected text and tasks.

  • In Unit 1, Additional Resources: Strategies and Routines, the “Blending Routine” contains explicit instruction of word analysis strategies. The blending routine has three steps.
    • Step 1: Model - select a word with the target phonics skill and display letter cards for the word you want to model blending. Point to each letter card as you say the sound. Then blend the sounds together to make the word.
    • Step 2: Practice - distribute letter cards to students to have them place the letter card set for the day’s blending on their desks. The teacher makes a word using the letter cards but does not say the word, then students repeat. Students then blend the sound to read the word. They will repeat with other words.
    • Step 3: Apply - the teacher guides the students through a reading of the Decodable Text focusing on the lesson’s target phonics skill. Students chorally read the story the first time through. The teacher stops to model sounding out words students misread.
  • In Unit 4, Week 2, Day 2, students practice spelling words dictated by the teacher using Elkonin boxes on page 17 of “My Reading and Writing.”
  • In Unit 6, Week 3, Day 2, Shared Reading, students review using inflectional endings -ed and -ing when they discuss doubling the final consonant before adding the final ending. Students practice creating and reading words adding inflectional endings to words hop and skip.
  • In Unit 7, Week 3, Day 5, students practice reading long /e/ and long /o/ words built by the teacher using the ePocket Chart.
  • In Unit 10, Week 3, Day 2, Shared Reading, the teacher discusses syllables with final -le spelling. The teacher reviews that syllables are words or a word part with a vowel sound and that sound-spelling -le is pronounced /ul/. The teacher divides the words table and apple into syllables and discusses open and closed syllables. Students divide the word little into syllables to tell if they are open or closed syllables.

Materials provide frequent opportunities to read irregularly spelled words in connected text and tasks.

  • Students read grade-level high-frequency words within sentences during the I Read and Reread routine within the Phonics and Word Study portion of the Grade Lessons. In Unit 1, Week 3, Day 3, students apply and review high-frequency word knowledge by rereading the story “Let’s Plant Seeds” in their My Reading and Writing books on pages 28-31. This text has students reviewing and applying knowledge for the high-frequency words: for, no, jump, one, have, the. Students whisper read, choral read, and independently read the text.
  • In Phonics and High-Frequency Word Activity Book, Unit 4, Week 2, students complete sentences using the appropriate high-frequency words from the word bank: hurt, once, that, upon. Students write their own sentence using a high-frequency word. One High-Frequency Word practice sheet is provided for each week.
  • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 1, Shared Reading, the teacher invites students to point and read aloud high-frequency words they have previously learned (the, to, with, here, for, want, good, and, out) along with words they are able to decode from pages 4-5 in their My Reading and Writing.
  • In Unit 10, Week 1, Day 3, Phonics and Word Study, students reread the story Do You Know Me? which includes high-frequency words better and very.

Lessons and activities provide students many opportunities to learn grade-level word recognition and analysis skills while encoding (writing) in context and decoding words (reading) in connected text and tasks.

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, the decodable reader, “Pals Help,” includes the high-frequency words and, she, the. Targeted high-frequency words are outlined at the beginning of each decodable reader. For Unit 1, the following high-frequency words are targeted within the decodable readers: and, she, the, little, you, for, one.
  • In Unit 2, Week 1, the phonics focus skill of the week is short /e/. During Day 4, while students reread from the decodable reader, “When Red Hen Fell”, in Small-Group, they work with the short /e/ with the teacher and partners. On Day 5, students reread the text which contains the high-frequency words look, my, said, two.
  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 3, students respond to reading “Bag and Grab It” by applying phonics knowledge to write sentences.
  • In Unit 5, Week 2, Day 4, Phonics and Word Study, students read Around the Globe, which contains high-frequency words find, how, under.
  • In Unit 7, Week 2, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, students write on page 17 of their Reading and Writing book the sentence dictated by the teacher: We feed meat and seed to the goats. The teacher models sounding out and spelling the words seed and cheat in this lesson.
  • In Unit 9, Week 1, Day 2, Phonics and Word Study, students write on page 7 of their Reading and Writing book the sentence dictated by the teacher: The clown put down the mouse and shouted. The teacher models sounding out and spelling the words down and shout in the lesson.
  • In Unit 10, Skills and Strategies contains information that in Week 1 the phonics skills taught are oo, vowel diphthongs and silent letters wr, kn ,gn are practiced or introduced. In Week 1, Day 5, in Phonics and Word Study, students can read three texts: Do You Know Me? in their My Reading and Writing books and/or All About Storms and Food Grows in their decodable readers.

Indicator 1s

Materials support ongoing and frequent assessment to determine student mastery and inform meantingful differentiantion of foundational skills, including a clear and specific protocol as to how students performing below standard on these assessments will be supported.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials supporting ongoing and frequent assessment to determine student mastery and inform meaningful differentiation of foundational skills, including a clear and specific protocol as to how students performing below standard on these assessments will be supported.

Materials provide regular and systematic assessment opportunities over the course of the year to demonstrate print concepts or letter formation. Materials also include regular and systematic assessment opportunities for phonological awareness as part of the core assessment materials. The Phonological Awareness Quick Checks provide consistent assessment opportunities to evaluate student progress. Materials provide word recognition and analysis assessment opportunities primarily through Weekly Assessments and Phonics Cumulative Assessments. Fluency assessments are provided through Oral Reading Records found in Informal Assessments and Fluency Quick Checks. The materials contain information about students’ current skill level of understanding of phonics. Materials include next steps to aid the teacher in making instructional adjustments. Materials also include a Year-Long Assessment plan.

Assessment opportunities are provided over the course of the year in core materials for students to demonstrate progress toward mastery and independence of foundational skills.

  • Within the Intervention: Teacher Guides, materials contain 15 Phonological Awareness Quick Checks. The Phonological Awareness Quick Check says that skills may be assessed at any time and in any sequence based on what is happening in classroom instruction, and there is no need to follow the sequence of the skills as they are ordered in the book.
  • In K-6 Foundational Skills Screeners, page v, there is information about the contents of the Foundational Skills Screeners. There are three levels of exams. In the Level A exam there are five of each type of item in the screener: letter recognition, phonological awareness, letter sounds, word recognition, and print concepts. In the Level A exam, phonological question 4, the teacher gives students the word of the pictures provided bat, dog, rug two times and asks which picture rhymes with rug. The assessment may be administered one skill at a time and any level of screener can be chosen to be given.
  • In Informal Assessments, on the Level Screener, there is a passage and a comprehension question to give a quick view of a student’s reading level and help the teacher determine where to begin with the more detailed assessment of the Oral Reading Records. The Oral Reading Records include teacher observations, the recording of reading behaviors and an analysis of miscues. Oral Reading Records are to be administered to students individually to evaluate reading behaviors, guide teacher instruction, check text difficulty, and document and monitor student progress. A recording system is provided for recording errors and miscues, which include reading behaviors such as: accurate reading, substitutions, omissions, insertions, repetitions, self corrections, and use of visual cues. Oral Reading Records forms are provided for reading levels A through N. A Rating Scale sheet is provided to assess reading phrasing, fluency, intonation, pace, and accuracy. In Section 1, Scheduling Assessments, it is suggested to assess at the beginning and end of the year and to schedule an individual literacy conference with each student every month.
  • In Intervention: Teacher Guides, 15 Fluency Quick Checks are provided. The Fluency Quick Check Introduction says that the “book is intended to help teachers assess students’ oral reading fluency on a regular basis. The ongoing assessment of oral reading fluency allows the teacher to establish a benchmark for each student and monitor progress over time. Ongoing fluency assessments also enable educators to determine whether instructional goals have been met.”
  • In Units 1-10, Additional Resources, Phonics Cumulative Assessments are provided and referenced in each unit and the assessments include reading and writing of weekly phonics skills. The assessments include a Sound Recognition and Spelling assessment to be given at the end of the unit. The assessment includes a Word Fluency portion to be given to five to six students at the end of the week. All students are tested once per month.

Assessment materials provide teachers and students with some information of students’ current skills/level of understanding.

