Alignment: Overall Summary

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet expectations for Alignment to NGSS, Gateways 1 and 2. Gateway 1: Designed for NGSS; Criterion 1: Three-Dimensional Learning partially meets expectations. The materials include three-dimensional learning opportunities and opportunities for student sensemaking with the three dimensions. However, the formative and summative assessments do not consistently measure the three dimensions for their respective objectives. Criterion 2: Phenomena and Problems Drive Learning partially meets expectations. Phenomena and problems are present, connected to DCIs, and presented to students as directly as possible. The materials consistently elicit but do not leverage student prior knowledge and experience related to the phenomena and problems present. Phenomena and problems drive learning and use of the three dimensions in numerous instances at the unit level but not consistently at the chapter or activity level.

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations for Gateway 2: Coherence and Scope. The materials connect units and chapters in a manner that is apparent to students, and student tasks increase in sophistication within and across units. The materials accurately represent the three dimensions across the series and only include scientific content appropriate to the grade level. Further, the materials include all DCI components and all elements for physical science; life science; earth and space science; and engineering, technology, and applications of science. The materials include all of the SEPs at the grade level and all of the SEPs across the grade band. The materials include all grade-band crosscutting concepts and provide repeated opportunities for students to use CCCs across the grade band. The materials include NGSS connections to Nature of Science and Engineering elements associated with the SEPs and/or CCCs.

See Rating Scale Understanding Gateways

Alignment

|

Partially Meets Expectations

Gateway 1:

Designed for NGSS

0
14
24
28
17
24-28
Meets Expectations
15-23
Partially Meets Expectations
0-14
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 2:

Coherence and Scope

0
16
30
34
34
30-34
Meets Expectations
17-29
Partially Meets Expectations
0-16
Does Not Meet Expectations

Usability

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Not Rated

Not Rated

Gateway 3:

Usability

0
30
50
59
N/A
50-59
Meets Expectations
31-49
Partially Meets Expectations
0-30
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway One

Designed for NGSS

Partially Meets Expectations

+
-
Gateway One Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet expectations for Gateway 1: Designed for NGSS; Criterion 1: Three-Dimensional Learning partially meets expectations and Criterion 2: Phenomena and Problems Drive Learning partially meets expectations.

Criterion 1a - 1c

Materials are designed for three-dimensional learning and assessment.
10/16
+
-
Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet expectations for Criterion 1a-1c: Three-Dimensional Learning. The materials consistently include integration of the three dimensions in at least one learning opportunity per learning sequence and nearly all learning sequences are meaningfully designed for student opportunity to engage in sensemaking with the three dimensions. The materials consistently provide three-dimensional learning objectives at the lesson level that build towards the performance expectations for the larger unit, but do not consistently assess to reveal student knowledge and use of the three dimensions to support the targeted three-dimensional learning objectives. The units also include three-dimensional objectives in the form of 3-D statements and include corresponding assessments but do not consistently address all three dimensions of the objectives.

Indicator 1a

Materials are designed to integrate the Science and Engineering Practices (SEP), Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI), and Crosscutting Concepts (CCC) into student learning.
0/0

Indicator 1a.i

Materials consistently integrate the three dimensions in student learning opportunities.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that they are designed to integrate the Science and Engineering Practices (SEPs), Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs), and Crosscutting Concepts (CCCs) into student learning opportunities. Throughout the grade level, all learning sequences (chapters) include three dimensions and consistently integrate SEPs, CCCs, and DCIs in student learning opportunities (lessons). The materials are designed for students to actively engage in the SEPs and CCCs to deepen understanding of DCIs. Three-dimensional connections are outlined for teachers at the unit, chapter, and lesson level.

Examples of where materials are designed to integrate the three dimensions into student learning opportunities.

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.2: A Plant is a System, students gather information to gain an understanding of what plants need to live, and that plants have parts that work together to help the plant grow. Students work in pairs to gather information about how plant parts work together as a system to help the plant grow (SEP-INFO-P3, DCI-LS2.A-P1). Student partners then use this information to complete a concept-mapping activity that engages students in looking at how plant parts work together as a system to help plants grow (CCC-SYS-P2).
  • In Grade 2: Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2: Planning the Seed Investigations, students investigate different ways seeds can be dispersed in a habitat. Students determine how to model two different types of seeds (SEP-MOD-P3) and then investigate the dispersal of each type of seed (DCI-LS2.A-P2) based on how the different seed structures support the function of dispersal (CCC-SF-P1).
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.4: Supporting Claims with Evidence, students investigate if two glues are the same substance and then support their claim with evidence. Students test the two mystery glues using a sticky test (SEP-INV-P1, DCI-PS1.A-P1) to see if the glued bean will stay on a card and record their observations. Students then write a claim about whether the mystery glues they observed are the same substance, citing evidence from their sticky test and by noting similarities and differences observed during the investigation (SEP-ARG-P6, CCC-PAT-P1).
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.4: Landform Change Over Time, students learn how erosion can happen over time rather than quickly. Students develop models (SEP-MOD-P3) of erosion on a mountain happening very slowly by water (DCI-ESS1.C-P1). Then, students reflect on how understanding scale (CCC-SPQ-P1) will allow them to better understand how the cliff changed.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2: Modeling How Landforms Erode Quickly, students learn how erosion can happen quickly in a short amount of time. Students develop two models (SEP-MOD-P3): one model uses sand to show that water erosion can happen quickly; one model uses chalk to show that water erosion can happen slowly (DCI-ESS1.C-P1, DCI-ESS2.A-P1). Students compare their results of spraying water on chalk and sand then discuss which was more stable and why they think so (CCC-SC-P1).

Indicator 1a.ii

Materials consistently support meaningful student sensemaking with the three dimensions.
4/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that they consistently support meaningful student sensemaking with the three dimensions. Each learning sequence (chapter) includes multiple lessons where students progress towards the goals of the respective chapter and unit. While the materials consistently include opportunities for students to engage in the three dimensions in each chapter, not all lessons provide opportunities for students to build and use all three dimensions for sensemaking. However, the materials do consistently provide an opportunity in at least one lesson per chapter for students to engage in using the science and engineering practices (SEPs) and the crosscutting concepts (CCCs) to meaningfully support student sensemaking with the other dimensions.

Examples where SEPs and CCCs meaningfully support student sensemaking with the other dimensions in the learning sequence.

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.2: A Plant is a System, students engage in a series of activities to help them gather information and gain an understanding of what plants need to live, and that plants have parts that work together to help the plant grow. Students work in pairs to gather information about plant growth as they make sense of how plant parts work together as a system to help the plant grow (SEP-INFO-P3, DCI-LS2.A-P1). Student partners build a deeper understanding of how a plant's parts work together as a system when the partners use the information they have gathered to complete a concept-mapping activity. The activity engages students in looking at how plant parts work together as a system to help plants grow (CCC-SYS-P2). Student sensemaking is supported across the three dimensions.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plants and Animals Relationships: Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2: Planning the Seed Investigations and Lesson 4.3: Conducting the Seed Investigations, students engage in a series of activities where they use appropriate seed models to conduct investigations of different ways in which seeds can be dispersed in a habitat. Students use investigations on seed dispersal to make sense of the structure and function of seeds and their ability to travel in the wind. In Lesson 4.2, students work together as a class to determine how to model two different types of seeds and then to investigate the dispersal of each through the wind (DCI-LS2.A-P2). Lesson 4.2 applies student understanding of the structure and function (CCC-SF-P1) of different seed types to develop models for the investigation in lesson 4.3. The class uses a model to investigate how many seeds with and without propellers move in the wind (SEP-MOD-P3). Students record and compare the data collected (SEP-DATA-P1) in the two investigations to learn that both propellers and fluffy parts help seeds get dispersed to new places away from the plant that made the seeds. Students write a final scientific explanation about what they have learned about how the seeds from sal trees and red silk trees get dispersed (SEP-CEDS-P1).
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.1: Can You Change It Back?, students engage in a learning sequence to investigate different materials, their structures, and functions. Students prepare to test their first glue and how sticky it is. Students prepare a prediction of how their glue will perform before testing its stickiness. All students shake their index cards with their glue and beans for three shakes. Then students record their results (DCI-EST1.C-P1). Students partner-read Can You Change It Back?, a book about matter changing. They are to stop and make predictions before finding out if a change to a material can be undone (DCI-PS1.B-P1, DCI-PS1.A-P1, and SEP-INFO-P1). Then they come back together as a class to discuss the properties of different materials in different states (i.e., the properties of fresh leaves vs. frozen leaves) (CCC-SC-P1).
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.3: Evaluating Strength Test Evidence, students engage in a learning sequence to evaluate their glue strength. Students observe the dried ingredients that they placed on an index card with their glue. Then, students make a prediction based on their observations about how many washers their glue could hold. Students then test the strength with a paperclip-glued card and add washers until the paperclip falls off (SEP-INV-P4). They do this with all the cards to collect as much evidence as possible. Then, students graph the results based on different glue mixtures and their strengths (DCI-PS1.A-P2) to see which mixture created the strongest glue (CCC-CE-P1).
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.1: Evaluating Second Glues and Revising Recipes, students engage in a learning sequence to test their glue's strength and evaluate their findings. Students refer back to a chart they examined in a text prior to this lesson. They look at the chart and how it organizes different properties of a hair gel substance. This helps support students’ sense-making as they are to use a chart in their notebooks to evaluate their glue in a similar format. Students test the strength and stickiness of their glue and record their findings in the chart (SEP-DATA-P1, DCI-PS1.A-P2). Partners compare their glue findings based on the design-goal properties (SEP-DATA-P5, CCC-SF-P1).
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 1: How did the edge of the cliff get to be so close to the flagpole?, students engage in a learning sequence to explain how the edge of the cliff got closer to the flagpole. To answer this question, students must first figure out how to tell if something changed when they aren’t able to observe it changing. In Lesson 1.3, a teacher-prompt introduces students to the idea that some things stay the same while other things change. Students look at characteristics of different types of sand (color, shape, and size). In Lesson 1.4, students read Gary’s Sand Journal to learn that sand with round edges has crashed in waves longer than sand with sharper edges, and small changes over a long time have caused the edges to wear down and get less sharp. In Lesson 1.5, students observe sand samples (SEP-INV-P4) and use what they learned about sand characteristics to explain what changes happened to the rock to make the different sand samples. Students determine the rock changed shape and size over a long period of time (DCI-ESS1.C-P1) as it turned into sand, even though they couldn’t actually observe the changes to the rock happening (CCC-SC-P1).
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2: Modeling How Landforms Erode Quickly, students engage in a learning sequence where they learn how erosion can happen quickly in a short amount of time. Students make sense of the core idea that materials can erode quickly by water (DCI-ESS1.C-P1, DCI-ESS2.A-P1) as they answer teacher-posed questions, “Which was more stable, the sand or the chalk? Why do you think so?” (CCC-SC-P1). They use models (SEP-MOD-P3) they created as evidence to support their discussion on stability as it pertains to the quick erosion.

Indicator 1b

Materials are designed to elicit direct, observable evidence for the three-dimensional learning in the instructional materials.
0/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 do not meet expectations that they are designed to elicit direct, observable evidence for three-dimensional learning in the instructional materials. Lessons consistently provide learning objectives connected to the 3-D Statements for the lesson. The lesson-level 3-D Statements build to support the 3-D Statements for the chapter, and the chapter level 3-D Statements build toward the 3-D Statements for the unit. Lessons have assessment tasks that are designed to reveal student knowledge and use of the three dimensions to support the targeted three-dimensional learning objectives, but not consistently. Often, one or more crosscutting statements (CCCs) within the 3-D Statements are not assessed.

