Alignment to College and Career Ready Standards: Overall Summary

Mirrors & Windows: Connecting with Literature - Grade 11 partially meets expectations of alignment. High quality anchor texts are paired with text-based writing and some speaking and listening work. Students have frequent opportunities to engage in research activities and integrated writing to build grade-level writing skills. The materials are not organized around topics and themes and therefore do not build knowledge and vocabulary consistently across a topic. Culminating tasks to do not require demonstration of knowledge built throughout a unit and do not require integration of skills.

See Rating Scale
Understanding Gateways

Alignment

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Partially Meets Expectations

Gateway 1:

Text Quality

0
15
28
32
28
28-32
Meets Expectations
16-27
Partially Meets Expectations
0-15
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway 2:

Building Knowledge

0
15
28
32
18
28-32
Meets Expectations
16-27
Partially Meets Expectations
0-15
Does Not Meet Expectations

Usability

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Not Rated

Not Rated

Gateway 3:

Usability

0
23
30
34
0
30-34
Meets Expectations
24-29
Partially Meets Expectations
0-23
Does Not Meet Expectations

Gateway One

Text Quality & Complexity and Alignment to Standards Components

Meets Expectations

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Gateway One Details

The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria for text quality and complexity and alignment to the standards. Text are of publishable quality and worthy of especially careful reading and consider a range of student interests. Materials meet the criteria for materials reflecting the distribution of text types and genres required by the standards at each grade level. Texts have the appropriate level of complexity for the grade according to quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. Students encounter a wide variety of texts with a range of length and difficulty throughout each unit and throughout the year. Materials meet the criteria that anchor and supporting texts provide opportunities for students to engage in a range and volume of reading to achieve grade level reading proficiency. Materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria that most questions, tasks, and assignments are text-dependent/specific, requiring students to engage with the text directly. Materials provide opportunities and some protocols for evidence-based discussions. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials supporting students’ listening and speaking (and discussions) about what they are reading and researching (shared projects) with relevant follow-up questions and supports. Materials provide ample opportunities for students to practice a mix of both on-demand and process writing along with opportunities to engage in writing activities over the course of the year in a variety of modes, including argumentative, informative, narrative, and descriptive writing, as well as research writing and writing to sources. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials including instruction and practice of the grammar and conventions/language standards for grade level as applied in increasingly sophisticated contexts, with opportunities for application in context.

Criterion 1a - 1f

Texts are worthy of students' time and attention: texts are of quality and are rigorous, meeting the text complexity criteria for each grade. Materials support students' advancing toward independent reading.
16/16
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Criterion Rating Details

Materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria that texts are worthy of students’ time and attention. Materials meet the criteria for anchor texts being of publishable quality and worthy of especially careful reading and consider a range of student interests. Materials meet the criteria for materials reflecting the distribution of text types and genres required by the standards at each grade level. Texts have the appropriate level of complexity for the grade according to quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. Students encounter a wide variety of texts with a range of length and difficulty throughout each unit and throughout the year. The texts are quantitatively supported by a Lexile level and qualitatively supported by purpose and rationale; this is provided for every unit and found within The Scope and Sequence Guide located in the Annotated Teacher’s Edition. Materials meet the criteria that anchor and supporting texts provide opportunities for students to engage in a range and volume of reading to achieve grade level reading proficiency.

Indicator 1a

Anchor/core texts are of publishable quality and worthy of especially careful reading.
4/4
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Indicator Rating Details

The materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria for anchor texts being of publishable quality and worthy of especially careful reading.

The materials reviewed for the American Tradition 11th grade curriculum meet the criteria as many of the anchor texts are widely read works of literature. Within the Grade 11 textbook, which focuses on American literature, students are presented with multiple texts worthy of reading, including selections from the Common Core Exemplars, that are worthy of reading, discussion, and analysis.

    Examples of publishable and worthy texts include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • In Unit 1, students read “The Iroquois Constitution,” a government document. This document was first told as oral tradition, an important part of the worlds’ cultural history. The Lexile level is 1500, moderate for an 11th grade class, is age appropriate. This short piece also contains symbolism.
    • In Unit 2, students read Self Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson. This essay is written by a well-known American author and is worthy of students’ time and attention.
    • In Unit 3, students read The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave by Frederick Douglass. This engaging true story is grade appropriate due to its historical and cultural value.
    • In Unit 4, students read the short story, “To Build a Fire,” by Jack London. Students should find this suspenseful story engaging, and the moderate Lexile level is appropriate for 11th grade.
    • In Unit 5, students read “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” by T. S. Elliot. The dramatic dialogue is written at a moderate Lexile appropriate for 11th graders.
    • In Unit 6, students read “A Rose for Emily” by William Faulkner. This short story is engaging and worthy of students’ attention. It is written at a challenging Lexile level that is grade appropriate.
    • In Unit 7, the anchor text is an excerpt from On the Road by Jack Kerouac. This is a defining work of the Post War time frame.
    • In Unit 8, students read “Ambush” by Tim O’Brien. Students should find this realistic short story engaging with its climatic ending.
    • In Unit 9, the anchor text is “Dream” by Alice Walker. Ms. Walker is an African American writer whose perspective is worthy of reading.

    Indicator 1b

    Materials reflect the distribution of text types and genres required by the standards at each grade level.
    *Indicator 1b is non-scored (in grades 9-12) and provides information about text types and genres in the program.
    0/0
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria for materials reflecting the distribution of text types and genres required by the standards at each grade level.

    The materials present students with a variety of different text types and genres organized by historical time periods. The organization strategy for the textbook offers more informational, nonfiction texts than literary texts. Text types and genres present in this unit include, but are not limited to autobiography, biography, articles, dramas, speeches, and excerpts from novels. The distribution of text types and genres required by the standards includes texts from origins of early American literature to the 1800’s, the New England Renaissance, Slavery and the American Civil War, Realism and Naturalism, the Native American experience, the Early 20th Century, the Depression Era and World War II, the Postwar Era, the Early Contemporary Era, and the Contemporary Era--1980 to present. All texts within the curriculum can be found listed in the Range of Reading section located at the beginning of the Teacher Edition in the Program Overview.

    Literary Texts include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • Unit 1: “On Being Brought from Africa to America” by Phillis Wheatley
    • Unit 2: “Thanatopsis” by William Cullen Bryant
    • Unit 3: “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” by Ambrose Bierce
    • Unit 4: “Booker T. and W.E.B.” by Dudley Randall
    • Unit 5: An excerpt from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    • Unit 6: An excerpt from The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck
    • Unit 7: “The Life You Save May Be Your Own” by Flannery O’Connor
    • Unit 8: “Traveling Through the Dark” by William Stafford
    • Unit 9: The Janitor by August Wilson

    Informational Texts include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • Unit 1: The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Franklin
    • Unit 2: “Walden” by Henry David Thoreau
    • Unit 3: “The Second Inaugural Address “ by Abraham Lincoln
    • Unit 4: “How to Build a Campfire” USDA Forest Service
    • Unit 5: “Robert Frost: A Life” by Jay Parini
    • Unit 6: “The Watch” by Elie Wiesel
    • Unit 7: “Elegy for Jane” by Theodore Roethke
    • Unit 8: “Dr. King Arrested at Birmingham” by Foster Hailey
    • Unit 9: “A Quilt of a Country” by Anna Quindlen

    Indicator 1c

    Texts have the appropriate level of complexity for the grade level (according to quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis).
    4/4
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria for texts having the appropriate level of complexity for the grade according to quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis.