  • In the Informal Assessments, Section 4, Small Group Reading Observation Records by Level, the teacher is able to observe student knowledge of print concepts in a small group setting. If the reading behavior is observed during a lesson, the teacher marks a check under the specific concept for each student that demonstrates this knowledge. Print concepts assessed include: one-to-one matching; directionality; and return sweep.
  • The Intervention: Teacher Guides include 15 Phonological Awareness Quick Checks which provide information concerning students’ current skill/level of understanding within phonological awareness skills.
  • In K-6 Foundational Skills Screeners, page vii, there is information on how to use Foundational Skills Screeners for instruction. There is a chart that provides overall percentages, proficiency descriptions and recommended action. For example, 100-81% is on or above grade level and advises that no intervention is necessary; 85-65% is meeting grade level expectations and advises that more focused instruction may be needed in specific areas; 64% and below is at below grade level expectations and advises that extra instruction and interventions are needed.
  • The Intervention: Teacher Guides include 10 High-Frequency Word Quick Checks within the Phonics and Word Recognition Quick Check document. Additionally, there are 80 Quick Checks for other word analysis skills. These Quick Checks help to provide information concerning students’ current skill/level of understanding with word recognition and word analysis skills.
  • In Informal Assessments, Overview of Oral Reading Records provides scoring information on the reading Error rate, percentage of accuracy and self correction rate, along with a table to determine the student’s reading proficiency level of a text: Independent, Instructional, and Frustrational. For example, an Error rate between 1:100 to 1:20 and an Accuracy percentage between 99-95 indicates an Independent proficiency, whereas an Error rate between 1:9-1:2 and an Accuracy percentage between 89-50 indicates a Frustrational proficiency.
  • In K-6 Fluency Quick Checks, in Directions for Administering Oral Reading Fluency Assessments, a Reading Rate Goal (words per minute) table is provided which lists beginning-, middle-, and end-of-year goals per grade level. For example, in Grade 1 the goal for the beginning of the year is 20 words per minute and the end of the year goal is 60 words per minute. There is an oral fluency rubric provided which includes elements of phrasing, intonation, and expression. It provides the information that if a student’s scores 1 or 2 in the rubric, they have not achieved an appropriate level of fluency for the passage. If a student scores 4 in the rubric, they have achieved reading fluency for the level of the passage.

Materials support teachers with instructional adjustments to help students make progress toward mastery in foundational skills.

  • In the Informal Assessment book, the Assessment Introduction provides guidance for assessment-based steps to help students progress toward mastery in print concepts. On Page 4, the book mentions “use the information you gain to differentiate instruction by developmental reading behaviors and characteristics, metacognitive and comprehension strategy needs, instructional reading levels, fluency, and vocabulary understandings.” On page 4, the Assessment, Teaching, and Learning Cycle is introduced which shows the following steps: 1) Use pre- and post-assessments to inform instruction; 2) Plan for instruction; 3) Model the targeted strategy; 4) Practice the targeted strategy; 5) Transfer and extend the strategy; 6) Monitor student progress using ongoing assessment; 7) Provide additional support for the strategy; 8) Provide intervention, if necessary.
  • In the Grade 1 Assessment tab in the Weekly & Unit Assessment document, page 9 titled “Using the Unit Assessment Results” supports the teacher with instructional suggestions for assessment-based steps to help students to progress toward mastery in word recognition and word analysis. This document encourages the teacher to use the weekly assessment to identify which items the student answered incorrectly to help determine whether more focused instruction on particular standards or skills is needed. Instruction for areas of need can take place in the upcoming weeks. The materials suggest reviewing a student's assessment with the student to provide an opportunity for the student to see which questions they answered incorrectly and why their answers are incorrect. Although this information can help guide the teacher to think about student assessment results, there is no systematic guidance for the teacher to use formative information in future instruction.
  • The K-6 Foundational Skills Screeners provides information on how to use Foundational Skills Screeners for instruction. There is a chart that provides overall percentages, proficiency descriptions, and recommended action. For example, 100-81% is on or above grade level and advises that no intervention is necessary; 85-65% is meeting grade level expectations and advises that more focused instruction may be needed in specific areas; 64% and below is at below grade level expectations and advises that extra instruction and interventions are needed.
  • The K-6 Phonological Awareness Quick Checks, Introduction, provides information on using scores to offer intervention. There is a chart that provides overall percentages, proficiency descriptions and recommended action. For example, 80-100% move on to the next Quick Check or skill; 66-80% consider administering Quick Check again; below 66% use additional resources shown in Resource Map to provide students with opportunities to remediate.

Indicator 1t

Materials, questions, and tasks provide high-quality lessons and activities that allow for differentiation of foundational skills.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the criteria for materials, questions, and tasks providing high-quality lessons and activities that allow for differentiation of foundational skills, so all students achieve mastery of foundational skills.

Materials provide opportunities for small group reteaching during the daily Phonics and Word Study portion of the lessons, as well as during any additional intervention lessons. In the Additional Resources Access and Equity document, there is guidance to the teacher for scaffolding and adapting lessons and activities to support students reading, writing, speaking, or listening below grade level. Some lessons provide Check to See text boxes, which advise the teacher that if students have difficulty with lessons, use strategies found in the small-group lessons to provide additional support. Support for ELL students is found in general guidance in the Access and Equity document, comparative analysis of languages in the Contrastive Analysis of English and Nine World Language document, and specific lesson supports labeled Integrated ELD supports within each lesson. Lessons in the Teacher Resource System contain activities that have an iELD indicator reflecting they provide an opportunity for focusing on ELD support. Language transfer support is provided in Small Group lessons, which provides information on the transferability of phonemes and graphemes from other languages.

Materials provide high-quality learning lessons and activities for every student to reach mastery of foundational skills.

  • In Foundations and Routines, Day 6, students practice counting and segmenting words into syllables by clapping to count syllables in the words teacher, pen, cut, continue, parade, globe, open and repeating.
  • In Unit 1, Week 3, Day 1, Spelling-Sound Correspondences, the teacher models the short vowel sound for the letter o. Students practice reading short /o/ words: off, on, odd, job, pop, rock, hot, cob. Afterward, during the Blend Words portion of the lesson, the teacher models reading short /o/ words using the ePocket Chart. Students practice reading short /o/ words: ox, lot, box, fog, log, sock, hot, top, fox.
  • In Unit 4, Week 3, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, students practice blending letter sounds using letter cards to build and read words with words provided that contain consonant digraphs ch, wh, th, sh, and final consonant blends.
  • In Unit 5, Week 1, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, students practice distinguishing long from short vowel sounds in a phoneme categorization lesson. Students practice identifying words that do not have a long /a/ in the middle of the words ram, tape, date, whale, hat, wave, gate, man, and game.
  • In Unit 9, Week 2, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, the teacher uses Picture Word card for coin, Sound Spelling card and Frieze card for /oi/ diphthong. The teacher reads the action rhyme and students are invited to chime in. Students say the names of the objects on the Frieze card. The teacher says the practice words with the /oi/ sound one at a time. Students determine if the word is spelled with an /oi/ or /oy/ diphthong. Students listen for the /oi/ sound in each word, then students identify the correct /oi/ spelling on a paper or a work mat.

Materials provide guidance to teachers for scaffolding and adapting lessons and activities to support each student’s needs.

  • The Accommodating Students with Special Needs Throughout the Literacy Block resource is found within the same Access and Equity document. This document outlines the literacy block component, lesson activities to support through accommodations, disabilities that affect oral language, disabilities that affect decoding, disabilities that affect reading comprehension, disabilities that affect written expression, and accommodations for advanced learners. One example of how to support students below grade level during the Interactive Read-Aloud is to “have students express ideas by developing drawings or selecting from premade photos or visuals.”
  • In Unit 1, Additional Resources tab, a document called Access and Equity outlines how teachers can scaffold and adapt lessons and activities to support below grade level students. The Access and Equity document says that Benchmark Advanced is designed to support teachers in meeting the needs of all learners through systematic, evidence-based methods that offer opportunities to individualize and/or customize learning through ongoing assessment and progress monitoring, flexible grouping, and scaffolding. This document says that you should do four things to plan, deliver, and assess instruction for the students with disabilities in your class:
    • 1. Get to know your students with disabilities as individuals.
    • 2. Utilize the Individual Education Program (IEP) or 504 Plan.
    • 3. Build collaboration between the general education and special education teachers.
    • 4. See Accommodating Students with Special Needs Throughout the Literacy Block to learn more about how to differentiate instruction using the specially designed features in Benchmark Advance.
  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, in Small Group and Independent Practice, support is provided for checking the transferability of phonemes and graphemes with r-blends from other languages.
  • In Unit 6, Week 3, Day 5, in Phonics and Word Study, an Integrated ELD box is provided with three levels of support suggestions: Light, Moderate, and Substantial. The Reread for Fluency lesson taught on Day 5 also has an iELD indicator, reflecting it provides an opportunity for focusing on ELD support.
  • In Unit 8, Week 2, Day 5, Phonics and Word Study, the Integrated ELD box provides the following Substantial Support: the teacher is to write high-frequency words on cards and play a game with the student. The students read the word, and the teacher models creating sentences for the words, and the students echos the sentences.
  • In Unit 9, Week 2, Day 1, Phonics and Word Study, in the Blend Words lesson there is a Check to See notation, which advises teachers if students have difficulties blending words to use the strategies provided in small-group instruction. The Small-Group lesson includes a Blend Words activity which provides additional practice blending words with /oi/.