Across the grade, lessons and units consistently incorporate tasks for the purpose of supporting the instructional process. Lessons and units have assessment tasks that are designed to reveal student knowledge and use of some of the dimensions within the targeted objectives. These opportunities are provided through the use of two assessment types used throughout each unit: On-the-Fly Assessment and Critical Juncture. A Pre-Unit Assessment can also be used for formative purposes. This assessment is identical to the End-of-Unit Assessment. While the assessments do not consistently reveal student knowledge and use of the three dimensions for all objectives, each assessment opportunity indicates specific concepts and practices to observe student progress within the learning experiences, followed by suggestions to the teacher based on what might be observed.

Examples where the materials do not elicit direct, observable evidence of elements of all three dimensions in the learning objectives:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.2: Exploring Heating and Cooling, the lesson contains one 3-D Statement as the objective, “Students engage in oral and written argument about whether heating a cornstarch mixture produces the same substance or a different substance (cause and effect).” Students make progress toward the objective by reviewing learning from the book, Can You Change it Back? Students review prior learning that some materials change properties after they are heated or cooled, and others do not. Students then observe two samples of cornstarch mixtures, one that has been heated and the other than has not. Students observe whether heating the mixture changes its properties by making it stickier. Students then use the Sorting Tool to look at different substances (e.g., lettuce, wood, metal), before and after heating or cooling and determine whether the substance can be changed back to the original substance. During the Critical Junction formative assessment, students select one material from the Sorting Tool to write about. They write a claim about whether the substance turns into something new after heating or cooling, or whether the changes are reversible (DCI-PS1.B-P1). Students support their claim based on the properties observed in the pictures (SEP-ARG-P6). While students are introduced to the CCC of cause and effect during the lesson, no elements of the CCC of cause and effect are assessed.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.5: Making Our Second Glue, the lesson contains one 3-D Statement as the objective, “Students apply the evidence they have collected about the properties of glue ingredients to design solutions that meet three design goals (cause and effect).” Students make progress toward the objective by reflecting on evidence from prior observations and tests to determine the recipe for making their glue meet the design criteria. Students make their glue, then test it to see if it meets the criteria (SEP-CEDS-P2). During the Critical Juncture formative assessment, students identify properties needed for designing a toothpaste mixture and the ingredients they would or would not use based on those properties to show they understand that different properties are suited for different purposes (DCI-PS1.A-P1). No elements of the CCC of cause and effect are assessed.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.2: Investigating Differences in Scale, the lesson contains one 3-D Statement as the objective, “Students use a physical model and create maps before and after the model mountain erodes to construct ideas about erosion (stability and change) and how a lot of very small changes can result in a big change.” Students make progress toward the objective by using a physical model of a mountain and creating maps before and after the mountain (SEP-MOD-P3) erodes. Students make many small changes to the mountain. The changes represent erosion to show how one small change is not easily noticed but that many small changes can result in a big change over a long period of time (DCI-ESS1.C-P1). During the On-the-Fly Assessment, students identify which types of scientists study events at a large scale (how a hurricane forms), and which study events at a small scale (how a raindrop forms), to demonstrate understanding that natural phenomena exist and can be studied at different scales (CCC-SPQ-P1); however, this CCC is not part of the lesson objective. No elements of the CCC of stability and change are assessed.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.1: Exploring How Landforms Erode Quickly, the lesson contains one 3-D Statement as the objective, “Students create diagram models to show their initial ideas about how a landform could erode quickly (stability and change). They then obtain information from Handbook of Land and Water about how wind and water can cause landforms that are less stable to erode more quickly than landforms made of solid rock (stability and change; scale, proportion, and quantity).” Students make progress toward the objective by creating diagram models to show their initial ideas about how a landform could erode quickly. They obtain information from the Handbook of Land and Water about how wind and water can cause landforms that are less stable to erode more quickly than landforms made of solid rock (DCI-ESS1.C-P1, CCC-SC-P2). During the On-the-Fly Assessment students visualize information that they read before recording it in their notebooks (SEP-INFO-P4) and then share what they visualize about how landforms can erode quickly (DCI-ESS1.C-P1). No elements of the CCC of scale, proportion, and quantity are assessed.

Example where the materials provide three-dimensional learning objectives at the lesson level, and assess all three dimensions:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.3: Investigating How Roots and Leaves Grow, the lesson contains one 3-D Statement as the objective, “Students use two models of a plant system and then create their own models to explore what happens when plants don’t get the amount of space they need to grow (systems and system models).” Students make progress toward the objective by reviewing that plants get the water and sunlight they need through their roots and leaves. They reread the book, A Plant is a System and answer questions in their notebook explaining how a plant is a system because it has different parts that work together to help it grow (CCC-SYS-P2). Students then play a roots-growing game to explore how roots grow and why some plants do not grow, and to learn where are good places for plants to grow based on the amount of water the plant receives. Students then observe a model of sunlight on leaves to see how some plants struggle to get sunlight and why that might be. Students model plant growth depending on the amount of sunlight they receive (SEP-MOD-P3). The On-the-Fly Assessment checks for understanding as students model multiple plants trying to grow with the same sunlight; students model how plants use their leaves to get sunlight to grow and how groups of plants may, or may not, all grow depending on the size of plants and the availability of sunlight (DCI-LS2.A-P1).
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.4: Diagramming a System, the lesson contains one 3-D Statement as the objective, “Students obtain information about and create a diagram model representing the relationships between the parts of a broadleaf forest habitat system (systems and system models).” Students make progress toward the objective by reading Habitat Scientist to learn how plants and animals in a habitat are different parts of a system that depend on one another. Students complete a chart of the plants and animals in the Broadleaf Forest Habitat then label a drawing (SEP-INFO-P4) to show how the different plants and animals in the habitat interact with each other for survival (CCC-SYS-P2). During the On-the-Fly Assessment, students explain their diagram to demonstrate their understanding that animals in a habitat depend on plants for food (DCI-LS1.C-P1), and that some plants depend on animals to move their seeds around (DCI-LS2.A-P2).

Indicator 1c

Materials are designed to elicit direct, observable evidence of the three-dimensional learning in the instructional materials.
2/4
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet expectations that they are designed to elicit direct, observable evidence of the three-dimensional learning in the instructional materials. Materials consistently provide three-dimensional learning objectives for each unit. The summative tasks are designed to measure students’ achievement of all three dimensions but only partially assess the dimensions described in the targeted 3-D Statements for two of the units. In most cases, one or more science and engineering practice (SEP) or crosscutting concepts (CCC) identified in the 3-D Statements was missing. In Unit 3, the summative assessment assesses all of the targeted dimensions in the unit 3-D Statement.

In Units 1 and 2, the summative assessments are found in the last lesson of each unit, as an End-of-Unit Assessment. In Unit 3, the summative assessment was divided into two parts, found at the ends of Chapters 3 and 4. These assessments are designed to reveal students’ understanding of the unit’s core content, including unit-specific DCIs, SEPs, and CCCs. Rubrics are provided for assessing to support teachers in providing additional prompts and understanding whether student responses addressed each prompt.

An example where the materials provide three-dimensional learning objectives for the learning sequence and the summative tasks measure student achievement of the targeted three-dimensional learning objectives:

  • In Grade 2, Unit 3: Changing Landforms, the unit objective is for students to answer the question, “Why is the edge of the ocean cliff closer to the flagpole than it used to be?” and address the unit-level 3-D Statement, “Students use models to investigate how wind and water cause changes to landforms (cause and effect). They figure out that erosion causes small changes to landforms, which add up to big changes over long periods of time and that landforms made of loose materials can erode much more quickly (scale, proportion, and quantity; stability and change). Throughout the unit, students create diagram models and write explanations to show their developing understanding.” The End-of-Unit-Assessment is divided into two parts. Part 1 is found at the end of Chapter 3 and assesses student explanations and diagrams related to how a cliff eroded without being noticed. Part 2 is found at the end of Chapter 4 and assesses students' explanations related to why the nearby cliff eroded overnight. Prompts are intended to assess all three dimensions. Rubrics for each dimension are provided and include look-for questions and sample responses. Across both assessments, students are assessed on all targeted DCIs, CCCs, and SEPs for this unit.

Examples where the materials provide three-dimensional learning objectives for the learning sequence; summative tasks partially measure student achievement of the targeted three-dimensional learning objectives:

  • In Grade 2, Unit 1: Plant and Animal Relationships, the unit objective is for students to answer the question, “What is happening to the chalta trees in the Bengal Tiger Reserve?” and address the unit-level 3-D Statement, “As plant scientists, students use and create models to investigate and then plan and carry out investigations to explain why new chalta trees are not growing in a section of a broadleaf forest in India (systems and systems models; scale, proportion, and quantity). They figure out how the parts of a habitat system interact generally and about seed dispersal mechanisms specifically (systems and systems models, structure, and function).” The End-of-Unit-Assessment is designed for students to complete diagrams related to seed dispersal then answer questions to explain their thinking. Prompts are intended to assess all three dimensions. Rubrics for each dimension are provided and include look-for questions and sample responses. Rubric 1 assesses the targeted SEPs within this unit. Students use diagrams as models to support their explanation for why some seeds grew and others did not, and to recognize patterns related to night and day. Rubric 2 assesses student understanding related to plants and their structures and functions, and to how different organisms in an ecosystem interact. Rubric 3 assesses the CCC of systems and system models. However, it does not assess the other CCCs identified in the 3-D statement for the unit: scale, proportion, and quantity.
  • In Grade 2, Unit 2: Properties of Materials, the unit objective is for students to answer the question, “How can we design a glue mixture that is better than what the school uses now?” and address the unit-level 3-D Statement, “Students investigate and then analyze and interpret data to determine different properties of materials (patterns, cause and effect). This informs the design of a glue mixture with a combination of desired properties that make it best suited for classroom use.” The End-of-Unit-Assessment is designed for students to construct an argument to show why the school should use the designed glue. Prompts are intended to assess all three dimensions. Rubrics for each dimension are provided and include look-for questions and sample responses. Rubric 1 assesses the SEPs of constructing a design and constructing arguments. To support their argument, students need to use data from their investigations and from the design process for determining how to make their glue. Rubric 2 partially assesses student understanding of the targeted DCIs related to properties of materials. While students discuss the specific properties of their glue as evidence to support their argument, the questions do not fully assess understanding of the targeted DCIs for this unit. Rubric 3 assesses the CCC of cause and effect. However, it does not assess the other CCC identified in the 3-D statement for the unit: patterns.

Criterion 1d - 1i

Materials leverage science phenomena and engineering problems in the context of driving learning and student performance.
7/12
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-
Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet expectations for Criterion 1d-1i: Phenomena and Problems Drive Learning. The materials include phenomena in 33% of the chapters and problems in 33% of chapters. Of those phenomena and problems, they consistently connect to grade-level appropriate DCIs and are consistently presented to students as directly as possible. Few instances of phenomena or problems driving learning and use of the three dimensions were found within the chapters. The materials consistently elicit but do not leverage student prior knowledge and experience related to the phenomena and problems present. The materials incorporate phenomena or problems to drive learning and use of the three dimensions across multiple chapters within some of the units.