    The majority of texts are at the appropriate quantitative level. Within the series, quantitative texts levels range from 320L-1550L, with some texts above and below the current grade level Lexile and stretch bands. Texts that are above or below grade level quantitative bands have qualitative features and/or tasks that bring them to the appropriate grade level. Along with Lexiles, each text is labeled as moderate, easy, or advanced. Texts are scaffolded with Units 1-5 as Guided, Directed, and Independent Reading, and Unit 6 is centered on Independent Reading. Supports are provided in the additional resource materials, particularly the Meeting the Standards Resource Guide that has guided reading activities with graphic organizers, vocabulary development, and practice quizzes. The Program Planning Guide contains lesson plans that provide student tasks and multiple reading strategies to support student learning.

    Examples of texts that have the appropriate level of complexity include, but are not limited to:

    • In Unit 1, students read “The Navajo Creation Myth,” Lexile 1150. Considering this text is on grade level, some struggling readers might have difficulty; however, an ease factor considered with this creation myth is the shorter text length. Difficulty considerations consist of unfamiliar cultural references, challenging names, and abstract concepts.
    • In Unit 6, students read an excerpt from Let Us Now Praise Famous Men by James Agee, Lexile 1210. The difficulty considerations consist of long sentences, figurative language, and vocabulary. The ease factor for this text is subject matter. This text is a representation of the conditions that white sharecroppers experienced in the rural South during the depression era.

    Examples of texts that are above the quantitative measure, but are at the appropriate level based on qualitative analysis and associated tasks include, but are not limited to:

    • In Unit 1, students read “A Journey Through Texas,” Lexile 1400. While the Lexile for this text is above grade level, the length is one of the ease factors. Difficulty considerations include the following: background information needed, unfamiliar setting, more description than action, and complex relationships. This text is a recount of the “sole survivors of a large party of Spanish explorers...in the summer of 1528.” This text is necessary in understanding America’s early history considering explorers traveled “on foot from present-day Louisiana through Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona to Sinaloa, Mexico, in colonized New Spain.”

    Example of texts that are below the quantitative measure, but are at the appropriate level based on qualitative analysis and associated tasks include, but are not limited to:

    • In Unit 1, students read “The Osage Creation Account,” Lexile 850. While the Lexile level is below grade level, a difficulty consideration consists of unrealistic setting. The text focuses on the relationship between people and nature; the creation myth is “a piece of traditional literature that explores the interweaving of these elements and their role in the origin of the universe.”
    • In Unit 8, students read “The Rockpile” by James Baldwin. His canonical work of literature has a 820L. “The characters, members of an African American family in Depression-era Harlem, confront the issues that appear in various other Baldwin works: poverty, violence between African American males, and the importance of religion in the African American community.

    Indicator 1d

    Materials support students' literacy skills (understanding and comprehension) over the course of the school year through increasingly complex text to develop independence of grade level skills (Series of texts should be at a variety of complexity levels).
    4/4
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria for materials supporting students’ literacy skills (understanding and comprehension) over the course of the school year through increasingly complex text to develop independence of grade level skills (Series of texts should be at a variety of complexity levels).

    The materials increase in rigor and complexity from month to month to the end of the year, growing students’ literacy skills. Units cover a range of reading skills, such as compare and contrast, drawing conclusions, clarifying information, asking questions, cause and effect, main idea, predicting, author’s purpose, sequencing, summarizing, and organizing text. For each text, students are presented with at least two skills that are refined throughout the reading. Units include differentiated instruction and reading skills for developing readers. The Program Planning Guide provides opportunities for students to practice reading skills and strategies in order to become College and Career Ready. As students use the skill of inferring throughout these units, the reading selections range from easy to challenging, with text complexity increasing students knowledge and understanding of what they are reading becomes critical. Within the Annotated Teacher’s Edition, instructors are presented with a variety of questions to pose to students as reading is taking place. Questions are typically formatted as discussions, so that students are required to refer to the text, analyze, and discuss the various concepts that are studied throughout. Texts contain a broad range of Lexile levels.

    In the beginning of the year, the students are establishing routines for reading the selections in each unit. They are guided through the process of building background knowledge about a text, setting a purpose for reading, and taking note of reading skills that will benefit them when they start reading the text. Students are also guided through the process of using reading strategies and making connections while reading. Lastly, they are guided through the process of remembering details about the text and interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating the text after they have read it. In the middle of the year students are more practiced at before, during, and after reading strategies.Their ability to access and interact with the text is increasing, and student answers to questions and classroom discussions are likely increasing in depth. By the end of the year students are able to read, comprehend, and examine texts independently through established routines for thinking about the text before reading it, asking self-generated questions of the text while reading it, and answering provided questions that ask them to refer to the text and reason with the text after reading it. Examples include:

    • In Unit 4, students read Mark Twain’s short story, “The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County.” Not only is this anchor text complex in terms of Lexile (1440L), students are practicing analyzing specifics of dialect while also analyzing the short story as a frame tale. Within the Annotated Teacher’s Text, instructors must discuss frame tale with students: “Discuss the situation set up in the first paragraphs of the selection that allows Jim Smiley to tell his tall tale. Ask students to watch for a return to this frame situation at the end of the selection.” Instructors also remind students of the definition of dialect and then ask students to “find examples of the narrator’s word choice that offer clues as to his character and background.” Within this section where dialect is discussed, students must respond to the following questions: “How does the narrator’s word usage contrast with that of Simon Wheeler? What does Wheeler’s dialect reveal about him?”
    • In Unit 5, students read an excerpt from F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby. At the close of the text, students are presented with a collaborative learning task where they must evaluate the literature: “With a small group, discuss the value of The Great Gatsby as a literary work. Explore these questions: What gives a piece of writing literary value? Is this judgment purely subjective, or do universal traits characterize good literature? Why might The Great Gatsby have been unpopular with readers in the 1920s and 1930s? Encourage members to present and support a range of positions. Conclude by listing points on which the group agrees, explaining points on which it disagrees, and identifying points on which its response is ambiguous (unclear or neutral).”
    • In Unit 9, students read three anchor texts, both by Alice Walker: “Though We May Feel Alone,” a poem; “Dream,” a poem; and “My Mother’s Blue Bowl,” an essay. Students practice two skills throughout all three readings: Style and free verse. Within the Annotated Teacher’s Edition, instructors are presented with questions regarding style and free verse for each poem and the essay. For example, “Have students identify the characteristics of free verse in this poem.” There is a possible answer included along with this task. Instructors also do the following: “Ask students to identify diction and other elements of style that explain how, to the speaker, her mother and Lady Day are ‘as close as twins.’” Teachers are also given possible answers. At the close of the anchor text readings, students are presented with the following writing option: “Review the characteristics of free verse and other qualities of Walker’s style. Then write a poem imitating that style on a subject of interest to you. Share your work with one or more classmates.”