Students have multiple practice opportunities with each grade level foundational skill component in order to reach mastery.

  • During Grade 1, students have the opportunity for small group reteaching during the Phonics and Word Study portion of the lesson and within the Intervention materials.
  • In Unit 1, Week 3, Day 1, in Phonics and Word Study, small group activities are provided to reteach and reinforce whole group lessons that teach the focus skill, short /o/. For example, in a small group activity, the teacher blends words with short /o/ using an Elkonin box or a work mat for additional practice with short /o/.
  • In Unit 2, Week 1, Day 2, the teacher uses the “Small Group and Independent Practice” section to reteach and reaffirm the whole group mini-lesson by building and blending short /e/ words and doing a word sort.
  • In Unit 4, Week 1, Day 4, the teacher uses the “Small Group and Independent Practice” section to reteach and reaffirm the whole group mini-lesson by practicing decoding consonant digraphs, rereading the book I Wish, and doing a speed spelling sort.
  • In Unit 7, Week 1, Day 4, Phonics and Word Study, the Small Group and Independent Practice contains an activity where students do a speed sort where students work in pairs to sort words with long /o/ spelling patterns. Students mix up the cards and challenge themselves to sort the words differently, or faster a second time. Students practice long /o/ spelling pattern words on Days 2 and 3.

Gateway Two

Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks

Partially Meets Expectations

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Gateway Two Details

The Benchmark Advance 2021 program is organized by topics and themes with a strong focus on skills. The texts and their related questions and tasks do not always form a cohesive whole designed to grow students’ knowledge and vocabulary in service of comprehension of texts. Opportunities to analyze topics and ideas within and across texts are found in all units. Most culminating tasks provide students the opportunity to demonstrate comprehension and knowledge of a topic or topics. Materials lack a formal vocabulary plan for the year. The program provides a full course of writing instruction.

Research skills are taught across the course of the year. Independent reading supports are included in the materials.

Criterion 2a - 2h

Materials build knowledge through integrated reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language.
26/32
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Criterion Rating Details

The Benchmark Advance 2021 program is organized by topics and themes across its ten units. However, the texts within a unit do not always form a cohesive set designed to grow students’ knowledge and vocabulary in service of comprehension of texts. While the questions and tasks in the units examine the language, key ideas, craft, and structure of texts, the overwhelming focus is on individual skills rather than serving to support comprehension. Opportunities to analyze topics and ideas within and across texts are found in all units. Most culminating tasks provide students the opportunity to demonstrate comprehension and knowledge of a topic or topics. The materials lack a formal vocabulary plan for the year.

The program provides a full course of writing instruction with detailed lessons and opportunities for practice for students to grow their skills over the course of the year.

Research skills are taught across the course of the year to grow student skills through the Inquiry and Research projects.

The materials include a plan and support for independent reading throughout the year.

Indicator 2a

Texts are organized around a topic/topics to build students knowledge and vocabulary which will over time support and help grow students' ability to comprehend complex texts independently and proficiently.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the expectations of Indicator 2a.

Each unit contains a new topic or theme for each of the 10 units, with each lasting three weeks for a total of 15 days. Across all grades, there is vertical alignment, meaning each grade has a similar topic or theme that appears at each grade level. Publisher documentation indicates the general topics are science, social studies, technology, literature, social-emotional learning, and culture. However, there is not always consistent vocabulary or content that repeats across texts within a unit, therefore reducing the impact of exploring a single topic for three weeks. Additionally, the focus of most questions and tasks is on building comprehension skills and understanding the parts and structures of texts with little emphasis on the content contained therein.

Examples of texts that are connected by a grade-level appropriate topic (rather than a theme) include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, the unit topic is “ Why Do Living Things Change.” In Week 1, Day 1, the Shared Reading and Reading and Writing consumable is “Five Little Tadpoles”, and the Mentor Read text is “The Amazing Life Cycle of a Frog.” In Week 2, Day 4, the Shared Reading is “Grow, Ducklings, Grow;” the Decodable Reader is “Get a Big Pot” by Beatrice Reynolds; and the Extended Read is “An Oak Tree has a Life Cycle” by Debra Castor. In Week 3, Day 3, the Shared Reading is “The Seed” and the Extended Read is “The Ugly Duckling” retold by Brenda Parkes and Judith Smith. While the texts all fall within the boundaries of the topic, there is not a strong through-line connecting them to one another.
  • In Unit 3, the unit topic is “Being a Good Community Member” and the Essential Question is “Why do people get involved in their communities?”. Students explore communities and citizenship. In Week 1, Day 1, the teacher and students read the poem, “In the Neighborhood”, and then the teacher reads the Mentor Read-Aloud, “Hello, Community Garden!”. In Week 2, Day 5, the teacher reads the Extended Read, Being a Responsible Citizen by Margaret McNamara. In Week 3, Day 3, the teacher reads the Extended Read, People who Made Contributions by Margaret McNamara.
  • In Unit 5, the unit topic is “Technology at Work,” which includes technology such as robotics computers. The Essential Question is “How can technology make a difference in our lives?”. In Week 1, Day 1, the teacher and students complete a Shared Reading of the poem, “Go, Robot, Go!”, and the teacher reads the Mentor Read-Aloud, “Robots at Work.” In Week 2, Day 2, the teacher reads the Extended Read, Working with Technology. In Week 3, Day 3, the teacher reads the Extended Read, Technology Breakdown.
  • In Unit 7, the unit topic is “Past, Present, and Future” and the Essential Question is “Why is the past important?”. In Week 1, a Small Group Reading Text is “The Mayflower.” During Week 2, the Shared Reading text is Sounds of a School Day Long Ago. In Week 3, a Phonics Mini-Lesson Text is “Bees, Bees, Bees!” The texts share tenuous connections and do not cohesively build knowledge.
  • In Unit 9, the unit topic is “We Use Goods,” a unit about the manufacturing and service industries. The Essential Question is “Why do people trade with each other?”. In Week 1, Day 2, the teacher and students read the poem, “The Breakfast Trade,” and the teacher reads the Mentor Read-Aloud, “From Dairy Farm to You.” In Week 2, Day 3, the teacher and students read the poem, “Rat-a-Tat Tat,” which is about a cat who wants to buy milk. In Unit 9, Week 3, Day 4, the teacher guides the students in reading the Decodable Reader, “One Cool Day,” which features fictional animals who work in the service industry. These texts do not form a cohesive unit to build knowledge on a topic.
  • In Unit 10, the unit topic is “Exploring Sound, Light, and Heat” and the Essential Question is “How would our lives be different without sound, light, and heat?”. During Week 1, the Shared Reading Text is “Dawn is the Best Time of Day” and the Reading and Vocabulary Mini-Lesson Extended Read 1 is “Heat Is All Around.” In Week 3, the Shared Reading text is “I Know All the Sounds The Animals Make.” While all texts fall into the topic area, they do not work together to build knowledge and vocabulary.

Examples of texts that are connected by a theme rather than a topic include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 2, the unit theme is “Many Kinds of Characters” and the Essential Question is “How do we learn about characters?”. In Week 1, Day 2, the teacher reads the Mentor Read-Aloud, The Ant and the Grasshopper. In Week 2, Day 1, the teacher reads the poem, “Three Little Kittens.” In Week 3, Day 4, the teacher and students read the Shared Reading text, “The Elves and the Shoemaker.”
  • In Unit 4, the unit theme is “Stories Have a Narrator” and the Essential Question is “How do people create stories?”. This literary-focused unit is designed around readers understanding the different points of view of characters in the same story. In Week 1, Day 2, the Shared Reading and My Reading and Writing consumable is “The Fairy Tale Song,” and the Mentor Read is “The City Mouse and the Country Mouse.” In Week 2, Day 3, the Shared Reading is “Over in the Meadow,” the My Reading and Writing consumable is “I Saw It,” and the Extended Read is “Mother Bruce” by Ryan T. Higgins.
  • In Unit 6, the theme is “Stories Teach Many Lessons.” All the texts are stories with similar themes. There are no informational texts in this unit. The Essential Question is “What can we learn from a mistake?”. In Week 1, Day 3, the teacher reads the Mentor Read-Aloud,“The Boy who Cried Wolf.” In Week 2, Days 3–4, the teacher and students read the Shared Reading text, “The Ant and the Grasshopper.” In Week 3, Day 5, the teacher and students discuss the “fables, folktales, and other stories that contained characters.”