Indicator 1d

Phenomena and/or problems are connected to grade-level Disciplinary Core Ideas.
2/2
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that phenomena and/or problems are connected to grade-level disciplinary core ideas (DCIs). Within the grade, the materials provide opportunities for students to build an understanding of grade-level DCIs through unit-level or chapter-level phenomena or problems. In many cases, multiple lesson investigations work together to connect to a single phenomenon and/or problem to develop an understanding of corresponding DCIs. Across the series, students engage in a variety of disciplines including life science, earth and space science, and physical science while developing a deeper understanding of the engineering design cycle as they apply DCIs to the design problem. Within this grade, students work on developing their understanding of the phenomenon or problem across multiple lessons and chapters.

Examples of phenomena and problems that connect to grade-band DCIs present in the materials:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, students engage with a design problem to create a better glue for their school. Students design the glue and revise their designs across three chapters in the unit. Students develop and test their glue using the sticky test. Students learn more about properties of materials (DCI-PS1.A-P2) and set up their glue’s strength test. Students then test the glue to determine if the glue aligns with their design goals. Students revise their glue recipe to better meet their design goals. Students test the glue against the four properties they decided the glue should have. Students then evaluate their glue and make changes based on how it performed in the different property areas.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 1: How did the edge of the cliff get so close to the flagpole?, the phenomenon is that the cliff where Oceanside Recreation Center is situated appears to be receding. Students model how sand is formed when rock is exposed to forces that can break it down. Then students use this evidence to create a written explanation that the cliff at Oceanside has changed slowly over time (DCI-ESS1.C-P1) because it is made of rock and rocks change shape over time.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4: Could the recreation center’s cliff erode quickly?, the phenomenon is that a cliff eroded overnight. Students read Handbook of Land and Water to learn that landforms with cracks and landforms made of loose materials can erode quickly (DCI-ESS1.C-P1) from the effects of wind and water (DCI-ESS2.A-P1). Students use this information to write scientific explanations about why the nearby cliff eroded overnight.

Example of a phenomenon that does not connect to a grade-level DCIs in the materials:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.3: Conducting the Seed Investigations, the phenomenon is that seeds from three different types of trees in the Bengal Tiger Reserve can reach new places where they can grow. Students test different shapes of seeds to see if they can travel a specified distance. This includes both propeller seeds and fluffy seeds. Students use evidence from their investigations to explain that some trees have seeds that animals do not disperse; the external parts on these seeds allow the wind to move the seeds to areas they are able to grow (DCI-LS1.A-P1). This DCI is not connected to Grade 2 performance expectations (PE), rather it is connected to a Grade 1 PE.

Indicator 1e

Phenomena and/or problems are presented to students as directly as possible.
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that phenomena and/or problems are presented to students as directly as possible. Across the grade level, lessons present phenomena and problems to students as directly as possible. In multiple instances, students are initially presented the phenomenon or problem through pictures and videos that are accompanied by a scenario.

Examples of phenomena and problems presented as directly as possible:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.3: Conducting the Seed Investigations, the phenomenon is that seeds from three different types of trees in the Bengal Tiger Reserve can reach new places where they can grow. The phenomenon is introduced with students being told that animals do not move seeds from some trees, accompanied by photographs of the trees and seeds. This is the most direct way to introduce students to what the trees and seeds look like, since visiting the reserve would not be practical.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 1: How did the edge of the cliff get so close to the flagpole?, the phenomenon is that the cliff where Oceanside Recreation Center is situated appears to be receding. The phenomenon is introduced through a picture showing the recreation center on a cliff and a flagpole near the edge of the cliff. An additional illustration is provided that shows the flagpole two meters away from the edge a long time ago, and another illustration that shows the flagpole currently one meter away from the edge. The photograph and illustration are a direct way to provide students context to engage with this phenomenon.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4: Could the recreation center’s cliff erode quickly?, the phenomenon is that a cliff eroded overnight. Students are introduced to their next investigations which is to discover what caused a nearby cliff to erode quickly. This phenomenon is introduced with a photograph of a nearby cliff that eroded quickly and a picture of the recreation center’s cliff that has eroded slowly. The two pictures allow students to make comparisons between the composition of each cliff. This is presented as directly as possible, since it wouldn’t be practical for students to see a cliff erode in real time.

Examples of a problem not presented as directly as possible:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, students engage with a design problem to create a better glue for their school. The students are introduced to the problem through a letter from the principal explaining that the teachers have expressed concern with some of the school supplies. This has led the principal to ask the second graders in the school to take on the challenge of designing a new glue for the school. This is not the most direct way for the problem to be presented.

Indicator 1f

Phenomena and/or problems drive individual lessons or activities using key elements of all three dimensions.
0/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 do not meet expectations that phenomena and/or problems drive individual chapters using key elements of all three dimensions. Each of the three units at this grade include a unit-level phenomenon or problem. Near the start of each unit, students are asked to play the role of a scientist or an engineer tasked with explaining the phenomenon or solving the problem. The phenomenon or problem consistently drives learning across the unit and in few instances drives learning of a single lesson or chapter. While the phenomena and/or problems serve as a central component of learning and can be explained through the application of targeted grade-appropriate disciplinary core ideas (DCIs), science and engineering practices (SEPs), and crosscutting concepts (CCCs), this is primarily found at the unit level and not within individual lessons or chapters.

Examples where a chapter or lesson within the grade does not use a phenomenon or problem to drive student learning:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 1: Why aren’t new chalta trees growing in the Bengal Tiger Reserve?, a phenomenon or problem connects to, but does not drive, student learning. Instead, students learn how scientists study habitats, and then they learn about different habitats. Students also learn that seeds need sunlight and water to become mature plants. Students then apply this learning to the chalta tree in the tiger reserve to explain that there might not be new chalta trees because the seeds do not get enough water or light.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 2: Why aren’t the chalta seeds getting what they need to grow?, a phenomenon or problem connects to, but does not drive, student learning. Instead, students investigate how a plant is a system and how the roots and leaves are part of the system that work together to help the plant grow. Students learn that plants need enough space for their roots to absorb water and need to be in an area where the leaves are exposed to sunlight. Students then apply this learning to the chalta tree in the tiger reserve to explain that there might not be new chalta trees because the plants might not be in an area where they can get enough water or light.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 2: Can heating a substance (and returning it to its original temperature) make a better glue?, a phenomenon or problem connects to, but does not drive, student learning. Instead, students learn that all substances have properties that can be affected if the substance is heated or cooled. Students learn that some substances permanently change properties after being heated, while other substances return back to their original properties after heating and then cooling. Students then apply this learning to the glue they are making, determining whether heating a cornstarch solution will change the properties to make their glue stickier.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 3: What ingredients can be used to make a glue that is sticky and strong?, a phenomenon or problem connects to, but does not drive, student learning. Instead, students learn that combining different substances with different properties can create a new substance with a combination of properties. Students then apply this learning to the glue they are making, determining that the criteria for their glue should include stickiness but also strength, and then determining what should be added to their glue to make it stronger.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 1: How did the edge of the cliff get to be so close to the flagpole?, a phenomenon or problem connects to, but does not drive, student learning. Students learn about different types of landforms and learn that sand is made of tiny pieces of rock. They read a book about a scientist and learn that the size, shape, and color of sand can be used to figure out where it came from. Students then model (SEP-MOD-P3) how rock from the cliff can break off, by shaking hard candies in a jar and observing the small bits that broke off the candies. Students then craft an explanation for what is causing the breakdown of the rock on the cliffside (DCI-ESS1.C-P1, DCI-ESS2.A-P1, and CCC-CE-P1). Students then apply this learning to the phenomenon that the cliff where Oceanside Recreation Center is situated appears to be receding, explaining that small pieces of rock broke off the cliff, causing the cliff to change.

Examples where a chapter or lesson within the grade uses a phenomenon or problem to drive student learning and engages students with all three dimensions:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 4: How are other seeds in the reserve able to get to places where they can grow?, the phenomenon is that seeds from three different types of trees in the Bengal Tiger Reserve can reach new places where they can grow. Within this chapter, students review a map of the reserve and where each of the three different types of trees are found. Students then learn about three trees in the reserve and see photographs of the trees, including its seeds or fruits. Students compare the shape of the three different types of seeds and investigate different ways that seeds move with and without propellers (SEP-INV-P1) by using a fan to blow them. Students compare the number of seeds with propellers and those without propellers that moved away from the fan to explain dispersal of seeds that are not moved by animals (DCI-LS2.A-P2). Then students perform an investigation using fluffy seeds and paper clips. Students blow on the seed and measure how far it moves (DCI-LS2.A-P2). Then they do the same for the paperclip and discuss how the structures of wind-dispersed seeds help them move (CCC-SF-P1). Students then use this information to explain how each type of seed from the three types of trees in the reserve are dispersed.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.1: Exploring How Landforms Erode Quickly, the phenomenon that a cliff has eroded overnight drives student learning. Students read Handbook of Land and Water and record ways that landforms with cracks and landforms made of loose materials can erode quickly (DCI-ESS1.C-P1). They use erosion models (SEP-MOD-P4) to show that wind and water can quickly erode landforms made of loose materials and that landforms of different materials erode at different rates (CCC-CE-P1). Students then use this information to explain how the nearby cliff eroded overnight and discuss what advice to give the director about the safety of the cliff under the recreation center.

Indicator 1g

Materials are designed to include both phenomena and problems.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 are designed for students to solve problems in 33% (4/12) of the chapters. Throughout the materials 33% (4/12) of the chapters focus on explaining phenomena.

The Grade 2 materials are designed as three instructional units, further organized into four chapters per unit. Each chapter is divided into multiple 60-minute lessons, comprising smaller activities. Each unit is structured to include 20 lessons plus two 60-minute assessment days.

All three units have a phenomenon or problem that is introduced during the first chapter of the unit and labeled as an Anchor Phenomenon. Subsequent chapters in the unit are designed around guiding questions that help students develop an explanation of the phenomenon or problem.

In the Plant and Animal Relationships unit, students explore seed dispersal by examining plant and animal diversity through different habitats to make sense of why chalta trees no longer grow in a reserve. In the Properties of Materials unit, students engage in design problems to design a new glue for their school. In the Changing Landforms unit, students engage in various phenomena to figure out what caused a cliff to erode.

Example of a problem in the materials:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, students engage with a design problem to create a better glue for their school. Students design the glue and revise their designs across three chapters in the unit. Students develop and test their glue using the sticky test. Students learn more about properties of materials and set up their glue’s strength test. Students then test the glue to determine if the glue aligns with their design goals. Students revise their glue recipe to better meet their design goals. Students test the glue against the four properties they decided the glue should have. Students then evaluate their glue, and make changes based on how it performed in the different property areas.