    Indicator 1e

    Anchor texts and series of texts connected to them are accompanied by a text complexity analysis and rationale for purpose and placement in the grade level.
    2/2
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria that anchor texts and series of texts connected to them are accompanied by a text complexity analysis and rationale for purpose and placement in the grade level.

    The texts are quantitatively supported by Lexile level and qualitatively supported by purpose and rationale; this is provided for every unit and found within The Scope and Sequence Guide located in the Annotated Teacher's Edition. Each selection in the Teacher’s Edition also has a Preview the Model or Selection section that has notes on text complexity, difficulty considerations, and ease factor. In every Before Reading section, teachers are presented with objectives that students should master by the end of the text selection, and a Launch the Lesson section that gears students toward questions that reflect the theme(s) and issues present within the text selection. All of the texts chosen are connected and appropriate for Grade 11, while allowing for differentiation and flexibility for students and teachers.

    Examples of instructional and text notes found in Grade 11 materials include the following:

    In Unit 3, students read Abraham Lincoln’s speech “The Gettysburg Address.” The Lexile level identified in The Scope and Sequence is 1410L, a Moderate level. This speech is also paired with “The Second Inaugural Address,” another speech by Lincoln, identified as 1150L, Moderate level. The difficulty considerations for “The Gettysburg Address,” are context of speech and complicated sentences; the ease factors are length. The difficulty considerations for “The Second Inaugural Address” are style and background information needed; the ease factors are length. The rationale for reading these texts is supported in the Build Background, Meet the Author, Analyze Literature, and Purpose sections. Students practice parallelism and antithesis for the reading selections; the Set Purpose stands as “Both the Gettysburg Address and Second Inaugural Address were delivered on somber, even sorrowful occasions. Think about how President Lincoln recognized Americans’ solemn mood in preparing his remarks. Consider why he decided to use parallelism and antithesis to express his sentiments. As you read, note examples of each literary technique.”

    In Unit 7, students read ”Daughter of Invention,” a short story by Julia Alvarez. In the Annotated Teacher's Edition, the Preview the Selection section provides teachers with guidelines for Text Complexity Reading level: Moderate, 930L. Difficulty Considerations include Spanish terms and political context; ease factors include vivid images. Analyze Literature includes, “Point out that the story has both serious and amusing features. The author refers to the brutality of Dominican dictator Trujillo and, briefly, to the Vietnam War, but she describes a characters with humor and writes mostly in a light-hearted style. Ask students to consider how the story would differ if the style and tone were more serious.”

    Indicator 1f

    Anchor and supporting texts provide opportunities for students to engage in a range and volume of reading to achieve grade level reading proficiency.
    2/2
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria that anchor and supporting texts provide opportunities for students to engage in a range and volume of reading to achieve grade level reading proficiency.

    The materials are organized into nine chronological units based on time periods. Texts are not organized by Guided Reading, Directed Reading, and Independent Reading. Instead, the textbook--aside from the differentiated textbook--releases all responsibility to students. The units are broken up into two-three subsections, further dividing the time period covered by the unit. Each unit begins with a timeline and an introduction to the time period, and each subsection contains relevant period selections, some including Before and After reading activities to support students in their understanding and comprehension. Anchor texts include extra reading support and are spread out over the course of the unit. Each unit subsection culminates in at least one Independent Reading selection with activities such as questions about the text and writing options. Within each unit text types vary widely in genre, content, and length.

    During the course of Unit 1, Origins of the American Tradition to 1800, students read multiple texts, each with a suggested pacing of one to two days. Students encounter a variety of texts including creation myth, tribal song, lyric poem, trickster tale, government document, travel narrative, nonfiction account, sermon autobiography, almanac, biography, speech, essay, pamphlet, and letter. The selections vary in genre, length, and content. Unit 1 begins with the Anchor Text, “The Osage Creation Account,” a creation myth by Osage, followed by another anchor text, an excerpt from The Navajo Creation Myth by the Navajo. Three other anchor texts are spread through the unit: “A Journey Through Texas,” a travel narrative by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, an excerpt from The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin and an excerpt from Poor Richard’s Almanac, both by Benjamin Franklin.

    Unit 3, Slavery and Civil War (1850-1865), is divided into two parts. In Part 1: A Nation divided, students read the Anchor Text, from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. They also read two autobiographies, lyric poems, speeches, a spiritual, a short story, and a letter. In Part 2: Lyric Poems, students read two Anchor Texts, from “preface to Leaves of Grass,” and from “I Hear America Singing,” both by Walt Whitman. In this section, they also read multiple lyric poems, a ballad, a biography, an ode, and an online article.

    During the course of Unit 7, which is divided into three parts, the focus is on the Post War Era (1945 - 1960). Part 1 is Real Life, Part 2 is Conflict and Conformity, and Part 3 is The Beat Movement. Within Unit 7, students are presented with three Anchor texts: a short story, a play, and a novel excerpt. Students are presented with poems, short stories, autobiographies, government documents, essays, and an elegy. The pacing for each text ranges between one and seven days. Each selection varies in genre, length, and content. Examples of the various texts include Flannery O’Connor’s short story, “The Life You Save May Be Your Own,” “Theodore Roethke’s elegy, “Elegy for Jane,” Arthur Miller’s play, The Crucible, Rosa Parks autobiography, Quiet Strength, and Gary Snyder’s poem, “Pine Tree Tops.”

    Criterion 1g - 1n

    Materials provide opportunities for rich and rigorous evidence-based discussions and writing about texts to build strong literacy skills.
    12/16
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    Criterion Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria that materials provide opportunities for rich and rigorous evidence-based discussions and writing about texts. Some questions, tasks, and assignments are text dependent/specific, requiring students to engage with the text directly. Materials provide opportunities and some protocols for evidence-based discussions. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials supporting students’ listening and speaking (and discussions) about what they are reading and researching (shared projects) with relevant follow-up questions and supports. Materials provide ample opportunities for students to practice a mix of both on-demand and process writing along with opportunities to engage in writing activities over the course of the year in a variety of modes, including argumentative, informative, narrative, and descriptive writing, as well as research writing and writing to sources. Materials provide opportunities across the school year for students to learn, practice, and apply research-based and evidence-based writing to support analyses, arguments and synthesis. Materials partially meet the criteria for materials including instruction and practice of the grammar and conventions/language standards for grade level as applied in increasingly sophisticated contexts, with opportunities for application in context.