Indicator 2b

Materials contain sets of coherently sequenced questions and tasks that require students to analyze the language (words/phrases), key ideas, details, craft, and structure of individual texts in order to make meaning and build understanding of texts and topics.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the expectations of Indicator 2b.

Most tasks associated with Mentor and Read-Aloud texts are completed during independent reading time later in the day. Tasks are often repetitive and lack complexity. Teacher modeling frequently is allotted more time than student practice or independent work. Writer’s craft is discussed during writing activities but is not a focus in the reading lessons. As most writing lessons are disconnected from the unit texts, there is a missed opportunity to discuss craft in connection to the texts. Word choice and language are not discussed during other daily read-alouds. Analyzing words/phrases occurs in some but not most texts. By the end of the year, components, such as language, word choice, key ideas, details, structure, craft, are embedded in students’ work rather than taught directly.

Examples of questions and tasks that lead students to examine words/phrases and/or word choice include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 4, Week 3, Day 2, students practice how to identify words and phrases that appeal to the senses using the Extended Read, The Lost Kitten. The teacher reviews the skill using an anchor chart and then models how to identify words that help readers imagine how details feel. During Guided Practice, the teacher asks text-based questions in order to help the students identify words that help them see, hear, and feel details in the text. The text-based questions do not build in sophistication from those used in the previous unit. Students practice this skill during independent reading time with a previously read leveled text.
  • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 5, the Poetry Out Loud! text is the poem, “Friends.” The teacher discusses feeling words in the first stanza. “The words good, kind, and sweetly all create a pleasant feeling. Let’s read the poem again. Listen for words that suggest feelings”. There are no guided practice tasks or independent tasks associated with this section of the lesson.

Examples of questions and tasks that lead students to examine key ideas and details, structure, and craft include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, Day 2, students learn how to identify the main topic and retell key details using the Mentor Read-Aloud, “The Amazing Life Cycle of a Frog.” The teacher and students work together to create an anchor chart for identifying the main topic and key supporting details. During Guided Practice, the teacher rereads the text and students respond to three text-based questions which increase in complexity. Students practice this skill during independent reading time with a previously read leveled text.
  • In Unit 3, Week 2, Day 2, during Extended Read 1, the learning target states, "Use photographs in a text to describe key ideas." The teacher models using this strategy by responding to the question, “How do the photographs on pages 6–7 help us understand what the author means in the text with the word honest?” During Guided Practice, students respond to the following questions: “Which details in the photographs on pages 8–9 show what the author means in the text with the word respect? Do any of the photos show something else?"
  • In Unit 4, Week 2, Day 3, students practice answering questions about key details during the Extended Read text, Mother Bruce. The teacher models how to ask and answer a question about details in the text. During Guided Practice, students think of a question and possible answer about the events in the text. During independent reading time, students practice this skill with a previously read leveled text.
  • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 5, students compare and contrast adventures and experiences of characters in stories and answer questions: “Which problem does the shepherd boy have? Does anyone help him? Why? Which problem does the ant have? Does anyone help him? Both characters have bad experiences? What are they and how are they similar?”
  • In Unit 7, Week 2, Day 5, students engage in an extended reading of “Using Timelines” to learn how the pictures on a timeline sometimes provide different facts from the words on a timeline. A question to support this task include, “On pages 6–7, what information can you learn from the pictures on the timeline that is not in the captions or the text?”
  • In Unit 8, Week 2, Day 5, students practice identifying the main topic and retelling key details using the Extended Read text, Night and Day. The teacher models how to answer a text-based question. During Guided Practice, students work with partners to discuss the answer to a text-based question. During independent reading time, students practice this skill with a previously read leveled text.

Indicator 2c

Materials contain a coherently sequenced set of text-dependent questions and tasks that require students to analyze the integration of knowledge and ideas across both individual and multiple texts.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 2c.

Some designated questions and tasks support students’ analysis of knowledge and ideas across a text(s). By the end of the year, integrating knowledge and ideas is embedded in students’ work (via tasks and/or culminating tasks).

Sets of questions and tasks that provide opportunities to analyze within single texts include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, Day 3, students learn how to describe connections between events in the Mentor Read-Aloud, “The Amazing Life Cycle of a Frog.” The teacher models how to use sequencing adverbs in the text to understand the connections between events. During Guided Practice, the teacher asks three text-based questions. The first question is “Which words does the author use to help you understand the sequence of events?”. The next two questions are about different stages of the frog’s life cycle. These questions help students practice connecting and sequencing events and also help students build knowledge about frogs.
  • In Unit 3, Week 2, Day 5, students ask and answer questions about key details in the Extended Read, Being a Responsible Citizen by Margaret McNamara. Students work with partners to answer the following questions: “Think about the students in the photos on these pages. What question can you ask and answer to analyze how the students in the photos are being good citizens? What questions can you ask and answer to analyze how the students in the photos are being good citizens?”
  • In Unit 4, Week 2, Day 4, students practice using text details to describe the setting of the Extended Read, Mother Bruce. The teacher models how to use text evidence and illustrations to answer the question: “What conclusions can you draw about the time of year at the beginning of the story?” During Guided Practice, students work with partners to answer the text-based question, “How would you contrast the setting at the beginning of the story with the setting at the end of the story?” During independent reading, students describe the setting of a previously read leveled text. Students also identify any changes in the setting and mark text evidence with sticky notes.
  • In Unit 7, Week 3, students engage in an extended reading of the text Statues and Monuments by Sarah Albee and distinguish between information provided by pictures and information found in the words of a text. Questions to support this task include: “Look at the large photograph on page 12. What information do we learn from the photograph that we do not learn from the text?”


Examples of sets of questions and tasks that provide opportunities to analyze across multiple texts include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 5, students compare and contrast the characters’ experiences in When the Turtle Grew Feathers by Tim Tingle and the Mentor Read-Aloud, “The Ant and the Pigeon.” The teacher models how to compare and contrast the texts using text evidence. During Guided Practice, the students answer the question, “Compare and Contrast the relationship between the ant and the pigeon with the relationship between Turtle and Turkey. Support your answer with text evidence by discussing it with a partner then sharing with the class.” During the independent task, students “reread two familiar fiction texts and compare and contrast the experiences of the main characters. Students put sticky notes in their independent reading texts next to two similar experiences or two different experiences. Then students write the comparisons and contrasts on sticky notes. Students share with the teacher during small group time or conferences.
  • In Unit 8, Week 1, Day 5, students learn how to explain differences between stories and informational texts using the Mentor Read-Alouds, “Why Sun and Moon Live in the Sky” and “A Walk on the Moon.” The teacher models the skill using a Compare and Contrast Chart. During Guided Practice, the teacher guides students in identifying and explaining more differences between the two texts and further completing the chart. The teacher also asks three text-based questions which increase in complexity. Students practice this skill during independent reading time with two previously read leveled texts.
  • In Unit 10, Week 2, students engage in a cross-text Mentor Read of I Hear With My Ears by Kathleen Long Bostrom and “Sounds I Love” by (author not cited). Students contrast texts to see how they are different. Questions to support this task include: “How can you compare and contrast the experiences of the narrator on pages 5–6 and 10–11 of I Hear with My Ears with the experiences of the narrator on page 44 of 'Sounds I Love!'? How can you compare and contrast the experiences of the narrator on pages 10–15 of I Hear with My Ears with the experiences of the narrator on page 45 of 'Sounds I Love!'?"

Indicator 2d

The questions and tasks support students' ability to complete culminating tasks in which they demonstrate their knowledge of a topic (or, for grades 6-8, a theme) through integrated skills (e.g. combination of reading, writing, speaking, listening).
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 2d.

Each culminating task or extended writing project incorporates texts from throughout the unit while allowing students to use outside sources as appropriate. Most culminating tasks provide students the opportunity to demonstrate comprehension and knowledge of a topic or topics. Every unit has an Inquiry and Research project and a Unit Reflection with Constructive Conversation that are centered around the Essential question and unit topic. Students use texts and knowledge gained from the unit in all tasks including writing tasks. Each week contains texts, writing tasks, and discussions leading to the culminating tasks for the unit. Additionally, a pacing chart for the project assigns student goals with teacher support (along with project rubrics) to assess students’ work on the project. Culminating tasks are provided and they are multifaceted, requiring students to demonstrate mastery of several different standards (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) at the appropriate grade level.

Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, Week 3, Day 5, Reflect on Unit Concepts, students listen, speak, write, and recall information they have read throughout the unit. Students watch the video from the first day of the unit and discuss how the video fits with the unit and the Essential Question. In small groups, students discuss their answers to the Essential Question. Students share, and the teacher records their ideas on the anchor chart created at the beginning of the unit. Next, students work in groups to act out the life cycle of one of the animals or plants featured in the unit. The teacher helps each group record a video of their role‑play. Then, students write in response to the following questions: “How do we know that plants and animals grow and change? What is a life cycle? How are the life cycles of plants and animals different?”
  • In Unit 2, the Essential Question is “How do we learn about characters?” and the unit topic is “Many Kinds of Characters.” One culminating writing task for the unit is a narrative. Over the course of three days, students write an ending for “The Ant and the Grasshopper.” Students listen to the story, write the narrative, share their writing with partners, and share with the class.
  • In Unit 3, Week 3, Day 5, there is a Constructive Conversation during the Unit Reflection. Students watch the Unit 3 Video, review the Questions and Ideas Chart from Weeks 1 and 2, and then collaborate to answer the Essential Question of the unit, “Why do people get involved in their communities?” Teachers play the Unit Song to reinforce “knowledge and oral vocabulary.” Students make up and record a short song about one of the people that they read about in the unit. In writing, students answer the Essential Question and Enduring Understanding questions. This one-day culminating task incorporates all skills—reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language.
  • In Unit 4, the unit topic is “Stories Have a Narrator.” One of the culminating tasks for the unit is an Opinion Writing about a favorite character from the unit texts. Students work on this writing during Weeks 2 and 3. Students listen to and read unit texts, write their opinions, discuss their writing with peers, and share with the class.
  • In Unit 8, the Essential Question is “Why do the sun and moon capture our imagination?” and the unit topic is “Observing the sky.” On Week 3, Day 5, students reflect on the unit topic in a Constructive Conversation. Students review texts they have listened to and read throughout the unit. Students discuss the Essential Question and build upon their peers’ responses in small groups. Then each group shares with the class. Each group makes a digital slideshow about the sun, moon, and sky. Students also respond to questions about the unit’s Essential Question and topic.

Indicator 2e

Materials include a cohesive, year-long plan for students to interact with and build key academic vocabulary words in and across texts.
2/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 partially meet the expectations of Indicator 2e.

There is no evidence of a formal vocabulary plan for the year. Few of the academic words are included in the questions or activities. Attention is directed to vocabulary essential to understanding the text and to high-value academic words. Although vocabulary for Tier 2 and Tier 3 words are listed by the curriculum, they are often not introduced or are only discussed once, limiting the opportunities for students to integrate them into their own vocabulary. Vocabulary instruction is designed to include three to five words from each selection. The words identified as central to the entire unit are not consistently introduced or assessed and are inconsistently distributed throughout the unit. Often, synonyms are used instead of the unit words. Although there are vocabulary routines for teachers to use, there are no specific examples for the words for each unit or text. Sidebars within teacher resource guides give more information for vocabulary but are meant to be used as interventions, not for whole-group instruction. The My Reading and Writing workbooks contain vocabulary but it is not vocabulary from the weekly reading. Weekly Assessments contain an informal observation rubric for vocabulary usage on a three-point scale.

In Additional Resources, there are two vocabulary routines for teachers. The Define/Example/Ask routine is used to introduce new words to students. “It provides a student-friendly definition, connects the word to students’ experiences, and asks students to use the word in speaking to check understanding.” The Ask section contains a sentence frame for students to complete to check for understanding. The Academic Vocabulary Routine is cited by the materials as being “especially strong for English learners and can be used to extend vocabulary after the initial Define/Example/Ask introduction.” It involves three steps: 1. Introduction of the word, 2. Verbal Practice, and 3. Written Practice. Students give the definition of words in their own words and create pictures to go with the words.

Examples of vocabulary repeated in contexts include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 2, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher defines the unit word character. On Day 2, students answer text-based questions about the Mentor Read-Aloud, “The Ant and the Grasshopper”: “Which key detail in paragraph 2 tells about the grasshopper? How does this help you understand about this character?”
  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 3, the Mentor Read 1 text is “Hello Community Garden.” The Vocabulary Development document lists multiple Tier 2 and Tier 3 words found in this text. The teacher chooses three to five words to introduce to students, using a vocabulary routine from Additional Resources prior to reading the text. The vocabulary is then read aloud and referred to while the text is read.
  • In Unit 5, Week 2, Day 1, the teacher uses the Define/Example/Ask routine to introduce vocabulary for the text Working with Technology. Tier 2 vocabulary includes solve, careers, images, controls, saws. Tier 3 vocabulary is as follows: communicate, animator, cockpit, veterinarians, heart, lungs, oxygen. While reading the text, the teacher asks, “Why is technology important to veterinarians and firefighters?” The word animator is discussed later in Week 2 during a Building Vocabulary lesson on categorizing words.
  • In Unit 6, Week 1, Day 3, the Mentor Read is “The Boy Who Cried Wolf.” The Vocabulary Development document lists multiple Tier 2 and Tier 3 words found in this text. The teacher chooses three to five words to introduce to students, using a vocabulary routine from Additional Resources prior to reading the text. The vocabulary is then read aloud and referred to while the text is read.

Examples of vocabulary repeated across multiple texts include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 2, the unit topic is “Many Kinds of Characters.” Suggested speaking and listening words for the overall unit are character, traits, personality, opinion, motivation, interact. The teacher’s guide does specify these unit words may not be in the texts. In Week 1, Day 1, the teacher defines character. The only word consistently used in Weeks 1 and 2 is character. In Week 3, Day 5, students respond in writing to how characters can overcome their challenges.
  • In Unit 3, the following Tier 2 or Tier 3 words are used across multiple texts in the Shared Reading, Mentor Read Alouds, and Extended Reads: community, garden, and firefighter.
  • In Unit 4, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher opens the unit by discussing the difference between the words narrator, setting, and plot. The students watch a video, which is focused on the unit’s Essential Question, “How do people create stories?” Following the video, the teacher leads a class discussion about stories and narrators. The teacher records students’ questions about stories and narrators. In Unit 1, Week 2, Day 5, students practice identifying the narrator in the Extended Read, Mother Bruce. The teacher explains the difference between first-person and third-person narrators. The teacher models how to use text evidence to determine that the narrator of the text is a third-person narrator rather than a character in the story. During independent reading time, students identify the narrator in their own text. Students use self-stick notes to mark details in the text that signaled whether the story was told in first- or third-person.
  • In Unit 5, some vocabulary repeats between whole group texts and small group texts. The small group text, “My Mom Makes Cars,” includes the vocabulary words computers and machines; these words also appear in the Mentor Read-Aloud, “Robots at Work.” The word design appears in “Robots at Work” and the Mentor Read-Aloud, “Robots: Big and Small.” Most of the small group texts in the unit are related to the topic but had, at most, one word in common with the whole group texts.
  • In Unit 9, the topic is “We Use Goods and Services.” The unit speaking and listening vocabulary is trade, buy, sell, consumer, goods, services, economy, and money. In Week 1, Day 1, the teacher defines goods and services then asks, “Why do people trade with each other?” In Week 1, the text, “The Most Important Service,” has the vocabulary word services and the Week 2 text, In My Opinion...Goods and Services are Important, contains the vocabulary words goods and services.

Examples of how vocabulary is integrated into reading, speaking, and writing tasks include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher opens the unit by discussing the difference between the words grow and change. The students watch the Unit 1 video, which is focused on the Essential Question, “Why do living things change?”. Following the video, the teacher leads a class discussion about growing and changing. The teacher records students’ questions about the topic of growing and changing. In Week 2, Day 3, students read, discuss, and write about the needs of polar bears in “A Cub Grows.”
  • In Unit 3, Week 1, Day 3, students read “Hello, Community Garden.” There is a vocabulary mini-lesson about using context clues to determine meaning. The strategy is introduced, modeled, and practiced collaboratively before students use the strategy independently. Students listen, speak, and write about vocabulary in this lesson.
  • In Unit 8, Week 1, Day 1, the teacher opens the unit by discussing the words sky and space. The students watch the Unit 8 video and think about the words sun, moon, and sky. Following the video, the teacher leads a class discussion about the sun, moon, and sky. The teacher records students’ questions about the topic of observing the sky.
  • In Unit 9, students read In My Opinion...Goods and Services are Important. Tier 1 words include succeed. Tier 2 words include goods, services, healthy, medicine. Students answer the question, “Why is food a good, instead of a service?and write about a good or a service they use often. Students also complete a lesson on multiple-meaning words and discuss the multiple meanings of the word good.