Examples of phenomena in the materials:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.3: Conducting the Seed Investigations, the phenomenon is that seeds from three different types of trees in the Bengal Tiger Reserve can reach new places where they can grow. Students test different shapes of seeds to see if they can travel a specified distance. This includes both propeller seeds and fluffy seeds. Students use evidence from their investigations to explain how seeds from different trees in the Bengal Tiger Reserve are able to get to different places so they can grow.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 1: How did the edge of the cliff get so close to the flagpole?, the phenomenon is that the cliff where Oceanside Recreation Center is situated appears to be receding. Students model how sand is formed when rock is exposed to forces that can break it down. Then students use this evidence to create a written explanation that the cliff at Oceanside has changed over time because it is made of rock and rocks change shape over time.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4: Could the recreation center’s cliff erode quickly?, the phenomenon is that a cliff eroded overnight. Students read Handbook of Land and Water to learn that landforms with cracks and landforms made of loose materials can erode quickly from the effects of wind and water. Students use this information to write scientific explanations about why the nearby cliff eroded overnight.

Indicator 1h

Materials intentionally leverage students’ prior knowledge and experiences related to phenomena or problems.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet expectations that they intentionally leverage students’ prior knowledge and experiences related to phenomena or problems. In Grade 2, the materials consistently elicit students’ prior knowledge and experiences related to phenomena and problems, but do not consistently leverage throughout the materials in a way that allows students to build from their own knowledge and experiences. The materials elicit content knowledge from previous activities but also utilize What We Think We Know and Our Experiences charts for the teacher to document students' prior knowledge and experiences related to the phenomenon or problem. The teacher is also directed to post the student thinking charts on the wall so they can return to it throughout the unit. This routine for elicitation of prior knowledge and experience is used consistently across units. The information students share or that is elicited is not incorporated in subsequent activities but instead is frequently connected to at the end of instruction for students to reflect on, missing the opportunity to leverage the prior knowledge and experience.

Examples where the materials elicit prior knowledge and experience related to phenomena and problems, but miss the opportunity to leverage:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.3: Conducting the Seed Investigations, the phenomenon is that seeds from three different types of trees in the Bengal Tiger Reserve can reach new places where they can grow. In Chapter 1, Lesson 1.1: Pre-Unit Assessment, the materials elicit students’ prior knowledge and experiences of how plants needs to grow and why they might not grow. In a whole class share out, students reveal prior knowledge and it is placed on the What We Think We Know chart for them to refer back to. Then, students engage in a classroom discussion to bring forward their experiences to be placed on the Our Experiences chart. While these charts are eliciting student prior knowledge and experience, there is a missed opportunity to leverage; the information students share is not incorporated in subsequent activities.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, students engage with a design problem to create a better glue for their school. Students design the glue and revise their designs across three chapters in the unit. In Chapter 1, Lesson 1.1: Pre-Unit Assessment, the materials elicit students’ prior knowledge and experiences of materials and mixture, specifically addressing glue in a discussion about experiences with materials. In a whole class share out, students reveal prior knowledge and it is placed on the What We Think We Know chart for them to refer back to. Then, students engage in a classroom discussion to bring forward their experiences to be placed on the Our Experiences chart. While these charts are eliciting student prior knowledge and experience, there is a missed opportunity to leverage; the information students share is not incorporated in subsequent activities.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 1: How did the edge of the cliff get so close to the flagpole?, the phenomenon is that the cliff where Oceanside Recreation Center is situated appears to be receding. In Chapter 1, Lesson 1.1: Pre-Unit Assessment, the materials elicit students’ prior knowledge and experiences of changes to land and rocks and specifically address prior experience with cliffs. In a whole class share out, students reveal prior knowledge and it is placed on the What We Think We Know chart for them to refer back to. Then, students engage in a classroom discussion to bring forward their experiences to be placed on the Our Experiences chart. While these charts are eliciting student prior knowledge and experience, there is a missed opportunity to leverage; the information students share is not incorporated in subsequent activities.
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4: Could the recreation center’s cliff erode quickly?, the phenomenon is that a cliff eroded overnight. Students review pictures of two cliffs; one that eroded quickly and one that eroded slowly over time. In Chapter 1, Lesson 1.1: Pre-Unit Assessment, the materials elicit students’ prior knowledge and experiences of changes to land and rocks and specifically address prior experience with cliffs. In a whole class share out, students reveal prior knowledge and it is placed on the What We Think We Know chart for them to refer back to. Then, students engage in a classroom discussion to bring forward their experiences to be placed on the Our Experiences chart. While these charts are eliciting student prior knowledge and experience, there is a missed opportunity to leverage; the information students share is not incorporated in subsequent activities.

Indicator 1i

Materials embed phenomena or problems across multiple lessons for students to use and build knowledge of all three dimensions.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 partially meet expectations that they embed phenomena or problems across multiple lessons for students to use and build knowledge of all three dimensions. The instructional materials provide numerous chapters that use phenomena or problems to drive student learning and to engage with all three dimensions across multiple lessons across the grade. Each chapter of the unit consists of multiple lessons. The phenomenon or problem does not drive learning of all lessons within the chapters. Instead, many lessons are driven by a science topic or concept that builds background knowledge that can then be applied to the phenomenon or problem. Two units contain multiple chapters where one or more of the lessons within the chapter are driven by the phenomenon or problem. One unit is driven by science topics, rather than a phenomenon or problem, although students connect their learning back to the unit-level phenomenon. The materials provide multimodal opportunities for students to develop, evaluate, and revise their thinking as students figure out phenomena or solve problems. Students have frequent opportunities to engage in multimodal learning to develop, evaluate, and revise their thinking within each unit.

Examples of units where a phenomenon or problem drives student learning across multiple lessons in the unit and students engage with the three dimensions across the unit:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, the phenomenon that a cliff where Cliffside Recreation Center is situated appears to be receding drives learning across multiple lessons. Students engage with all three dimensions across multiple lessons and are provided with multimodal opportunities to develop, evaluate, and revise their thinking as they make sense of the phenomenon. This phenomenon is introduced in Chapter 1 and then students investigate how a flagpole at a nearby cliff is closer to the edge than it used to be. In Chapter 2, students engage in a series of lessons to understand how the cliff below the recreation center changed as landforms eroded. Students use a chalk model (SEP-MOD-P3) to investigate how landforms can change then read about and discuss how water can change a landform, relating this to the cliff at the recreation center. Students erode their chalk models with water and then compare it to pumice rock rubbing against another piece of pumice and how it crumbles. In Chapter 3, students figure out why the cliff was able to erode without the director noticing. Students conduct investigations to determine that erosion often produces very small changes, so it takes a long time to notice these changes (CCC-SC-P2, DCI-ESS1.C-P1). In Chapter 4, students determine why the nearby cliff eroded quickly and investigate how water can erode a landform quickly. Students first read a book about how landforms can erode quickly then use water to erode a chalk model and a sand model, comparing which eroded more quickly and relating that to geographic time scales. In Lesson 4.2, students use a mound of sand and blow on it with a straw, to model how the wind can quickly change the shape of the land. Students then create a digital model to better understand how erosion can happen quickly in order to explain why the nearby cliff eroded quickly. Students develop an understanding of how landforms can erode quickly (SEP-CEDS-P1, CCC-SC-P2, and DCI-ESS2.A-P1).
  • In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Material, students receive a letter from their principal asking them to design a new glue for the school. This design challenge drives learning across multiple lessons. Students engage with all three dimensions across multiple lessons and are provided with multimodal opportunities to develop, evaluate, and revise their thinking as they design their glue. In Chapter 1, students investigate two mystery glues and conduct sticky tests to determine if they are the same glue. Students then plan, make, and test their own glue recipes. In Chapter 2, students observe a glue ingredient before and after heating, perform sticky tests on the two substances (SEP-INV-P5), then discuss how the properties have changed and if those changes result in a stickier glue (CCC-CE-P1). In Chapter 3, students are provided multiple opportunities to evaluate, reflect, and revise their recipes in order to improve their final designs. Students add strength as a design goal and continue to test their glue recipes (SEP-INV-P5). After investigations are complete, students analyze and evaluate their data (SEP-DATA-P5) to determine what changes should be made based on the glue ingredients’ effectiveness (CCC-CE-P1, DCI-PS1.A-P1, and DCI-PS1.A-P2).

Example of a unit where a phenomenon or problem does not drive student learning across multiple lessons in the unit but students engage with the three dimensions across the unit:

  • In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, concepts related to plant needs and how their environment meets those needs (DCI-LS2.A-P1, DCI-LS2.A-P2, and DCI-LS4.D-P1) drive student learning, rather than a phenomenon or problem. While the phenomenon that no new chalta trees are growing in the Bengal Tiger Reserve is referenced multiple times across the unit, it is provided more as context to apply the learning rather than a specific phenomenon that drives the learning for lessons, chapters, or a unit. In Chapter 1, student learning is driven by the concept that plants need sunlight and water to grow. To figure out why no new trees are growing in the Bengal Tiger Reserve, students compare a sample site of a habitat at their school to what they can observe from the Bengal Tiger Reserve (SEP DATA-P3, CCC-SC-P2), counting the number of trees throughout a ten-year period. Students then plant seeds and investigate (SEP-INV-E3) water and sunlight needs (DCI-LS2.A-P1, DCI-LS2.A-P2) and how that affects the growth of plants. They read about and learn about habitats, (DCI-LS4.D-P1, SEP-INFO-P3), types of seeds from different plants, and how plants depend on animals for pollination. In Chapter 3, student learning is driven by the concept that some plants depend on animals for pollination. Students read about different parts of the habitat (SEP-INFO-P3). They engage with a model (SEP-MOD-P3) that demonstrates hiding seeds and another model which demonstrates seed dispersal (DCI-LS2.A-P2). Students reflect on how seeds are dispersed in their habitat, diagramming their habitat to show seed dispersal and how plants and animals depend on one another (DCI-ESS2.B-P1, CCC-SYS-E1). Students then connect this learning back to the phenomenon as they analyze data on animal droppings in the reserve to create explanations about what is happening to the chalta trees (SEP-CEDS-E1, SEP-CEDS-E2).

Gateway Two

Coherence and Scope

Meets Expectations

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Gateway Two Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations for Gateway 2: Coherence and Scope.

Criterion 2a - 2g

Materials are coherent in design, scientifically accurate, and support grade-level and grade-band endpoints of all three dimensions.
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Criterion Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations for Criterion 2a-2g: Coherence and Full Scope of the Three Dimensions. The materials support students in understanding connections between chapters and units. The materials, and corresponding suggested sequence, reveal student tasks related to explaining phenomena or solving problems that increase in sophistication within each unit and across units. The materials accurately represent the three dimensions across the series and only include scientific content appropriate to the grade level. Further, the materials include all DCI components and all elements for physical science; life science; earth and space science; and engineering, technology, and applications of science. The materials include all of the SEPs at the grade level and all of the SEPs across the grade band. The materials include all grade-band crosscutting concepts and provide repeated opportunities for students to use CCCs across the grade band. The materials include NGSS connections to Nature of Science and Engineering elements associated with the SEPs and/or CCCs.

Indicator 2a

Materials are designed for students to build and connect their knowledge and use of the three dimensions across the series.
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Indicator 2a.i

Students understand how the materials connect the dimensions from unit to unit.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that students understand how the materials connect the dimensions from chapter to chapter. The materials include three units comprising four chapters per unit. The Science Program Guide provides a recommended scope and sequence. The Unit Overview and Unit Map sections of the teacher materials provide information and support for teachers explaining how the chapters within a unit connect to each other. The Lesson Overview section of the teacher materials provides information and support for teachers that explains how the lessons within a chapter connect to each other. The first lesson of the unit (following the Pre-Unit Assessment) provides prompts that give context and goals for the entire unit. The first lesson of each subsequent chapter in the unit usually connects prior learning between the chapters in the unit. While there are connections among chapters within each unit, there are not connections among each unit and other units in the recommended sequence.