    Indicator 1g

    Most questions, tasks, and assignments are text dependent/specific, requiring students to engage with the text directly (drawing on textual evidence to support both what is explicit as well as valid inferences from the text).
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria that most questions, tasks, and assignments are text dependent/specific, requiring students to engage with the text directly (drawing on textual evidence to support both what is explicit as well as valid inferences from the text).

    The materials provide a consistent format for students to engage with text-dependent questions and/or tasks. However, text-dependent/specific questions, tasks and assignments do not consistently support students’ literacy growth over the course of the school year. Many questions have students recall key details within texts and do not build to questions that ask students to analyze or infer based on what they have read. Questions do not grow in complexity across the course of the year.

    Questions, tasks, and assignments can be found in Before and After Reading sections. The Before Reading section includes four subsections with questions embedded within the margins of the textbook: Build Background, Analyze Literature, Set Purpose, and Use Reading Skills. The After Reading section includes four subsections: Refer to Text, Reason with Text, Analyze Literature, and Extend the Text. The American Tradition curriculum also includes Differentiated Instruction, Common Core Assessment Practice, Meeting the Standards, and Exceeding the Standards guides that also provide text-specific questions. Each unit provides a variety of supports to text-dependent and text-specific questioning. Many questions that ask for student opinion require students to engage with the text directly as inferences are made, and students are required to provide support from the text in most of the work they complete within the unit.

    In Unit 1, students read “The Osage Creation Account” and “The Navjo Creation Myth.” Within the Annotated Teacher Edition, teachers are assisted in posing questions that are text-dependent, text-specific in the Apply Reading Strategies section, such as: “Have students visualize what they are reading. Ask questions such as ‘What do you think the third world looked like?’ and ‘How do you picture the elk rolling around in the soft earth?’ Students can draw pictures to go with the stories.” Students must also answer questions in an After Reading Refer to Text and Reason With Text section, such as: “In ‘The Osage Creation Account,’ what problems did the Wazha’zhe encounter once they left their home? What effect might this myth have on the young Osage who listened to it? Support your answer with details from the myth.”

    In Unit 2, students focus on Transcendentalism and read an excerpt from “Nature,” an essay, and the poem, “The Rhodora,” both by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Within the Annotated Teacher Edition, teachers are prompted to pose questions to students within the Apply Reading Skills section: “For the excerpt from 'Nature,' ask students to determine the main idea of each paragraph or section. To do so, have them locate the topic sentence and supporting details and then restate this information in their own words and record it on a chart.” Students then complete the After Reading, Refer to Text and Reason With Text section. Text-dependent questions within this section include: “According to Emerson, where does the power to delight in nature dwell (paragraph 3 of the essay)? Determine whether the speaker agrees with the sages that the flower’s charm is wasted because of its isolated spot.”

    In Unit 3, students read the poem, “Ode to Walt Whitman” by Pablo Neruda, and answer questions in the Refer to Text and Reason with Text section, which include the following: “According to Neruda, what did Whitman send to the stroker? Why would this gift be unusual? Infer what Neruda is conveying about Whitman. Neruda begins his poem by speaking about Whitman. Look for the spot in the poem where Neruda begins speaking to Whitman. Suggest the reason for this shift in focus. How does Neruda describe his first encounter with Whitman’s poetry? Where did he often read the poet?”

    In Unit 4, students read from “Song of Gold Mountain” by Marlon K. Hom. In the After Reading, Refer to Text and Reason With Text section, students are asked the following questions: “Recall what the first two speakers do as soon as they arrive in the United States. How do they feel about what happens to them shortly after they arrive? How does the third speaker refer to his captors? Judge what effect these poems had on the other detainees who read them.” In the Analyze Literature section, students are asked text-dependent questions, such as: “What did you infer about each speaker? For which one do you feel the most sympathy? Which do you feel has the most powerful way of expressing his situation? How is that achieved?”

    In Unit 5, after reading an excerpt from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, in the After Reading, Refer to Text and Reason With Text section, students are asked to answer questions, such as: “What happens at Gatsby’s house on the weekends? Describe how Fitzgerald viewed the lifestyle described in this selection. Did he admire it or disapprove of it? Explain.” Students are also asked to respond to questions in the Analyze Literature section that focuses on setting and narration. Questions include: “Identify the time and place in which the novel is set. What details convey the setting? Why is the setting important to the story?Who is the narrator? What is his relationship to Gatsby? Why did Fitzgerald choose this person to narrate the story? Would Gatsby or another character have been a more effective narrator? Explain.”

    In Unit 6, students read literary nonfiction by James Agee from Let us Now Praise Famous Men. In the After Reading, Refer to the Text and Reason with Text section, students are asked the following: “Who are the inhabitants of Cudger House and where are they going? Explain what Agee means when he writes that ‘this house itself, in each of its objects, it, too, is one lens.’ What details in the limited descriptions of the landscape confirm that the location is rural?” In the Informative Writing section, students are asked to “Go through the selection, paragraph by paragraph evaluating the order in which Agee describes specific aspects of the Cudger house and the people who live in it. What does he describe first, next and so on? Write a paragraph evaluating the organization of this excerpt. Is it effective in creating vivid images of the people and the house?”

    In Unit 7, after reading the short story, “The Life You Save May Be Your Own” by Flannery O’Connor, students take a reading assessment. For the constructed response portion of the assessment, students are asked to respond to this prompt: “Explain the meaning ot the title ‘The Life You Save May be Your Own.’ It is featured in the story as a sign Mr. Shiftlet sees as he drives away, but why did O’Connor likely choose it for the title of the story? Use evidence from the text to support your ideas.”

    In Unit 8, students read “A Letter from Birmington Jail, by Martin Luther King, Jr., and “Dr. King Arrested at Birmingham,” by Foster Hailey. Students are asked in After Reading, Refer to Text and Reason With Text section the following questions: “Under what conditions might a protester be called an “outside agitator? Suggest why 'outside agitator' became a popular insult used by critics of the Civil Rights movement to common protesters. Identify the four basic steps in a nonviolent campaign. How does one step lead to the next?” In the Extend the Text, Argumentative Writing section, students are given the following prompt: “A friend has asked for your views on King’s Birmingham letter. Write a brief analysis of King’s arguments, identifying their strengths and weaknesses and explaining why you agree or disagree. Include and defend inferences and conclusions drawn from King’s ideas and the way he organized them.”

    In Unit 9, students read Naomi Shihab Nye’s poem, “What Is Supposed to Happen.” Students then respond to the Analyze Literature section: “Who is the speaker in ‘What Is Supposed to Happen’? What feelings is she expressing about being a parent? What does the title indicate about her feelings?”