Indicator 2f

Materials include a cohesive, year-long plan to support students' increasing writing skills over the course of the school year, building students' writing ability to demonstrate proficiency at grade level at the end of the school year.
4/4
+
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations for Indicator 2f.

Materials include a year’s worth of writing instruction aligned to the standards for the grade level that provide both depth and breadth of writing instruction and practice. The materials include well-designed lesson plans covering a variety of genres, both process and on-demand writing, and teacher and student protocols. Students receive explicit instruction that guides them through the writing process in Writing Workshops lessons. Lessons also include mentor texts, shared readings, poetry, and short reads that provide students with opportunities to examine the text features of a specific genre and the styles and techniques of authors. The materials include a writing development guide for the grade level as well as writing rubrics. The materials also include a multitude of graphic organizers—Venn diagram, T-Chart, compare/contrast—and rubrics that address content, presentation, and effort and collaboration during Inquiry and Research Projects.

Writing lessons at the beginning of the year include Guided Shared Writing as well as familiar writing protocols, such as the “Three-Step Writing Strategy,” which the students practiced in Kindergarten. In the middle of the year, students learn about and practice writing how-to texts. Writing lessons use Guided Shared Writing and detailed anchor charts. At the end of the year, students learn and practice the poetry writing process. Lessons continue to use Guided Shared Writing and detailed anchor charts. At the middle and end of the year, the teacher also launches writing units by analyzing a mentor text in order to show students the key features of the writing style that they will practice in the unit. Throughout the year, writing lessons use the Gradual Release Model, as well as Guided Shared Writing and Oral Rehearsal for Independent Writing, during which students practice saying what they will write before they write. Students have opportunities to practice brainstorming, taking notes, planning, drafting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. Students also write and draw in response to the texts they read in phonics mini-lessons throughout the year. To support students, the teacher displays pictures of the decodable words to provide visual cues for their writing

Each Unit Assessment also includes a writing task based on text passages. At the beginning of the year, the teacher reads the passages aloud while students follow along. Students write and draw their responses. In the middle of the year, the teacher reads the passages aloud while students follow along. The students write their responses using sentences. At the end of the year, the students read the passages on their own, and write their poems using sentences.

Beginning of the year examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, students write personal responses to different texts. There is extensive modeling from the teacher. Student writing expectations are as follows: an illustration, an opinion sentence, and two detail sentences.
  • In Unit 2, Week 2, Day 1, during the Guide Shared Writing component of the Writing lesson, the teacher models starting at the top left side of the page, saying a word and the sound they hear, and pointing out high-frequency words. The independent/collaborative section states that “students will begin to write and/or draw their diary entries.”
  • In Unit 3, students work on the process of informative writing and spend three weeks brainstorming, drafting, revising and expanding, and sharing; focusing on the craft of writing. Referencing the mentor text, Hello, Community Garden! (author not cited), students write an informative text about places in our community.

Middle of the year examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 4, Week 1, the focus is on opinion writing lessons over the entire week. Students produce one piece of writing based on the text “The City Mouse and the Country Mouse.” Students write whether they would rather live in the city or country. Writing expectations include the following: an opinion sentence, two reasons with evidence from the text, and a title.
  • In Unit 5, Week 3, Day 2, students edit an explanatory text that they have been working on for several days. During Guide Shared Writing, the teacher displays their draft and models editing the draft for spelling errors using both print and online dictionaries and strategies like sounding out words and looking at a mentor text to verify correct spellings.
  • In Unit 6, students complete an on-demand grammar practice using sentence frames. Students also learn about simple and compound sentences and frequently occurring conjunctions.
  • In Unit 7, Week 1, Day 3, students respond to their reading of “From Place to Place,” a short text about transportation, during the phonics mini-lesson. Students draw and write a comparison of travel over time. To support students, the teacher displays pictures of the decodable words to provide visual cues for their writings.

End of the year examples include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 8, students engage in opinion process writing for three weeks to create a finished piece. Expectations include: a statement of opinion, multiple reasons and evidence from the text, a title, a closing statement that retells the opinion, and an accompanying illustration. The example shared writing contains more than 10 sentences.
  • In Unit 9, Week 3, Day 3, students draw/include pictures in their writing to help the reader better understand it. During Guide Shared Writing, the teacher and students co-create a Visual Planning Chart that includes the columns, Topic and Image. Students think through what kind of visual could help enhance the reader’s understanding of their text. During the Independent and Small Group time, students create their own Visual Planning Chart to support their writing.
  • In Unit 10, students complete a writing task as part of the unit assessment. Students read the passages, “The Cave” and “Sun Dogs,” and answer text-dependent questions. The writing task at the end of the assessment states: “Imagine that you get up very early one morning to see the sun rise. What do you see? What do you hear? Write a narrative poem that tells what happens.”

Instructional materials include well-designed lesson plans, models, and protocols for teachers to implement and monitor students’ writing development. Examples include, but are not limited to:

  • Grade 1 writing exemplars for the three types of writing—opinion, narrative, informative/explanatory—are available in the Benchmark Online Platform.
  • Each lesson has an accompanying Anchor chart and/or Sample Shared writing as well as a picture of the text to which the writing refers.
  • Writing lessons always have these components: Engage thinking, Guide Shared Writing, Oral Rehearsal for Independent Writing, Independent and Small group Writing and Conferring, and Share and Reflect.
  • In Unit 2, Week 2, Day 1, instructional pacing for the Writing lesson allots two minutes for Engage, seven minutes for Guide Shared Writing, five minutes for Oral Rehearsal for Independent Writing, and one to two minutes for Share and Reflect. The margin of the lesson contains Sample Conferring Prompts for the teacher to use to support student writing. Materials provide a sample Diary Entry Writing Anchor Chart and the teacher creates an anchor chart with their class.
  • In Unit 3, students complete a Culminating Research and Project Inquiry project, spending three weeks deepening their understanding of the unit topic, Being a Good Community Helper. Instructional materials include rubrics for both the teacher and student, and a lesson plan outlining the introduction, exploration, presentation, and three-week pacing chart of the project.
  • In Unit 5, students complete a three-week writing task, as the teacher walks them through each step in completing an explanatory text. Materials include daily lessons with specific guidelines, models, and protocols for supporting student writing.
  • In Unit 6, students engage in opinion writing pieces throughout a three-week unit. Instructional materials include unit texts, and the teacher employs daily lesson plans that include a consistent sequence of engaged thinking, modeling, guided practice, preparation for independent writing, Writer’s Workshop, and sharing. Instructional materials also include anchor charts detailing the stages of writing and graphic organizers for opinion writing.
  • In Unit 7, Week 1, Day 1, students learn about process writing. The teacher introduces how-to texts by modeling how to analyze the Mentor Text, “How to Send a Letter.” The teacher displays and reads the text aloud, pointing out the key features and qualities of a strong how-to text. The teacher also creates and displays an anchor chart listing the characteristics of “How-To Writing.” Next, the teacher guides the students in using the Mentor Text to identify the specific steps of how to send a letter. During Independent Writing, students practice discussing the steps about their morning routine from the time they wake up to the time they arrive at school.
  • In Unit 9, students work on a three-week writing task, as the teacher walks them through each step in completing an explanatory/informative text. Materials include daily lessons with specific guidelines, models, and protocols for supporting student writing.
  • In Unit 10, Week 1, Day 1, students learn about writing poetry. The teacher introduces poetry by modeling how to analyze the Mentor Text, “At the Beach,” a sensory poem. The teacher displays and reads the poem aloud, pointing out the key sensory phrases, such as, “I see,” and “I smell.” Next, the teacher guides the students in using the text to identify the features of a sensory poem. During Independent Writing, the students describe and discuss other things they might see, hear, smell, taste, and touch at the beach and use strong, vivid words and phrases in their descriptions. The teacher reminds students that using interesting adjectives and exciting action verbs helps their partner visualize, or imagine, what they experience. Then, students write a new ending for the Mentor Text that they read with the teacher during the lesson.

Indicator 2g

Materials include a progression of focused research projects to encourage students to develop knowledge in a given area by confronting and analyzing different aspects of a topic using multiple texts and source materials.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 2g.