Examples of student learning experiences that demonstrate connections across chapters:

  • In Grade 2, Unit 1: Plant and Animal Relationships, the chapters focus on understanding why chalta trees aren’t growing in a specific location. Across the unit, students have multiple opportunities to conduct investigations with peers (SEP-INV-P1) as they develop an understanding of plant needs (DCI-LS2.A-P1, DCI-LS2.A-P2). Chapters 1–3 focus on the role of water and sunlight on chalta trees growth. Chapters 3–4 focus on why the chalta tree seeds aren’t getting to places where they can grow. Chapter 1 introduces students to the problem that the chalta trees aren’t growing like they used to, and that the seeds may not be getting enough light and water to grow. In Chapter 2, students explore why the location of the chalta seeds may prevent them from getting enough sunlight and water to grow. In Chapter 3, students investigate why the chalta seeds aren’t getting to places where there is sufficient water and sunlight needed for their growth. Students learn how animals can move and disperse seeds. In Chapter 4, students explore how the structure of different seeds determines how they move and if they are dispersed by animals.
  • In Grade 2, Unit 2: Properties of Materials, the chapters focus on designing a new glue. Students have multiple opportunities to engage with the engineering design process (DCI-ETS1.A-P2, DCI-ETS1.B-P1) and related to the engineering design process and support arguments with evidence (SEP-ARG-P6) as they understand properties of materials and develop and test a new sticky glue for their school. Chapter 1 introduces the design challenge of making a sticky and strong glue. Students investigate the properties of two different glues to determine if they are the same or different, then test each glue using a sticky test. Students develop a claim about the mystery glues based on the evidence they collect. Students observe different mixtures of dry ingredients and wet ingredients, then make their glue mixture. In Chapter 2, students test their glue using the sticky test on the heated mixture and compare the results with those of the non-heated mixture. Students write an argument that supports their claim of which ingredients will make the best glue. In Chapter 3, students consider how to make the glue stronger, and then conduct a strength test. Students reflect on the glue design process. In Chapter 4, students design a glue recipe based on their prior tests. Students reevaluate and redesign their glue recipe before using the glue in a craft project to ensure their recipe works.
  • In Grade 2, Unit 3: Changing Landforms, the chapters focus on how water and wind shape the earth. Across the unit, students have multiple opportunities to engage with multiple elements of developing and using models and DCIs related to earth processes. Students take on the role of geologists to help the Oceanside Recreation Center Director understand what is happening to the recreation center’s cliff, and decide whether the center needs to be closed immediately. In Chapter 1, students learn about different types of landforms and investigate sand samples to learn that sand is composed of tiny pieces of rock. The class then uses a model where they shake pieces of hard candy to see how small pieces break off, and relate that to how the shape of the cliff can change. In Chapter 2, students investigate the process by which landforms change. They observe images of landforms before and after big changes and discuss ideas about what might have caused the change to each landform. They use models with chalk to investigate how water can change a landform by causing pieces of rock to break off. In Chapter 3, students learn that maps are a tool geologists use to study changes to landforms. Students use a digital modeling tool to create their own maps of landforms. Students make a model and then erode the model to show how many small changes can add up to a bigger change. Students use this information to explain how the recreation center’s cliff eroded without the director noticing. In Chapter 4, students learn that landforms with cracks and landforms made of loose materials can erode faster than landforms made of solid rock. They use multiple erosion models to provide evidence that supports the idea that wind and water can quickly erode landforms made of loose materials. After reflecting on the many models and information sources from the unit, students use the digital modeling tool to demonstrate their understanding of why landforms made of different materials erode at different rates and write a final explanation of why the nearby cliff eroded overnight.

Indicator 2a.ii

Materials have an intentional sequence where student tasks increase in sophistication.
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that they have an intentional sequence where student tasks increase in sophistication. Materials are designed with an intentional or suggested sequence and student tasks related to explaining phenomena and/or solving problems increase in sophistication within each unit and across the grade band.

Within the grade, the recommended sequence of units is Plant and Animal Relationships, Properties of Materials, and Changing Landforms, in that order. Within each of these units, there is a single anchor phenomenon or topic that is presented to students, and student learning builds across the unit as students gather information to figure it out. Although the units are provided in a recommended order, there is no specific increase of rigor as these units are presented. Approaches to the assessment of the different dimensions are also consistent and similar throughout each unit. However, the learning tasks within the unit increase in sophistication as students work towards explaining phenomena or solving problems.

Example of student tasks with increasing in sophistication within a unit:

  • In Grade 2, Unit 1: Plant and Animal Relationships, Students investigate why trees aren’t growing in a particular habitat by reviewing what plants need to grow and then expanding on that knowledge through models, simulations, and data collection to explain the problem. In Chapter 1, students investigate a sample site in the Bengal Tiger Reserve to see what is in the plants in that habitat. Students also investigate to determine what seeds need to grow (water and light). In Chapter 2, students investigate why plants can’t always get the sunlight and water they need to grow. Students play a game that models how there’s not always enough space for every seed to get what it needs to grow. Students look at data from the Bengal Tiger Reserve to see the amount of sunny days and rain now vs. where there were lots of trees to determine if that’s the issue of the trees not growing. In Chapter 3, students investigate how seed dispersal works to see how seeds can get to new places in their habitat. Students learn that some animals eat the plants and fruits that the seeds are in and the seeds are moved around that way. Students then do an investigation that models bird droppings so they can see how seeds move around and the impact on habitats.
  • In Grade 2, Unit 2 Properties of Materials, students are introduced to the design problem of using the properties of materials to make a sticky glue. The students get more autonomy than in the earlier grades for their design based on their own investigations. Students are asked to learn, plan, make, and test their own designs with peer interactions. In Chapter 1, students are introduced to the principal who is asking for a glue that the school can use. Students learn about the properties of glue through an investigation of two mystery substances. After learning about the properties and ingredients of glue through investigations and reading, students are asked to plan, make, and test their initial glue design. In Chapter 2, students investigate what happens to a substance after it has been heated. They learn that some substances change while other substances go back to their original state. The students also conduct a sticky investigation on two substances after they have been heated. Students continue to learn about the properties of materials to proceed in their design during Chapter 3. In Chapter 3, the students add an additional design goal to their glue: the glue must now also be strong. Students conduct a strength test on potential glue ingredients and evaluate their evidence using a reference book. Using this data along with the data collected from their glue design in Chapter 1, students design their second glue. In Chapter 4, students evaluate the stickiness and strength of their glue. Working with a partner, they plan, make, and test another glue design using the information gathered from their individual glues.
  • In Grade 2, Unit 3: Changing Landforms, through the exploration and investigation of functional and conceptual modeling, students generate and explore questions about wind and water changing landforms due to erosion. In Chapter 1, students work as a class to investigate how rocks can change shape using a hard candy model. At the end of the chapter, students are introduced to the features of a scientific explanation and, as a class, compose a scientific explanation that answers the Chapter 1 question, "How did the edge of the cliff get to be so close to the flagpole?" In Chapter 2, students use a chalk model with water as the force of erosion to investigate how water can change a landform. Finally, they apply their understanding that water hitting a landform causes changes to a landform by diagramming the process happening to the recreation center’s cliff. After considering an additional feature of a scientific explanation, students write their own explanations to answer the Chapter 2 question, “How did the recreation center’s cliff change?” In Chapter 3, students explore the concept of scale using a mountain model made of pom-poms. The class erodes the model to show how many small, hard-to-notice changes can add up to a bigger change that is easy to notice. At the end of the chapter, students write scientific explanations and complete diagrams to explain how the recreation center’s cliff eroded without the director noticing. In Chapter 4, students use models to gather evidence that supports the idea that wind and water can erode a landform quickly if the landform is made of loose materials. Students reflect on the role of models in science as they read a book about real scientists who use a model to investigate how streams erode streambeds. Students then use the unit’s modeling tool to show how a big storm could erode mountains made of rock and an island made of loose materials in different ways. At the end of the chapter, students diagram what happened to the nearby cliff and write final explanations to answer the Chapter 4 question, "Could the recreation center’s cliff erode quickly?"

In each K–5 grade level, there is one unit that emphasizes the practice of investigation, one that emphasizes the practice of modeling, and one that emphasizes the engineering practice of design. As students progress through the series, the materials connect learning of the three dimensions across the entire grade band. The way students engage with and use the three dimensions also increases in sophistication across the investigation, modeling, and engineering design units.

  • Investigation Units: Each grade contains a unit focused on students developing the science practices related to investigations. The K–2 grade band shows increasing complexity as students begin with simple classroom investigations and add in technology, maps, and thinking about system interactions. In Kindergarten, the Needs of Plants and Animals unit has students investigate what plants and animals need to live as they figure out why monarch caterpillars no longer live in Mariposa Grove. They conduct a series of investigations to determine the effects of light and water on plant growth. In Grade 1, the Spinning Earth unit focuses on students investigating patterns in the sky and why the sky looks different at the same time in different places. Student investigations increase in sophistication as they collect observational data, and also make observations using live webcams to learn about what the sky looks like at different times and in different places across the globe. In Grade 2, the Plant and Animal Relationships unit focuses on understanding why chalta trees aren’t growing in a specific location. Student investigations increase in sophistication as they interpret visual data from the study site and connect information from multiple investigations to explain how different components in the ecosystem impact the growth of the trees.
  • Engineering Design Units: Each grade contains a unit focused on students developing the science practices and DCIs related to engineering design. The K–2 grade band shows increasing complexity as students begin with simple guided designs and increase in sophistication with the type of design and level of testing required. In Kindergarten, the Pushes and Pulls unit focuses on understanding the forces needed to design a pinball machine. Students conduct guided investigations then apply their learning to a design of a pinball machine. Each investigation guides students to designing the next component (launcher, bumper, flipper) of their pinball machine. In Grade 1, the Light and Sound unit focuses on understanding aspects of light and sound to be able to design a puppet show scene. Student investigations guide students to designing the next component of their puppet show (lighting the stage, making shadow scenery, and adding sound) but students have more choice and flexibility in their designs than they did in the Kindergarten unit. Students also begin to understand the importance of testing and selecting different materials for their designs. In Grade 2, the Properties of Materials unit focuses on designing a new glue. Students understand properties of materials as they develop and test a new sticky glue for their school. As students work on their designs, they test properties of different materials and determine whether those materials combine to form a glue that meets criteria for stickiness and strength. Students have opportunities to make revisions to their recipe following testing.
  • Modeling Units: Each grade contains a unit focused on students developing the SEPs related to developing and using models. The K–2 grade band shows increasing complexity as students begin with a simple model that they use to collect data, then develop their own physical models, and then use multiple models to explain a phenomenon. In Kindergarten, the Sunlight and Weather unit focuses on using a lamp model to simulate how sunlight can heat earth’s surfaces throughout the day. Students then use information from their models to figure out what causes the temperature differences between the two playgrounds throughout the day. In Grade 1, the Animal and Plant Defenses unit focuses on how animals defend themselves in their environment. Students learn about physical structures of sea turtles and other animals that are used as protection. Students then create a model of a specific animal defense mechanism to demonstrate understanding of how an animal protects itself. In Grade 2, the Changing Landforms unit focuses on how water and wind shape earth. Students use multiple models to explain various components of why a cliff near a recreation center eroded. Students use models to simulate how rocks hitting each other can break off small pieces and form sand. Students use models with chalk to investigate how water can change a landform by causing pieces of rock to break off. Students use a digital modeling tool to create their own maps of landforms. Students make a model and then erode the model to show how many small changes can add up to a bigger change. Students use this information to explain how the recreation center’s cliff eroded without the director noticing. Students use multiple erosion models to provide evidence that supports the idea that wind and water can quickly erode landforms made of loose materials.