    Indicator 1h

    Materials contain sets of sequences of text-dependent/ text-specific questions with activities that build to a culminating task which integrates skills to demonstrate understanding
    1/2
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria for materials containing sets of sequences of text-dependent/text-specific questions with activities that build to a culminating task which integrates skills to demonstrate understanding.

    After every text selection in the After Reading, Refer to Text and Reason with Text section, there are text-dependent questions, and throughout each reading, there are strategies and activities that build students’ skills to complete the end of unit activities. Each unit includes three types of culminating activities: a Speaking and Listening Workshop, Writing Workshop, and Test Practice Workshop. The performance tasks that the students are asked to complete in these culminating activities correspond to the questions, discussions, and writing prompts that students have completed throughout the unit as they read the various selections.The lessons are detailed, follow a step-by-step process, have checklists to support students, and the Language Arts Handbook and the Exceeding the Standards Speaking and Listening Resource Guides support students by providing additional lessons on the skills necessary to complete each task. However, skills are often not integrated. Students complete each workshop independently of one another. Some tasks are loosely connected to unit texts, while others are not connected to texts. Students are often demonstrating mastery of the unit skills rather than demonstrating understanding or knowledge.

    At the end of Unit 1: Origins of the American Tradition to 1800, there are three culminating tasks for the unit:

    • For the Speaking and Listening Workshop, students deliver an oral interpretation of a literary work. Activities throughout the unit that build to this culminating task include delivering a presentation on the Puritan lifestyle after reading “Huswifery” and conducting a talk-show interview with a partner after reading “Ben Franklin: Scientist and Inventor.” This task builds students’ presentation skills, but does not integrate skills to demonstrate understanding.
    • For the Writing Workshop, students write an argument defending a viewpoint. Students select their topic; gather information; organize their ideas into an argument chart; write their thesis statement; draft their introduction, body, and conclusion; evaluate their drafts; revise their drafts for content, organization, and style; proofread for errors; publish and present their work; and reflect on their work. Activities throughout the unit that build to this culminating task include:
      • completing a piece of argument writing after reading “A Journey Through Texas”: “Write a letter to the King of Spain recommending or opposing appointment of Cabeza de Vaca to a governorship in South America. Consider what Spain stands to gain or lose from the appointment.”
      • completing a piece of argument writing after reading an excerpt from The Crisis No. 1: “Imagine you are Paine’s publisher. Write a paragraph supporting his decision to write anonymously or encouraging him to use his own name.”
    • For the Test Practice Workshop, the first section asks students to practice using context clues through reading an excerpt from A Brief Account of the Devastation of the West Indies by Bartolome de las Casas; answer reading comprehension questions on the text; respond to a constructed response prompt on the text: “Using your own words (not quotations from the passage), write a detailed description of the ship owners;” and complete an extended writing prompt on an issue presented in this prompt: “In your opinion, is it better to read the book first and then watch the movie or to watch the movie first and then read the book?” This task asks students to write a description and an opinion. The task does not meet the requirements of grade-level standards.

    At the end of Unit 3, in the Writing Workshop, students are asked to Solve a Problem: “In this assignment, you will explain and then solve the problem you are dealing with in your own life, proposing one or more reasonable solutions.” This task is not text-dependent and does not integrate skills to demonstrate understanding. Activities leading up to this task include:

    • Students read “from Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Seven Years Concealed” by Harriet Jacobs (Linda Brent). In Writing Options, question two, asks students, “Write one paragraph explaining why Jacobs did not know she was a slave until she was six years old. How might that have shaped her personality and outlook on life? Use evidence from the text to support your answer.”
    • Students read "from Preface to Leaves of Grass” and “from I Hear America Singing”by Walt Whitman. In Extend the Text, Writing Options, Descriptive Writing: “Write an essay describing how you feel about living in your country. Include what you like about living in this country and what you do not like. Use real life experience to support your opinions.”

    In Unit 6, Annotated Teacher’s Edition, the culminating activity is a Writing Workshop, Write a Personal Essay, Narrative Writing. The assignment states: "Write a personal essay that captures an essential aspect of your character. Purpose: To preserve a picture of who you are now and to share your thoughts with others. Audience: A new friend who does not know much about you or perhaps a potential employer or college admissions officer.” This task is not text-dependent and does not integrate skills to demonstrate understanding.

    Indicator 1i

    Materials provide frequent opportunities and protocols to engage students in speaking and listening activities and discussions (small group, peer-to-peer, whole class) which encourage the modeling and use of academic vocabulary and syntax.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria for materials providing frequent opportunities and protocols to engage students in speaking and listening activities and discussions (small group, peer-to-peer, whole class) which encourage the modeling and use of academic vocabulary and syntax.

    The materials provide opportunities and protocols for evidence-based discussions. There are opportunities for classroom discussion throughout the materials.The Program Planning Guide provides several evaluation forms for communication, such as: Communicating in a Pair Group (Self-Evaluation), Communicating in a Pair Group (Peer-Evaluation), Communicating in a Small Group, and Communicating in a Large Group. The Exceeding the Standards resource for speaking and listening includes rubrics for individual presentations. The Speaking & Listening rubric found in the Workshops gives explicit instruction on how students should share thoughts.

    The EMC Passport Share feature gives students access to a digital tool that allows collaborative video discussions. Also in Passport, the Perform section allows for more formal video presentation opportunities. Using the Mirrors & Windows discussion prompts or the prompts in Extend the Text activities and projects makes for an engaging and efficient way for students to collaborate and analyze.

    In Unit 1, Critical Thinking Discussion Guides are embedded at the text level throughout the American Tradition text, asking students to discuss with peers, groups, or the whole class details from the text, encouraging the use of text-specific vocabulary and evidence.

    In Unit 4, students read “We Wear the Mask,” a poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar. One of the extension activities for the text asks students to Enact a Role-Play: “With a partner, identify a character from film, literature, or television who 'wears a mask.' Discuss these questions: From whom is the character trying to hide his or her feelings? How successful is he or she? What would happen if the character revealed his or her true feelings? Then have a dialogue with your partner. One of you should take on the persona of a character wearing a mask, and the other should try to get the character to disclose his or her true feelings and explain the reason for wearing the mask.”

    In Unit 6, in the Annotated Teacher Edition, students read an excerpt from Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, a literary nonfiction by James Agee. The photography added to this section is by Walker Evans. Teachers are instructed: “To introduce the selection, ask students to examine Evans’s photographs. Then have the class discuss the subjects and settings of the pictures, and students’ responses to the photographs. Students should keep these images in mind as they read Agee’s text.” Also, within this same section of the Annotated Teacher Edition, instructors are presented with a Differentiated Instruction section: “Have students take turns reading passages aloud and then, as a group, discuss their meaning. This activity will give students practice in summarizing.”