Research projects are sequenced across a school year to include a progression of research skills. Inquiry and research project tasks are similar throughout the year, but the texts used for research increase in complexity. Materials support teachers in employing projects that develop students’ knowledge on a topic via provided resources. The Teacher Edition contains a resource that outlines the information for the Research and Inquiry Projects. It describes the project’s parameters, guiding questions, student expectations, recommendations for modeling research skills, as well as a detailed pacing guide. The materials also contain separate student and teacher rubrics to guide the projects. Teachers guide students through various writing tasks and culminating tasks that are heavily based on unit materials, with opportunities for students to bring in outside sources and experiences as appropriate. Students complete Inquiry and Research projects for every unit. Students use graphic organizers and find key details from unit texts. Materials provide many opportunities for students to apply Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language skills to synthesize and analyze per their grade-level readings. All Inquiry and Research projects and writing research tasks contain reading or listening to a text, discussing texts, a writing component, and speaking through discussions and presentations. It should be noted that while there are various graphic organizers used from project to project, there is not a clear progression of increased expectations of research skills throughout the year.

Examples of student opportunities to engage in short (1–2 days) projects across grades and grade bands include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, Day 2, the teacher and students engage in shared writing to write and draw a personal response based on the Mentor Read-Aloud, “The Amazing Life Cycle of a Frog.” During independent time, students write and/or draw their own personal responses to the text.
  • In Unit 6, Week 3, Day 5, students participate in a Constructive Conversation during the Unit Reflection. Students create a poster that features the most important ideas from the unit. Students can make their poster digitally and incorporate animations and sounds. Students can also use digital media to record each group’s presentation. Teachers guide students through writing responses to the Essential Question and Enduring Understanding questions.
  • In Unit 7, Week 2, Days 4–5, students read the unit text, School Days. Over the course of two days, students use timelines to locate information in the reading as well as distinguish between text and pictures in the story. During Share and Reflect, students find a picture or photograph with a caption in a familiar informational leveled text and discuss with peers how finding information in pictures that is not in the text helps them to better understand a text.
  • In Unit 9, Week 1, Day 2, students create a Brainstorming list to get ideas for their research projects on goods and services. The Brainstorming list has 3 columns: Topic, What I Know, What I can Research to Find Out.

Examples of student opportunities to engage in long (3 + days) projects across grades and grade bands include, but are not limited to:

  • In Unit 1, students engage in a three-week Research and Inquiry Project to deepen their understanding of the unit topic, Plants and Animals Grow and Change. Individual students or small groups choose and research a plant or animal from one of the unit texts. The teacher provides three guiding questions to help focus students’ research. The Teacher Edition also includes several suggestions for supporting students, including modeling how to reread a unit text to find information that answers a guiding question, as well as how to take notes and record information.
  • In Unit 2, the Inquiry and Research project is about animals as characters. Students pick an animal character from one of the unit texts then find other stories with the same character. Students compare the personality of the real animal versus the character and discuss why the author may have chosen the animal as the character. The project is three weeks long. Students research the characters, plan a presentation, and present it to the class.
  • In Unit 3, the three-week Culminating Research and Inquiry task is related to the unit topic, Community Helpers. Materials include a sample pacing guide for the teacher to guide students in the completion of different tasks each week in preparation for the presentation. Before students complete research using outside sources, teacher guidance states: “[M]odel writing, drawing, or pasting to take notes and record information.” The teacher also provides students with graphic organizers as needed. Students may use “a variety of digital tools” in the presentation of their project.
  • In Unit 5, the Essential Question is “How can technology make a difference in our lives?” and the unit topic is “Technology at work.” During a culminating writing task spanning the duration of the unit, students work on an explanatory process writing about technology students use at home. Students read the unit texts about technology, discuss how technology is used in various situations, write about technology at home, and share their finished pieces with the class.
  • In Unit 6, the three-week Culminating Research and Inquiry Project is related to the unit theme, Comparing Messages in Fables. Materials include a sample pacing guide for the teacher to guide students in the completion of different tasks each week in preparation for the presentation. Before students complete research using outside sources, teacher guidance states: “[S]how how to record notes by writing, drawing, or cutting and pasting photos or stickers.” The teacher also provides students with a simple compare and contrast two-column graphic organizer to help them organize their research. Students may use “a variety of digital tools” in the presentation of their project.
  • In Unit 7, students complete a Culminating Research and Inquiry project to deepen their understanding of the unit topic, Past, Present, and Future. Students read about important people and events from the past, and think about how they impacted our lives today and how their stories will continue to shape the future in one or more of the unit texts. Using guiding questions that address the Essential Question, Cross-Text Analysis, and Enduring Understanding, students then conduct research to pick a person or event from the past that is mentioned in one or more of the unit’s texts. Afterward, they deliver a presentation that shows what they have learned to the class.
  • In Unit 8, the Inquiry and Research project is about the sun, moon, and stars. Students pick one object from space they have read about from one of the unit texts, then find other sources about the object. Students research their object from their sources and create a model of the object. The project is three weeks long. Students research, plan a presentation, make a model, and present to the class.
  • In Unit 9, the Essential Question is “Why do people trade with each other?” and the unit topic is “We use goods and services.” During a three-week culminating writing task for the unit, students write a research report about a good or service. In Week 1, students read “Sea Turtle Hatchlings” and discuss the key features of a research report. In Week 2, students read In My Opinion, Goods and Services are Important and discuss the different kinds of goods and services in the text. Students also complete guided lessons as they draft and revise their reports. In Week 3, students finish their reports and share them with the class.

Indicator 2h

Materials provide a design, including accountability, for how students will regularly engage in a volume of independent reading either in or outside of class.
4/4
+
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 1 meet the expectations of Indicator 2h.

Most texts are organized with built-in supports and scaffolds to foster independence. A lot of time is spent on phonics with students reading the same text multiple times. Materials provide support for struggling readers through E-books and partner grouping. Materials often repeat skills practice during independent reading time after the skills have been modeled by the teacher. There is sufficient teacher guidance to foster independence for all readers.

The Foundations and Routines book gives guidance for independent reading during Reading Workshop. The Managing Your Independent Reading Program document contains substantial support for teachers to set up and run an effective independent reading program. There is a proposed schedule for independent reading. The Comprehensive Literacy Planner document gives 30–60 minutes per day for Small Group, Independent Reading, and Conferring. There is a tracking system to track independent reading. Student reading logs can be found in the Managing your Independent Reading Program document, along with Leveled Reading Response forms for students to use after independent reading. Student reading materials span a wide volume of texts at grade levels. The read alouds, shared reading, small group reading, and reader’s theater texts provide a great volume of reading to students around various topics and themes, both literary and informational. There is an appropriate balance of reading in and outside of class. Guidance within the Managing Your Independent Reading Program document requires students to read at home for 20 minutes daily. This is in addition to the wide variety of texts that students read throughout the day and week in class.

Examples of materials that provide a design and accountability for how students will regularly engage in independent reading include, but are not limited to:

  • The Managing Your Independent Reading Program document indicates that students have time for independent reading during their Language Arts block at school as well as at home. The materials state that, at school, “Students may participate in daily independent reading during the Independent and Collaborative Activity block, while the teacher meets with small groups of students to conduct differentiated small-group instruction, model fluency, skills through reader’s theater, or reteach skills and strategies.”
  • The Managing an Independent Reading Program document contains the following information:
    • Additional Resources states: “Within Benchmark Advance, students may participate in daily independent reading during the Independent and Collaborative Activity block, while the teacher meets with small groups…In addition, a list of recommended, award-winning trade books is provided for every unit in Benchmark Advance (at the end of this section), with titles that expand on the unit concepts and essential questions.” However, these books are not part of the core curriculum purchase.
    • Program Support: states, “Students should also be encouraged to develop a routine of reading daily at home for a minimum of 20 minutes, either independently or with a parent. During independent reading, students keep reading logs and reading response journals. The teacher is required to review these logs and journals and to conference regularly with individual students to monitor their progress.” The document also states “the teacher should conduct reading conference with each student as often as possible.”
    • Resources contain the following documents to support Independent Reading: Conference Form, Reading Log, Reading Response forms (three different level responses), and Individual Reading Program Checklist.
  • Accountability measures include student reading logs, reading responses, and teacher-student conferences. The Resources tab of the support materials contains reproducible scaffolded reading response forms, and lists of prompts for reading responses, as well as reading logs. Students use the reading log to record the title of their book, author, genre, and date completed or date abandoned.
  • Benchmark Advance offers a list of 23 ideas for mini-lessons topics for the teacher to use in order to establish independent reading routines. Examples include, “Selecting Books and Enjoying Independent Reading,” “Seeking Help During Independent Reading Time,” “Making Good Book Choices,” and “Abandoning Books.”
  • The independent reading support materials offer guidance on how teachers can help students choose books on their independent reading levels. For example, one suggestion is a scaffolded protocol, the Three-Finger Method for emergent and early readers and the Five-Finger Method for fluent readers. The protocols direct students to count the number of words they either can’t pronounce or don’t understand. The protocol indicates that books are too difficult for early and emergent readers when they make three mistakes on a given page and are too difficult for fluent readers when they make five mistakes on a given page.
  • Each unit includes a “Components at a Glance—Small Group Reading Instruction/Independent Reading and Conferring” document. This document states, “[E]nsure that all students have the opportunity to read self- and teacher-selected titles daily. Students should read for about 30 minutes. At this time of the year, many students may need to build volume and stamina. In this unit, encourage these students to read for at least 15–20 minutes at a time.”
  • The materials recommend specific topics for anchor charts for the teacher to create with the students. These anchor charts outline procedures and strategies for students to use during independent reading. Examples of recommended anchor charts include “How to Check Out and Return a Book,” “Where Good Readers Read,” “How to Find an E-Book,” and “Ways to Choose Books.”
  • In Unit 6, Week 2, Day 1, Independent Reading/Small Group Reading/Conferring time is spent fully engaged with a small group book, applying the learning target, and showing evidence of comprehension with sticky notes in the text. “Apply Understanding: Tell students that during independent reading time, you would like them to look for connections in a previously read leveled text. Ask students to place a self-stick note beside the text or illustration where they make a connection to their own lives. Students should be ready to share their connections during small-group or conferring time.”
  • In Unit 10, Week 2, Day 1, Independent Reading/Small Group Reading/Conferring time is spent fully engaged with a small group book, applying the learning target, and showing evidence of comprehension with sticky notes in the text. “Tell students that during independent reading time, you would like them to apply at least two reading strategies as they reread a leveled text. Ask students to place a self-stick note on each page where they apply a strategy and be prepared to share their strategies during a small-group or conferring time.”

Gateway Three

Usability

Not Rated

+
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Gateway Three Details
This material was not reviewed for Gateway Three because it did not meet expectations for Gateways One and Two

Criterion 3a - 3e

Materials are well designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing.

Indicator 3a

Materials are well-designed and take into account effective lesson structure and pacing.
N/A

Indicator 3b

The teacher and student can reasonably complete the content within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.
N/A
+
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Indicator Rating Details

Indicator 3c

The student resources include ample review and practice resources, clear directions, and explanation, and correct labeling of reference aids (e.g., visuals, maps, etc.).
N/A

Indicator 3d

Materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment items.
N/A

Indicator 3e

The visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.
N/A

Criterion 3f - 3j

Materials support teacher learning and understanding of the Standards.

Indicator 3f

Materials contain a teacher's edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student edition and in the ancillary materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.
N/A
+
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Indicator Rating Details

Indicator 3g

Materials contain a teacher's edition that contains full, adult-level explanations and examples of the more advanced literacy concepts so that teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.
N/A

Indicator 3h

Materials contain a teacher's edition that explains the role of the specific ELA/literacy standards in the context of the overall curriculum.
N/A

Indicator 3i

Materials contain explanations of the instructional approaches of the program and identification of the research-based strategies.
N/A
+
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Indicator Rating Details

Indicator 3j

Materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the ELA/literacy program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.
N/A

Criterion 3k - 3n

Materials offer teachers resources and tools to collect ongoing data about student progress on the Standards.

Indicator 3k

Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that genuinely measure student progress.
N/A
+
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Indicator Rating Details

Indicator 3l

The purpose/use of each assessment is clear:
N/A

Indicator 3l.i

Assessments clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.
N/A
+
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Indicator Rating Details

Indicator 3l.ii

Assessments provide sufficient guidance to teachers for interpreting student performance and suggestions for follow-up.
N/A

Indicator 3m

Materials should include routines and guidance that point out opportunities to monitor student progress.
N/A

Indicator 3n

Materials indicate how students are accountable for independent reading based on student choice and interest to build stamina, confidence, and motivation.
N/A

Criterion 3o - 3r

Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so that they demonstrate independent ability with grade-level standards.

Indicator 3o

Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so the content is accessible to all learners and supports them in meeting or exceeding the grade-level standards.
N/A

Indicator 3p

Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level, or in a language other than English, with extensive opportunities to work with grade level text and meet or exceed grade-level standards.
N/A

Indicator 3q

Materials regularly include extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level.
N/A

Indicator 3r

Materials provide opportunities for teachers to use a variety of grouping strategies.
N/A

Criterion 3s - 3v

Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning. Digital materials are accessible and available in multiple platforms.

Indicator 3s

Digital materials (either included as supplementary to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), "platform neutral" (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.
N/A
+
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Indicator Rating Details

Indicator 3t

Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning, drawing attention to evidence and texts as appropriate.
N/A
+
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Indicator Rating Details

Indicator 3u

Materials can be easily customized for individual learners.
N/A

Indicator 3u.i

Digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.
N/A
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Indicator Rating Details

Indicator 3u.ii

Materials can be easily customized for local use.
N/A
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Indicator Rating Details

Indicator 3v

Materials include or reference technology that provides opportunities for teachers and/or students to collaborate with each other (e.g. websites, discussion groups, webinars, etc.).
N/A
abc123

Additional Publication Details

Report Published Date: 10/29/2020

Report Edition: 2021

Title ISBN Edition Publisher Year
Benchmark Advance 2021 Gr. 1 1-Year Subscription Package 978-1-0786-3846-3 Teacher Benchmark Education Company 2021

About Publishers Responses

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Once a review is complete, publishers have the opportunity to post a 1,500-word response to the educator report and a 1,500-word document that includes any background information or research on the instructional materials.

The publisher has not submitted a response.

Please note: Reports published after 2021 will be using version 2 of our review tools. Learn more.

Educator-Led Review Teams

Each report found on EdReports.org represents hundreds of hours of work by educator reviewers. Working in teams of 4-5, reviewers use educator-developed review tools, evidence guides, and key documents to thoroughly examine their sets of materials.

After receiving over 25 hours of training on the EdReports.org review tool and process, teams meet weekly over the course of several months to share evidence, come to consensus on scoring, and write the evidence that ultimately is shared on the website.

All team members look at every grade and indicator, ensuring that the entire team considers the program in full. The team lead and calibrator also meet in cross-team PLCs to ensure that the tool is being applied consistently among review teams. Final reports are the result of multiple educators analyzing every page, calibrating all findings, and reaching a unified conclusion.

Rubric Design

The EdReports.org’s rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of standards alignment to the fundamental design elements of the materials and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum as recommended by educators.

Advancing Through Gateways

  • Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators to move along the process. Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?
  • Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Key Terms Used throughout Review Rubric and Reports

  • Indicator Specific item that reviewers look for in materials.
  • Criterion Combination of all of the individual indicators for a single focus area.
  • Gateway Organizing feature of the evaluation rubric that combines criteria and prioritizes order for sequential review.
  • Alignment Rating Degree to which materials meet expectations for alignment, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.
  • Usability Degree to which materials are consistent with effective practices for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, and differentiated instruction.

ELA K-2 Rubric and Evidence Guides

The ELA review rubrics identify the criteria and indicators for high quality instructional materials. The rubrics support a sequential review process that reflect the importance of alignment to the standards then consider other high-quality attributes of curriculum as recommended by educators.

For ELA, our rubrics evaluate materials based on:

  • Text Quality and Complexity, and Alignment to Standards with Tasks Grounded in Evidence
  • Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks
  • Instructional Supports and Usability

The ELA Evidence Guides complement the rubrics by elaborating details for each indicator including the purpose of the indicator, information on how to collect evidence, guiding questions and discussion prompts, and scoring criteria.

The EdReports rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of alignment to college and career ready standards and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum, such as usability and design, as recommended by educators.

Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators (gateway 1) to move to the other gateways. 

Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment to the standards. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?

Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. 

In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Alignment and usability ratings are assigned based on how materials score on a series of criteria and indicators with reviewers providing supporting evidence to determine and substantiate each point awarded.

For ELA and math, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to college- and career-ready standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For science, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For all content areas, usability ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for effective practices (as outlined in the evaluation tool) for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, differentiated instruction, and effective technology use.

Math K-8

Math High School

ELA K-2

ELA 3-5

ELA 6-8


ELA High School

Science Middle School

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