Indicator 2b

Materials present Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI), Science and Engineering Practices (SEP), and Crosscutting Concepts (CCC) in a way that is scientifically accurate.*
2/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that they present disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, and crosscutting concepts in a way that is scientifically accurate. Across the grade, the teacher materials, student materials, and assessments accurately represent the three dimensions and are free from scientific inaccuracies in each of the three units.

Indicator 2c

Materials do not inappropriately include scientific content and ideas outside of the grade-level Disciplinary Core Ideas.*
2/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that they do not inappropriately include scientific content and ideas outside of the grade-level disciplinary core ideas (DCIs). Across the grade, the materials consistently incorporate student learning opportunities to learn and use DCIs appropriate to the grade.

Indicator 2d

Materials incorporate all grade-level Disciplinary Core Ideas.
0/0

Indicator 2d.i

Physical Sciences
2/2
+
-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that they incorporate all grade-level disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) for physical sciences. Across the grade, the materials include all of the associated elements of the physical science DCIs. These are found in one of the three units for this grade: Properties of Materials.

Examples of grade-level physical science DCI elements present in the materials:

  • PS1.A-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.1: Can You Change it Back?, students read a book to learn if you can change matter back after heating it. This is to help them understand how heating up one type of matter can sometimes change it to another type of matter.
  • PS1.A-P2: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.1: Evaluating Second Glues and Revising Recipes, students consider what properties glue should have to meet the desired purpose. Students test the strength and stickiness of their glue and evaluate their findings.
  • PS1.A-P3: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.5: Making Your Own Glue, students note properties of the three separate ingredients they use in their glue recipe. Students mix the ingredients to create their glue, a new substance with different properties. This helps students understand that new materials can be built from combinations of other materials and that glue is made of a mixture of other substances.
  • PS1.B-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.2: Exploring Heating and Cooling, students construct an argument about whether heating a cornstarch mixture produces the same substance or a different substance. Students list the properties of the substance before and after it was heated; then, they make a claim about whether or not the substance turns into something new and provide evidence to support their claim.

Indicator 2d.ii

Life Sciences
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that they incorporate all grade-level disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) for life sciences. Across the grade, the materials include all of the components and associated elements of the life science DCIs. These are found in one of the three units for this grade: Plant and Animal Relationships.

Examples of the grade-level life science DCI element present in the materials:

  • LS2.A-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.5: What are Seeds?, students read information in Handbook of Habitats to learn that seeds (plants) need water and sunlight to be able to grow.
  • LS2.A-P2: In Grade 2: Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.2: Investigating How Seeds Move, students use a role-play game to model how two birds are involved with dispersing fruits from two different plants. In this model, students roll a number cube to determine which bush the bird visits and whether it eats the fruits. This helps students understand how plants use animals to help move their seeds.
  • LS4.D-P1: In Grade 2, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.3: Investigating Habitats, students learn that different types of plants and animals live in an area called a habitat by observing and recording information of a sample habitat. They then learn how scientists study habitats and changes in habitats.

Indicator 2d.iii

Earth and Space Sciences
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meet expectations that they incorporate all grade-level disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) for earth and space sciences. Across the grade, the materials include all of the associated elements of the earth and space science DCIs. These are found in one of the three units for this grade: Changing Landforms

Examples of the grade-level earth and space science DCI elements present in the materials:

  • ESS1.C-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2: Modeling How Landforms Erode Quickly, students learn how erosion can happen quickly or over longer periods of time. They spray water on chalk and sand then discuss their observations to determine that different materials erode at different rates.
  • ESS2.A-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.1: Exploring How Landforms Erode Quickly, students read the Handbook of Land and Water to learn how landforms can erode quickly. They learn that water can slowly erode rock, weakening the surrounding land and causing slow changes to caves. Other times, once the surrounding rock is unstable, fast changes can cause cave-ins.
  • ESS2.A-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2: Modeling How Landforms Erode Quickly, students observe a sand dune and discuss how wind could erode this landform. Students use a mound of sand and blow on it with a straw, to model how the wind can quickly change the shape of the land. This helps them understand that wind can erode landforms and like water, can move materials to quickly change the shape of the land.
  • ESS2.B-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.1: Introduction to Maps, the class reads the introduction to the reference book, Handbook of Land and Water, to understand how to read a map using a map key and different perspectives. Students then work with the Changing Landforms Modeling Tool to create simple maps to represent landforms they have been shown from side-view photos.
  • ESS2.C-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.3: What’s Stronger?, students read What’s Stronger? How Water Causes Erosion to gather evidence about how water changes a landform, even though landforms are made of hard rock. Students use information from the book to consider the ways in which liquid and solid water can erode landforms and then participate in a class discussion about the different examples of landforms and how water can change them.

Indicator 2d.iv

Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grades K–2 meet expectations that they incorporate all grade-band and grade-level disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) for engineering, technology and applications of science (ETS) and all associated elements. In Kindergarten, three performance expectations (PEs) are associated with a physical, life, or earth and space science DCI that also connect to an ETS DCI. The ETS elements within these kindergarten PEs are present in the materials.

Examples of the Kindergarten grade-level ETS DCI elements present in the materials:

  • ETS1.A-P1: In Kindergarten, Unit: Pushes and Pulls, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.1: Pre-Unit Assessment, students are introduced to their role as engineers. During a teacher-led discussion, students are shown the What Engineers Do chart to learn that engineers find out about problems and then go through a series of processes to design a solution. Throughout this unit, students then work to solve the problem of designing a pinball machine.
  • ETS1.A-P2: In Kindergarten, Unit: Needs of Plants and Animals, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.7: Water for Milkweed, students learn that asking questions and gathering information are important parts of solving problems. Students determine that the milkweed plants don’t grow in the black pot because they don’t get enough water, but they do grow in the white pot because they have water. Students use this to understand that water for the milkweed plants will be important in their garden design.
  • ETS1.B-P1: In Kindergarten, Unit: Needs of Plants and Animals, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.3: Reflecting on Needs of Living Things, students make their garden plan by gluing images of the plants to the location of their garden. This helps students communicate their design solutions to other people without needing to actually construct the garden.

In Grade 1, no PEs associated with a physical, life, or earth and space science DCI connect to an ETS DCI. However, the materials do include opportunities for students to engage with ETS elements in this grade.

Examples of ETS DCI elements present in the Grade 1 materials:

  • ETS1.A-P1: In Grade 1, Unit: Light and Sound, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.6: Explaining the Puppet-Show Scene, students learn that people can create new approaches or solve problems through engineering. Students are asked to solve a problem from a fictitious play company that would allow them to carry fewer materials when putting on a puppet show.
  • ETS1.C-P1: In Grade 1, Unit: Light and Sound, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.5: Testing and Revising our Solutions, students learn that it is useful to compare and test designs to find the best solution to their problem. They work with partners to test their design solutions that show a bright, medium-bright, and dark area for the designed scene of the puppet show. They test to see if their stencils make the appropriate “brightness” in the scene and revise as needed.

In Grade 2, there are two PEs associated with a physical, life, or earth and space science DCI that also connect to an ETS DCI. The ETS elements within these Grade 2 PEs are present in the materials.

Examples of the Grade 2 grade-level ETS DCI elements present in the materials:

  • ETS1.B-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Animal and Plant Defenses, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.8: Defending the Food Supply, students learn that models can be an effective way to communicate design solutions to other people. Students then make a physical model of their design to defend a food bag in an aquarium.
  • ETS1.C-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.9: Making Our First Glue, students learn that it is useful to compare and test designs to find the best solution to their problem. Students test whether their glue can pass the sticky-glue test to determine whether they need to revise their glue recipe.

The K–2 grade band includes three ETS PEs that are designed to be taught at any point across the grade band. These PEs include five elements. The materials provide opportunities to engage with ETS DCIs and their elements in all three grades within this band.

Examples of the K–2 grade-band ETS DCI elements present in the materials:

  • ETS1.A-P1: In Kindergarten, Unit: Pushes and Pulls, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.1: Pre-Unit Assessment, students are introduced to their role as engineers. During a teacher-led discussion, students are shown the What Engineers Do chart to learn that engineers find out about problems and then go through a series of processes to design a solution. Throughout this unit, students then work to solve the problem of designing a pinball machine.
  • ETS1.A-P2: In Kindergarten, Unit: Needs of Plants and Animals, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.7: Water for Milkweed, students learn that asking questions and gathering information are important parts of solving problems. Students determine that the milkweed plants don’t grow in the black pot because they don’t get enough water, but they do grow in the white pot because they have water. Students use this to understand that water for the milkweed plants will be important in their garden design.
  • ETS1.A-P3: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 3: What ingredients can be used to make a glue that is sticky and strong?, students gain a better understanding of the problem to inform their glue designs. Throughout the chapter, students gather information about properties of glue to help inform their design process.
  • ETS1.B-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Animal and Plant Defenses, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.8: Defending the Food Supply, students learn that models can be an effective way to communicate design solutions to other people. Students then make a physical model of their design to defend a food bag in an aquarium.
  • ETS1.C-P1: In Grade 1, Unit: Light and Sound, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.5: Testing and Revising our Solutions, students learn that it is useful to compare and test designs to find the best solution to their problem. They work with partners to test their design solutions that show a bright, medium-bright, and dark area for the designed scene of the puppet show. They test to see if their stencils result in the appropriate “brightness” in the scene and revise as needed.

Indicator 2e

Materials incorporate all grade-band Science and Engineering Practices.
0/0

Indicator 2e.i

Materials incorporate grade-level appropriate SEPs within each grade.
4/4
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-
Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 2 meets expectations that they incorporate all grade-level science and engineering practices (SEPs) and associated elements. The materials include all of the SEP elements associated with the performance expectations (PEs) for the grade level. These are found across all three units for this grade.

Examples of SEP elements associated with the grade-level performance expectations that are present in the materials:

  • MOD-P3: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.4: Landform Change Over Time, students develop models of the erosion on a mountain happening very slowly by water.
  • MOD-P4: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms Activity 4, Lesson 4.5, Activity 4: Preventing Erosion, students discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different solutions for preventing erosion. Students then brainstorm other possible solutions. Students select a solution, then draw a model of the chosen solution, using evidence from prior learning to describe how the solution would slow or stop erosion.
  • INV-P2: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.9: Making Our First Glue, students plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to determine if their recipe for their glue will pass the sticky-glue test.
  • INV-P4: In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 3: Why aren’t Chalta seeds getting to places where they need to grow?, students use a model that demonstrates hiding seeds and another model that demonstrates seed dispersal. They use data collected from the models to compare how seeds are dispersed in their habitat and how plants and animals depend on one another.
  • DATA-P5: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.1: Evaluating Second Glues and Revising Recipes, students test the strength and stickiness of their glue and analyze their findings to determine if their glue meets the design-goal properties.
  • ARG-P6: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Lesson 2.2: Exploring Heating and Cooling, students construct an argument about whether heating a cornstarch mixture produces the same substance or a different substance. Students list the properties of the substance before and after it is heated; then, they make a claim about whether or not the substance turns into something new and provide evidence to support their claim.
  • CEDS-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.6: Explaining the Problem in the Reserve, students apply their understanding of seed dispersal as they craft a scientific explanation to the lead scientist of the reserve. Students construct their explanations using information they observe during their investigations and by reading reference books on habitats and types of seeds
  • CEDS-P3: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2: Making Final Glues, students share successful design ideas with their classmates and compare and evaluate each-other's glue designs based on the evidence of data collected. Students use that information to revise and create their final glue designs.
  • INFO-P3: In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 1, Why aren’t new chalta trees growing in the Bengal Tiger Reserve?, students read and learn about habitats and types of seeds from different plants to determine that the trees need adequate sunlight, water, and depend on animals for pollination.