    In Unit 8, Speaking & Listening Workshop: Evaluate a Well-Known Speech or Speaker, students research and evaluate a well-known speech or speaker, demonstrating understanding of the message, rhetorical devices, memorable passages or phrases, and how the speech is similar to or different from other speeches of the same type.

    Indicator 1j

    Materials support students' listening and speaking (and discussions) about what they are reading and researching (shared projects) with relevant follow-up questions and supports.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria for materials supporting students’ listening and speaking (and discussions) about what they are reading and researching (shared projects) with relevant follow-up questions and supports.

    The materials provide the teacher with ample questions to engage students in thinking about and responding to the text; however, no explanation is given on how the students will share this thinking - be it verbal or written, individual, or in groups. There are few supports or follow up questions to support students' listening and speaking to deeper their understanding about what they are reading and researching.

    Throughout the Annotated Teacher Edition there are many places that prompt teachers to have students discuss in the context of pre-reading. Since these discussion opportunities occur prior to actually reading the text, discussions aren’t evidence-based. For example, in The Launch the Unit section, questions for a whole-class discussion on the text type being studied in the unit are provided. The Speaking and Listening portion of the Exceeding the Standards resource provides opportunities for students to prepare projects, and to present information orally to the class through narratives, speeches, poems, dramatic scenes, and interviews, but these activities are not tied to the texts that are studied in the unit. In the Exceeding the Standards resource for speaking and listening, the majority of tasks are presentations--these supports tie to the speaking and listening requirements, but there are very few shared projects. Also, there are some relevant follow-up questions and supports, but the supports and follow-up questions are designed for students to respond to individually, rather than practicing through the Speaking and Listening standards with one another or in small and large groups.

    Each unit includes a Speaking and Listening Workshop, but the emphasis is on the individual preparing for a particular presentation. There are collaborative research and discussion activities that can be found in the Teacher Edition, most notably as Teaching Note(s) that suggest activities for students to process the text they are reading through pair and small group work, often focused on generating questions about the text. Students may also take part in Collaborative Learning, which usually occurs in the After Reading section where students practice speaking and listening skills--this includes student planning for group activities, group skit presentations, short discussions, etc. There are other frequent questions and activities that are designed to have students speaking and listening, but they do not require the student to have interacted with the text being studied. Rather, they are based on personal thoughts and experiences and connections to themes.

    The speaking and listening opportunities require students to provide evidence from what they are reading and researching. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • In Unit 3, students read “The Gettysburg Address” and “The Second Inaugural Address,” both speeches by Abraham Lincoln. In the Extend the Text, Collaborative Learning section, students research the Battle of Gettysburg, “With two or three classmates, give a formal presentation to the class about one aspect of the Battle of Gettysburg, such as events during the battle, or the significance of the battle. Use rhetorical devices effectively to communicate your ideas.”
    • In Unit 6, students read a selection from “No Ordinary Time” by Doris Kearns Goodwin. The Extend the Text Critical Literacy section prompts students to “Compare War Time Speeches. Find a famous World War II Speech in the library or on the internet. Write two paragraphs comparing and contrasting the themes and rhetorical techniques of that speech to Roosevelt’s speech. Present the speech and your findings to the class, making sure to use proper speaking rate and volume, as well as eye contact and gestures where appropriate."

    Frequently, questions and activities provide speaking and listening opportunities about what students are reading and researching, but do not require students to have interacted with the text being studied. Discussions are based more on personal thoughts and experiences and connections to the themes. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • In Unit 1, in the Speaking and Listening Workshop, Present a Literary Work, students give an oral presentation. “Many people enjoy listening to readings of poems or brief works of prose, such as stories and essays. Presenting a poem or brief work of prose to an audience can be enjoyable, as well. Reciting a work of literature is known as oral interpretation. Following the steps outlined here will help you make the most of an opportunity to present a favorite work of literature to an audience.” Students are given five steps to guide them with their oral presentation:
      1. Select a work
      2. Familiarize Yourself with the Work
      3. Practice Reading the Work Aloud
      4. Memorize the Work, If You are Asked To
      5. Present the Oral Interpretation. Students are evaluated with a Speaking and Listening Rubric on Content, Delivery and Presentation.
    • In Unit 9, Speaking and Listening Workshop, Present an Argument, students are preparing to present an argument. “A common reason for giving a speech is to present an argument. In doing so, the speaker makes a case to the audience to accept or reject a proposition or course of action. For example, when political candidates give speeches, their goal is to convince voters to agree with their positions and elect them.” For your own persuasive speech, select a topic such as school or community issue. Then develop an argument on the topic, gather details in support of the argument, and deliver a convincing speech. Your purpose in delivering a persuasive speech is the same as that in writing an argumentative essay: to convince others of your point of view. Keep that similarity in mind as you complete this workshop.” Students are given three steps to guide them in preparing them to present an argument:
      1. Prepare an argument on a School or Community Issue
      2. Gather information and Organize Your Presentation
      3. Practice Your Delivery. Students are evaluated with a Speaking and Listening Rubric on Content, Delivery and Presentation.

    Indicator 1k

    Materials include a mix of on-demand and process writing grade-appropriate writing (e.g. grade-appropriate revision and editing) and short, focused projects.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria for materials including a mix of on-demand and process writing (e.g. grade-appropriate revision and editing) and short, focused projects.

    The materials provide ample opportunities for students to practice a mix of both on-demand and process writing. At the end of every reading selection, students are presented with an After Reading section that includes an Extended Text section. Within this section, students are presented with two on-demand writing options. At the close of every unit, students are presented with a Writing Workshop opportunity, which is a process writing where students prewrite, draft, and revise over time. Students are given both examples and steps to follow to ensure success. There are focused projects that incorporate digital resources where appropriate, as explained in the Introduction to Media Text and Visual Media resource.

    Examples of on-demand and process writing that meet the criteria for this indicator include, but are not limited to, the following:

    In the Unit 1 Writing Workshop, Argumentative Writing section, students are given a process writing opportunity with the following prompts:

    • “Whether it’s John F. Kennedy’s 'Ask not what your country can do for you' or, as you read in this unit, Patrick Henry’s fervent 'Give me liberty or give me death!' passionate addresses inspire audiences, persuading them to change their viewpoint or rise to action.”
    • “While few of us will be called on to deliver a speech that will affect national change, we still use words to persuade others, perhaps by convincing a friend to watch a certain movie or challenging our community to change a policy. Writing an argumentative essay is, then, merely an extension of what we do naturally in everyday life.”
    • “In this assignment, you will write an argumentative essay, defending a viewpoint that expresses an informed opinion about a topic that interests you. Support your opinion with information gathered from research on the topic.”

    In Unit 2 of the the Annotated Teacher's Edition, students read “from Walden” by Henry David Thoreau. In Extend the Text, Writing Options section, students have an on-demand argumentative writing opportunity: “You are a local judge, and a citizen appears before your court to explain why he or she refuses to pay for a parking ticket. The individual says the car was parked illegally but that he or she needed the spot to keep an appointment to donate blood. Issue a decision in this case, explaining in a paragraph whether the individual should have to pay the parking ticket.”

    In Unit 4, after reading the text, “How to Tell a Story” by Mark Twain, students:

    • Extend the Text, Creative Writing: Imagine that you are Jim Smiley, writing a memoir for fellow gamblers about your experiences. Write the last chapter in which you relate your worst gambling failure. Include the reason for your downfall.
    • Extend the Text, Narrative Writing: Write a one paragraph summary about the tall tale about a cow that Wheeler mentions at the end of the story. Imagine you are Mark Twain submitting an idea for a follow up story in The Saturday Press; your reader is the magazine’s editor.
    • After reading a passage from “Life on the Mississippi” by Mark Twain, Extend the Text, Writing Options, Creative Writing: Look at a map and identify towns along the Mississippi River that Twain might have visited in his days as a riverboat pilot. Write a postcard that Twain might have sent to his brother, Orion, from a town along the river.

    At the beginning of Unit 7, students read an introduction to the time period, including information about “Postwar Challenges,” “The Cold War,” “The Red Scare at Home,” “The Domestic Scene,” and “The Civil Rights Movement.” The Teacher Edition includes on-demand writing options to go along with this introduction: “1. If you had been a public school student in the early days of the Cold War, what would you have thought about the periodically required ‘duck-and-cover’ drills? 2. When Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican form WIsconsin, conducted his anti-Communist crusade, he was not acting alone. What public attitudes gave credibility to the Red Scare? From what private-sector groups or government agencies did he likely draw support?”

    At the end of Unit 9, students complete a process writing workshop where they compose a research paper: “Assignment: Plan, write, and revise a research paper that presents an argument about immigration. Purpose: To convince readers of your viewpoint. Audience: Someone who disagrees with your viewpoint or has no opinion on the topic.” This a multi-step process that takes them through the entire process of prewriting, writing, and revising.

    Indicator 1l

    Materials provide opportunities for students to address different types/modes/genres of writing that reflect the distribution required by the standards. Writing opportunities incorporate digital resources/multimodal literacy materials where appropriate. Opportunities may include blended writing styles that reflect the distribution required by the standards.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the the criteria that materials provide opportunities for students to address different text types of writing that reflect the distribution required by the standards. (Writing opportunities incorporate digital resources/multimodal literacy materials where appropriate. Opportunities may include blended writing styles that reflect the distribution required by the standards.)

    The materials provide students ample opportunities to engage in writing activities over the course of the year in a variety of modes, including argumentative, informative, narrative, and descriptive writing as well as research writing and writing to sources. Within these general categories, there is also a wide variety of specific writing tasks. Each of the reading selections is followed by two writing activities in two different modes, and the writing workshop at the end of each unit gives an in-depth exploration and practice of a specific mode as well. Where appropriate, writing opportunities are connected to texts and/or text sets (either as prompts, models, anchors, or supports). Each lesson offers a purpose for the writing, a teaching and modeling section, examples to help guide students, and independent writing time.

    In Unit 1, Annotated Teacher Edition, students read “Song of the Sky Loom,” Tribal Song of the Tewa. In the After Reading, Extend the Text, Writing Options section, students practice informative writing with the following prompt: “'Song of the Sky Loom' is a traditional literary work that deals with the interaction between the Tewa and the natural world. Find a twenty-first century American novel, film, or play that focuses on the interaction between human beings and nature. Write an essay comparing and contrasting the characters and text structure of the traditional 'Song' with those of the contemporary work. Use examples and evidence from the works to support inferences and conclusions about the way those literary elements are handled in the two periods.”

    In Unit 5, students read two poems by Ezra Pound, “In a Station of the Metro,” and “The River-Merchant’s Wife: A Letter.” Students also read “A Few Don’ts by an Imagiste,” a literary criticism by Ezra Pound. Once students complete both poem reads and the literary criticism, students are presented with two writing options in the Extend the Text section within After Reading.

    1. Creative Writing: “Write a poem in which you describe a scene that made an impression on you. Try to recreate Ezra Pound’s style by describing the scene using an image or images from nature, instead of directly stating how the scene affected you.”
    2. Argumentative Writing: “Write a letter to the editor of Poetry magazine in which you express your opinion about the advice Pound offers in ‘A Few Don’ts by an Imagiste.’ Does he offer sound advice that all writers can use to improve their writing? Explain, using examples from the poem to support your argument.”

    In Unit 6, students read a poem by Randall Jarrell, “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner,” and students view various World War II recruitment posters. Once students read Jarrell’s poem and view the various posters, they are presented with two writing options in the Extend the Text section within After Reading:

    1. Creative Writing: “In the role of the ball turret gunner, write a letter to a family member or friend back home that describes what you do. Include your feelings about your job, the war, and so on.”
    2. Informative Writing: “Write a paragraph to introduce ‘The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner’ in a collection of poems written during wartime. Explain to readers what you perceive Jarnell says about war in this poem.”

    In Unit 7, after reading “The Magic Barrel” by Bernard Malamud, students complete a text extension activity where they compose a piece of creative writing: “Write an epilogue to 'The Magic Barrel' in which you let readers know the fates of Leo, Stella, and Salzman. Your epilogue might include short-term events (for example, the rest of the story’s last scene), long-term events (what happens months or years later), or both.”

    In Unit 8, after reading the short story, “Ambush,” by Tim O’Brien and the poems, “Camouflaging the Chimera” and “Monsoon Season,” by Yusef Komunyakaa, students complete a text extension activity where they compose a piece of informative writing: “Both Tim O’Brien and Yusef Komunyakaa are Vietnam veterans. How are O’Brien’s story ‘Ambush’ and Komunyakaa’s poems alike and how are they different? Write a comparison-and-contrast essay in which you discuss the story and the poems.”

    Indicator 1m

    Materials include frequent opportunities for evidence-based writing to support sophisticated analysis, argumentation, and synthesis.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria for materials including frequent opportunities for evidence-based writing to support sophisticated analysis, argumentation, and synthesis.

    The materials provide opportunities across the school year for students to learn, practice, and apply research-based and evidence-based writing to support analyses, arguments, and synthesis. At the end of every reading selection, in the After Reading/Extend the Text section, students are presented with two on-demand writing options that prompt students to complete short, research-based writing using the texts within the section. The writing prompts that require students to interact with the text explicitly state that the students need to cite evidence. Students experience research-based and evidence-based writing within every Writing Workshop section that occurs at the close of each unit. Many writing opportunities are focused around each student’s analyses and claims developed from reading closely and working with sources.