Indicator 2e.ii

Materials incorporate all SEPs across the grade band.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grades K–2 meet expectations that they incorporate all grade-level science and engineering practices (SEPs) and associated elements across the grade band. The materials include nearly all of the SEP elements associated with the performance expectations (PEs) for the grade band; however, one SEP is not present in the materials. Elements of the present SEPs are found across all three grades within this grade band. Materials include few elements of the SEPs from above or below the grade band without connecting to the grade-band appropriate SEP.

Examples of SEP elements associated with the grade-band performance expectations that are present in the materials:

  • AQDP-P1: In Kindergarten, Unit: Pushes and Pulls, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.1: Identifying New Design Goals, students watch the pinball video. After making observations from the video, the teacher is prompted to inform students that engineers ask questions, some of which come from their observations. The teacher models how to ask a question about the pinball video. Students are then prompted to ask their own questions based on their observations of the pinball machine design in the video.
  • AQDP-P1: In Kindergarten, Unit: Sunlight and Weather, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.4: Weather and the Playgrounds, after examining a weather graph and calendar, the teacher models how to ask a question about observations from the data. Students are then prompted to ask their own questions that would provide more information on the weather differences at the two playgrounds.
  • MOD-P3: In Kindergarten, Unit: Sunlight and Weather, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.1: Modeling Warming of Different Surfaces, students use a colored-surfaces model to determine the relative temperature (range from very cold to very hot) of the playground surfaces. Students use these models to determine that some surfaces get warmer than others when sunlight shines on them.
  • MOD-P4: In Grade 1, Unit: Animal and Plant Defenses, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.4: Modeling Shells and Armor, students observe a video of a turtle and an alligator to gather evidence about shells and armor as a type of defense against being eaten. The class gathers additional information about how shells and armor function to defend living things by revisiting sections of Tortoise Parts and the reference book. Then, students work together to develop a simple physical model that shows how living things use their shells or armor to defend themselves from being eaten.
  • INV-P1: In Kindergarten, Unit: Light and Sound, Chapter 3: How Do We Make A Pinball Move To A Certain Place?, students conduct an investigation with peers. Students investigate the direction a ball will go when they push on it. Groups of three students sit in a circle and roll the ball to each other, paying attention to where they are targeting to roll the ball.
  • INV-P2: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.9: Making Our First Glue, students plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to determine if their recipe for their glue will pass the sticky-glue test.
  • INV-P3: In Grade 1, Unit: Spinning Earth, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.2: After Sunset, students look at firsthand and secondhand ways to observe the sky at daytime and at nighttime. They use these observations to discuss how sometimes scientists need to use more than one way to collect information and relate it to making direct observations of the sky during the school day but using pictures of the night sky to help understand what the sky looks like at night.
  • INV-P4: In Kindergarten, Unit: Needs of Plants and Animals, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.6: Explaining Why There Are No Caterpillars, students collect data that can be used to make comparisons. Students read the Handbook of Plants to find out that monarch caterpillars eat milkweed plants. Then students compare pictures of the Mariposa Community Garden to the field that was there previously, comparing the different plants they see. Students determine that there is no milkweed in the garden and the caterpillars cannot live in the garden because they only eat milkweed.
  • DATA-P3: In Kindergarten, Unit: Pushes and Pulls, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.3: Force Happens Between Two Objects, students use observations to describe relationships between two objects. Students make observations of what happens to objects when they interact (such as a car pushing a block, or using a string to pull a tube). Students look at the relationship between the two objects to describe how force on one object acts on the other object.
  • DATA-P5: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.1: Evaluating Second Glues and Revising Recipes, students test the strength and stickiness of their glue and analyze their findings to determine if their glue meets the design-goal properties.
  • CEDS-P1: In Grade 1, Unit: Spinning Earth, Chapter 1: Why did the sky look different to Sai than to his grandma?, students make and record observations of the daytime sky to collect evidence to support an account for why the sky looks different to Sai than to his grandma.
  • CEDS-P2: In Grade 1, Unit: Light and Sound, Chapter 4: How do we design a sound source to go with a puppet show scene?, students use different materials to design a device that can use vibrations to make sound for their puppet show scene.
  • CEDS-P3: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2: Making Final Glues, students share successful design ideas with their classmates and compare and evaluate each-other's glue designs based on the evidence of data collected. Students use that information to revise and create their final glue designs.
  • ARG-P6: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Lesson 2.2: Exploring Heating and Cooling, students construct an argument about whether heating a cornstarch mixture produces the same substance or a different substance. Students list the properties of the substance before and after it was heated; then, they make a claim about whether or not the substance turns into something new provide evidence to support their claim.
  • INFO-P1: In Kindergarten, Unit: Needs of Plants and Animals, Chapter 3: Why do the milkweed plants that get water grow differently?, students read texts and view images of different plants to obtain information that plants need light to grow.
  • INFO-P3: Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 1, Why aren’t new chalta trees growing in the Bengal Tiger Reserve?, students read and learn about habitats and types of seeds from different plants to determine that the trees need adequate sunlight and water, and depend on animals for pollination.
  • INFO-P4: In Kindergarten, Unit: Needs of Plants and Animals, Chapter 2: Why do two milkweed seeds become plants, but the others did not?, students write and draw in a mini-book to communicate information about what milkweed plants need to grow.

Indicator 2f

Materials incorporate all grade-band Crosscutting Concepts.
8/8
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grades K-2 meet expectations that they incorporate all grade-level crosscutting concepts (CCCs) and associated elements across the grade band. The materials include all of the CCC elements associated with the performance expectations for the grade band. Elements of the CCCs are found across all three grades within this grade band. Materials include few elements of the CCCs from above the grade band without connecting to the grade-band appropriate CCC.

Across the grade band, students have multiple opportunities to engage with the grade-level CCCs that are implicitly connected to SEPs or DCIs as they build toward grade-level performance expectations. For example, students have frequent opportunities to use observations to describe patterns in the natural world to answer scientific questions (SEP-DATA-P3) but have limited opportunities to explicitly discuss the importance of using patterns as evidence to describe phenomena (CCC-PAT-P1). When the materials provide opportunities to make the crosscutting concepts explicit for students, this is generally through sentence frames to help students use targeted CCCs, or through teacher prompts that provide explicit connections and guide student discussions about how scientists and engineers use different CCCs to answer scientific questions or solve engineering problems.

Examples of CCC elements associated with the grade-band performance expectations that are present in the materials:

  • PAT-P1: In Grade 1, Unit: Spinning Earth, Chapter 1: Why did the sky look different to Sai than to his grandma?, students learn that, “A pattern is something we observe to be similar over and over again. Scientists look for patterns to help them understand and explain what they observe.” Students then read the Patterns of Earth and Space big book. Patterns in the natural and human-designed world can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence. Students make observations of the daytime sky and begin to identify patterns from their observations.
  • PAT-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.4: Gary’s Sand Journal, students discuss the pattern that Gary recorded by making observations of sand. Students learn that patterns in sand grains (size, color, and shape) can be used as evidence of the types of materials it is made of, the size waves that moved it, and the age of the sand.
  • CE-P1: In Kindergarten, Unit: Sunlight and Weather, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.2: Discussing Warming Over Time, students use data from their Warming Model to support or refute ideas about why one playground was warmer than the other. Students use their data showing about the time of day, the amount of sunlight, and the temperature to conclude that the difference in the amount of sunlight caused one playground to be warmer than the others.
  • CE-P1: In Grade 1, Unit: Light and Sound, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.4: Planning and Making Our Stencils, students learn that tests can be designed to gather evidence about causes. Students make diagrams of their proposed solutions for stencils that will project a puppet-show scene that enables all, some, or no light to pass through. Students explain why the difference in material causes some stencils to make the area darker than others.
  • CE-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.6: Investigating Seed Needs, students learn that tests can be used to gather evidence to support a claim about what causes something to happen. Students use a test to determine that limited plant growth is caused by not giving the seeds enough water or by not giving the plants enough sunlight. Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.
  • CE-P2: In Kindergarten, Unit: Pushes and Pulls, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.2: Strong and Gentle Forces, students move a ball on the floor, using both strong and gentle forces and observing the distances that the ball moved relative to the amount of force applied. Students discuss how the amount of force used to push the ball results in the observable patterns that stronger pushes cause the ball to move a longer distance and gentle pushes cause the ball to move a shorter distance.
  • CE-P2: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.2: Investigating Differences in Scale, students use a physical model of a mountain and create maps before and after the mountain erodes. Students use their model to help them understand that certain events create repeatable patterns, such as water causing erosion.
  • SYS-P2: In Kindergarten, Unit: Needs of Plants and Animals, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.3: Growing Toward the Light, students learn that systems have parts that work together and a plant is a system because it has different parts (roots, stems, leaves) that help it live and grow.
  • EM-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.1: Can You Change It Back?, students review text and images in the book Can You Change it Back? showing popsicle sticks arranged in different configurations. The teacher leads a class discussion to elicit the idea that small objects can be combined into larger objects and rearranged to create different objects. This idea is revisited in Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2 when students take apart four popsicle sticks they glued together to rearrange them into a picture frame.
  • SF-P1: In Grade 1, Unit: Animal and Plant Defenses, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.3: Introducing Modeling, students read Spikes, Spines, and Shells: A Handbook of Defenses, then create physical models of structures that animals and plants use to defend themselves from being eaten. Students explain how the shape of the structures are related to their function of protecting the organism.
  • SF-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Plant and Animal Relationships, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.3: Conducting the Seed Investigations, students model different ways that seeds move with and without propellers to determine which type of seed moves with the wind. They use this test to identify how the shape of seed structures are related to their function.
  • SC-P2: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 3, Lesson 3.2: Investigating Differences in Scale, students use a physical model of a mountain and create maps before and after the mountain erodes. Students use their model to show how a lot of very small changes can result in a big change or may change slowly or rapidly.

Indicator 2g

Materials incorporate NGSS Connections to Nature of Science and Engineering
2/2
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Indicator Rating Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grades K–2 meet expectations that they incorporate NGSS connections to the nature of science (NOS) and engineering. The NOS and engineering elements are represented and attended multiple times throughout the grade-band units. They are used in correlation with the content and not used as isolated lessons. The NOS and Engineering elements are used in a variety of fashions throughout the units including videos, readings, and class discussions. Although most of the elements are present in the lessons, they are not explicitly called out in the instructional material.

Examples of grade-band connections to NOS elements associated with SEPs present in the materials:

  • VOM-P2: In Kindergarten, Unit: Sunlight and Weather, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.2: Learning More About Models, students read about how scientists use different models as ways to study the world in the Handbook of Models big book. Students discuss how scientists use models before starting an investigation of their own that uses a model.
  • BEE-P1: In Kindergarten, Unit: Needs of Plants and Animals, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.2: Comparing Living and Nonliving Things, students determine whether the object shown on a card is living or nonliving and sort into categories. As they do so, a teacher prompt informs students that scientists look for patterns and look for how things are the same and different too, and this is one way that scientists figure things out about the world.
  • ENP-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Changing Landforms, Chapter 2, Lesson 2.1: Diagramming Landform Changes, students learn how scientists communicate ideas by using diagrams and models as a way to communicate ideas and information. Students learn what makes a diagram different from regular pictures. Students then create a diagram to show what they think happened to the cliff below the recreation center.

Examples of grade-band connections to NOS elements associated with CCCs present in the materials:

  • AOC-P1: In Grade 1, Unit: Spinning Earth, Chapter 4, Lesson 4.2: Adding Sunset Data to the Sky Mural, students make a Sky Mural to document their observations of the sun’s position in the sky. A class discussion focuses on understanding that the patterns are observations that can be made over and over again, and that the Sky Mural helps students see the pattern that the sun repeats because the sun is in about the same position at the same time of each day.
  • AQAW-P1: In Grade 1, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.7, Activity 3: Reading: Jelly Bean Engineer, students read about jelly-bean engineers who make different recipes for jelly beans and then test the jelly beans for texture and flavor. During a class discussion, the teacher is prompted to point out that scientists study the natural world, including plants and animals, and that engineers study the material world, including solving problems that involve substances like jelly beans.

Examples of grade-band connections to ENG elements associated with CCCs present in the materials:

  • INFLU-P1: In Grade 2, Unit: Properties of Materials, Chapter 1, Lesson 1.2: What If Rain Boots Were Made of Paper?, students read the book, What If Rain Boots Were Made of Paper? to introduce the idea that different materials have different properties and it is important for engineers to use their knowledge of the properties of the materials (natural or engineered) they choose when they design things.

Gateway Three

Usability

Not Rated

+
-
Gateway Three Details
This material was not reviewed for Gateway Three because it did not meet expectations for Gateways One and Two

Criterion 3a - 3d

Materials are designed to support teachers not only in using the materials, but also in understanding the expectations of the standards.

Indicator 3a

Materials include background information to help teachers support students in using the three dimensions to explain phenomena and solve problems (also see indicators 3b and 3l).
N/A

Indicator 3b

Materials provide guidance that supports teachers in planning and providing effective learning experiences to engage students in figuring out phenomena and solving problems.
N/A

Indicator 3c

Materials contain teacher guidance with sufficient and useful annotations and suggestions for how to enact the student materials and ancillary materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.
N/A

Indicator 3d

Materials contain explanations of the instructional approaches of the program and identification of the research-based strategies.
N/A

Criterion 3e - 3k

Materials are designed to support all students in learning.

Indicator 3e

Materials are designed to leverage diverse cultural and social backgrounds of students.
N/A

Indicator 3f

Materials provide appropriate support, accommodations, and/or modifications for numerous special populations that will support their regular and active participation in learning science and engineering.
N/A

Indicator 3g

Materials provide multiple access points for students at varying ability levels and backgrounds to make sense of phenomena and design solutions to problems.
N/A

Indicator 3h

Materials include opportunities for students to share their thinking and apply their understanding in a variety of ways.
N/A

Indicator 3i

Materials include a balance of images or information about people, representing various demographic and physical characteristics.
N/A

Indicator 3j

Materials provide opportunities for teachers to use a variety of grouping strategies.
N/A

Indicator 3k

Materials are made accessible to students by providing appropriate supports for different reading levels.
N/A

Criterion 3l - 3s

Materials are designed to be usable and also to support teachers in using the materials and understanding how the materials are designed.

Indicator 3l

The teacher materials provide a rationale for how units across the series are intentionally sequenced to build coherence and student understanding.
N/A

Indicator 3m

Materials document how each lesson and unit align to NGSS.
N/A

Indicator 3n

Materials document how each lesson and unit align to English/Language Arts and Math Common Core State Standards, including the standards for mathematical practice.
N/A

Indicator 3n.i

Materials document how each lesson and unit align to English/Language Arts Common Core State Standards.
N/A

Indicator 3n.ii

Materials document how each lesson and unit align to Math Common Core State Standards, including the standards for mathematical practice.
N/A

Indicator 3o

Resources (whether in print or digital) are clear and free of errors.
N/A

Indicator 3p

Materials include a comprehensive list of materials needed.
N/A

Indicator 3q

Materials embed clear science safety guidelines for teacher and students across the instructional materials.
N/A

Indicator 3r

Materials designated for each grade level are feasible and flexible for one school year.
N/A

Indicator 3s

Materials contain strategies for informing students, parents, or caregivers about the science program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.
N/A

Criterion 3t - 3y

Materials are designed to assess students and support the interpretation of the assessment results.

Indicator 3t

Assessments include a variety of modalities and measures.
N/A

Indicator 3u

Assessments offer ways for individual student progress to be measured over time.
N/A

Indicator 3v

Materials provide opportunities and guidance for oral and/or written peer and teacher feedback and self reflection, allowing students to monitor and move their own learning.
N/A

Indicator 3w

Tools are provided for scoring assessment items (e.g., sample student responses, rubrics, scoring guidelines, and open-ended feedback).
N/A

Indicator 3x

Guidance is provided for interpreting the range of student understanding (e.g., determining what high and low scores mean for students) for relevant Science and Engineering Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Disciplinary Core Ideas.
N/A

Indicator 3y

Assessments are accessible to diverse learners regardless of gender identification, language, learning exceptionality, race/ethnicity, or socioeconomic status.
N/A

Criterion 3z - 3ad

Materials are designed to include and support the use of digital technologies.

Indicator 3z

Materials integrate digital technology and interactive tools (data collection tools, simulations, modeling), when appropriate, in ways that support student engagement in the three dimensions of science.
N/A

Indicator 3aa

Digital materials are web based and compatible with multiple internet browsers. In addition, materials are “platform neutral,” are compatible with multiple operating systems and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices.
N/A

Indicator 3ab

Materials include opportunities to assess three-dimensional learning using digital technology.
N/A

Indicator 3ac

Materials can be customized for individual learners, using adaptive or other technological innovations.
N/A

Indicator 3ad

Materials include or reference digital technology that provides opportunities for teachers and/or students to collaborate with each other (e.g., websites, discussion groups, webinars, etc.).
N/A
abc123

Additional Publication Details

Report Published Date: 10/08/2020

Report Edition: 2018

Title ISBN Edition Publisher Year
Properties of Materials Book Set 978-1-64089-485-3 Amplify Education 2018
Changing Landforms Book Set 978-1-64089-672-7 Amplify Education 2018
Plant and Animal Relationships Book Set 978-1-64089-674-1 Amplify Education 2018
Properties of Materials Investigation Notebook 978-1-943228-77-5 Amplify Education 2018
Plant and Animal Relationships Investigation Notebook 978-1-943228-98-0 Amplify Education 2018
Changing Landforms Investigation Notebook 978-1-945192-82-1 Amplify Education 2018

About Publishers Responses

All publishers are invited to provide an orientation to the educator-led team that will be reviewing their materials. The review teams also can ask publishers clarifying questions about their programs throughout the review process.

Once a review is complete, publishers have the opportunity to post a 1,500-word response to the educator report and a 1,500-word document that includes any background information or research on the instructional materials.

Please note: Beginning in spring 2020, reports developed by EdReports.org will be using an updated version of our review tools. View draft versions of our revised review criteria here.

Educator-Led Review Teams

Each report found on EdReports.org represents hundreds of hours of work by educator reviewers. Working in teams of 4-5, reviewers use educator-developed review tools, evidence guides, and key documents to thoroughly examine their sets of materials.

After receiving over 25 hours of training on the EdReports.org review tool and process, teams meet weekly over the course of several months to share evidence, come to consensus on scoring, and write the evidence that ultimately is shared on the website.

All team members look at every grade and indicator, ensuring that the entire team considers the program in full. The team lead and calibrator also meet in cross-team PLCs to ensure that the tool is being applied consistently among review teams. Final reports are the result of multiple educators analyzing every page, calibrating all findings, and reaching a unified conclusion.

Rubric Design

The EdReports.org’s rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of standards alignment to the fundamental design elements of the materials and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum as recommended by educators.

Advancing Through Gateways

  • Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators to move along the process. Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?
  • Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Key Terms Used throughout Review Rubric and Reports

  • Indicator Specific item that reviewers look for in materials.
  • Criterion Combination of all of the individual indicators for a single focus area.
  • Gateway Organizing feature of the evaluation rubric that combines criteria and prioritizes order for sequential review.
  • Alignment Rating Degree to which materials meet expectations for alignment, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.
  • Usability Degree to which materials are consistent with effective practices for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, and differentiated instruction.

Science K-5 Rubric and Evidence Guides

The science review rubric identifies the criteria and indicators for high quality instructional materials. The rubric supports a sequential review process that reflects the importance of alignment to the standards then considers other high-quality attributes of curriculum as recommended by educators.

For science, our rubrics evaluate materials based on:

  • Three-Dimensional Learning
  • Phenomena and Problems Drive Learning
  • Coherence and Full Scope of the Three Dimensions
  • Design to Facilitate Teacher Learning
  • Instructional Supports and Usability

The Evidence Guides complement the rubric by elaborating details for each indicator including the purpose of the indicator, information on how to collect evidence, guiding questions and discussion prompts, and scoring criteria.

To best read our reports we recommend utilizing the Codes for NGSS Elements document that provides the code and description of elements cited as evidence in each report.

 

The EdReports rubric supports a sequential review process through three gateways. These gateways reflect the importance of alignment to college and career ready standards and considers other attributes of high-quality curriculum, such as usability and design, as recommended by educators.

Materials must meet or partially meet expectations for the first set of indicators (gateway 1) to move to the other gateways. 

Gateways 1 and 2 focus on questions of alignment to the standards. Are the instructional materials aligned to the standards? Are all standards present and treated with appropriate depth and quality required to support student learning?

Gateway 3 focuses on the question of usability. Are the instructional materials user-friendly for students and educators? Materials must be well designed to facilitate student learning and enhance a teacher’s ability to differentiate and build knowledge within the classroom. 

In order to be reviewed and attain a rating for usability (Gateway 3), the instructional materials must first meet expectations for alignment (Gateways 1 and 2).

Alignment and usability ratings are assigned based on how materials score on a series of criteria and indicators with reviewers providing supporting evidence to determine and substantiate each point awarded.

For ELA and math, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to college- and career-ready standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For science, alignment ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards, including that all standards are present and treated with the appropriate depth to support students in learning the skills and knowledge that they need to be ready for college and career.

For all content areas, usability ratings represent the degree to which materials meet expectations, partially meet expectations, or do not meet expectations for effective practices (as outlined in the evaluation tool) for use and design, teacher planning and learning, assessment, differentiated instruction, and effective technology use.

Math K-8

Math High School

ELA K-2

ELA 3-5

ELA 6-8


ELA High School

Science Middle School

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