    In Unit 1 students read “from The General History of Virginia” by John Smith and “from Of Plymouth Plantation” by William Bradford. In the After the Reading, Writing Options, Extend the Text, Creative Writing section, students are given the following prompt: “Both Smith and Bradford were successful leaders, but Smith left Virginia and Bradford stayed in Plymouth. For each man, write a paragraph that explains how his choice relates to his character and the motivation that drew him to the New World. Then write a paragraph making logical connections between the two situations. Support your ideas with examples from the text.”

    In Unit 1 students read “from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself” by Olaudah Equiano. In Writing Options, students are given the following prompt: “This autobiographical narrative asks a number of rhetorical questions. Write a literary essay explaining how a Equiano uses these questions to create meaning, influence the reader, and evoke emotions. Include examples from the text and discuss inferences and conclusions that can be drawn from them.”

    In Unit 2 students read “from Nature,” an essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and “The Rhodora,” a lyric poem by Ralph Waldo Emerson. After the Reading Writing Options, Extend the Text, Informative Writing section, students are given the following prompt: “Write a comparison-and-contrast essay in which you point out the differences and similarities between 'Nature,' and 'The Rhodora.' Use examples from each selection to support your ideas.”

    In Unit Four, in the Exceeding the Standards Guide, Expository Writing, Explain the Process section, using How to Build a Campfire by USDA Fire Service students do the following:

    • Identify the major steps.
    • Identify what supplementary information is included in step 4.
    • Identify the active verbs used in each step.
    • Select a subject, identify purpose and audience, gather information, complete a process planning chart, organize information, draft, and revise.

    In Unit 5, students read two novel excerpts by Ernest Hemingway: from The Sun Also Rises and from For Whom the Bell Tolls. Students also read Dorothy Parker’s essay, “The Artist’s Reward,” as a Literature Connection with the texts just read by Hemingway. Once students complete all readings, they are presented with two writing options:

    1. The informative writing option requires students to go back to the text to support their claims regarding text structure; this informative writing task also requires students to research an outside story or recall a previous reading: “Read about the origin of Hemingway’s title The Sun Also Rises, on page 544. Now identify a character from mythic, traditional, or classical literature and write an essay explaining how that character’s confrontations with morality compare and contrast with Romero’s in the twentieth-century story The Sun Also Rises. Discuss whether the structure of Hemingway’s story draws attention to the theme of morality and whether it is effective compared with the structure of the related myth, traditional work, or classical work.”
    2. The descriptive writing option requires students to reference all texts read in this selection: “Imagine that you met Jake Barnes or Robert Jordan and are writing a letter to a friend telling about the meeting. Based on the background information provided for the selections and what you have gleaned from reading them, write a one paragraph character sketch of either Barnes or Jordan.”

    In Unit 5, students read “Petals,” a poem by Amy Lowell, and “Mid-Day,” a poem Hilda Doolittle. Once students read both poems, they are presented with two writing options at the end of the text selection in After Reading within Extend the Text; the second writing option requires students to compose a short comparison-and-contrast essay: "Informative Writing: Write a short comparison-and-contrast essay in which you discuss how nature imagery is used to create mood in ‘Petals’ and ‘Mid-Day.’ Compare the imagery, mood, and ideas each author wants to convey in her poem.”

    In Unit 6, students read an excerpt from the novel, The Grapes of Wrath, and the short story, “The Chrysanthemums,” both by John Steinbeck. Once students read both text selections, they are presented with two writing options at the end of the text selection in After Reading within Extend the Text. The second writing option requires students to compose an analysis essay: "Informative Writing: Write an essay analyzing the importance of setting in both The Grapes of Wrath and ‘The Chrysanthemums.’ Use examples from the novel and the story to support your opinion.”

    In Unit 7, after reading “Riprap” and “Pine Tree Tops,” both by Gary Snyder, students complete a Text Extension activity which requires them to use evidence from the text: “Write a comparison-and-contrast essay in which you compare ‘Riprap’ or ‘Pine Tree Tops’ with another poem by a Beat writer featured in this unit. Focus on form, style, language, and imagery, explaining how each poet uses these elements to convey his intended message.”

    In Unit 8, after reading “Game” by Donald Barthelme, students complete a text extension activity which requires them to use evidence from the text: “Write a one-page character analysis of the narrator. Base your analysis on details from the story and what you can infer about his life before going underground.”

    In Unit 9, after reading “What is Supposed to Happen” by Naomi Shihab Nye, students complete a Text Extension activity which requires them to use evidence from the text: “Stanza 2 uses striking images to portray its setting without actually naming it. Write a one-paragraph explication, or careful analysis of the text, that discusses the effectiveness of the images in stanza 2.”

    Indicator 1n

    Materials include instruction and practice of the grammar and conventions/language standards for grade level as applied in increasingly sophisticated contexts, with opportunities for application in context.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria for materials including instruction and practice of the grammar and conventions/language standards for grade level as applied in increasingly sophisticated contexts, with opportunities for application in context.

    The materials contain several workshops in grammar and style, as well as vocabulary and spelling. Within each unit, students experience between two and six Grammar and Style Workshops; all workshops have students practice various grammatical and syntactical tasks that apply directly to the texts they read within the unit. However, there is inconsistent support for students to practice in increasingly sophisticated contexts. The skills instruction does not include opportunities for application both in and out of context. Additionally, the materials do not promote and build students’ ability to apply conventions and other aspects of language within their own writing. There are minimal opportunities to practice skills taught in the unit with the selected readings in the Teacher’s Edition, therefore limiting opportunities for increased sophistication of the addressed standards. While the resource workbook, Exceeding the Standards, includes “comprehensive skills development lessons," the same language standards are not necessarily addressed during the Writer’s Workshop task or other possible places within the unit of study. Therefore, students are not consistently given opportunities to apply the lessons on grammar and conventions in context.

    In Unit 1, students experience two Grammar and Style Workshops. Within each Grammar and Style Workshop, students practice Understand the Concept and Apply the Skill sections.

    • Within this particular Grammar & Style workshop, students are focusing on verb tenses; however, within the Grade 11 text, many supports are removed considering the material is more condensed within the Understand the Concept section. Students practice the skill within the Apply the Skill section: Identify the Correct Tense and Revise to Create Agreement. For example, when students practice identifying the correct skill they must do the following: “In each of the following sentences, identify the correct tense from the choices in parentheses.” An example of this is as follows: “5. Edwards’s style as a speaker (will be studied/is studied) by generations to come.”
    • Subject-Verb Agreement: Within the Grade 11 text, many supports are removed considering the material is more condensed within the Understand the Concept section. Students practice the skill within the Apply the Skill section: Identify Agreement and Revise to Create Agreement. For example, within Revise to Create Agreement, students must “Revise the following paragraph to create agreement between subject and verb.” The paragraph that students see is as follows: “Modern-day readers of John Smith’s work probably responds according to their cultural background. For instance, either a deep faith or an interest in Native American history influence some readers. Neither the teacher nor students uneasy with a word like savages is likely to accept Smith’s account without some reflection. What has scholars learned, over the generations, about the impact of language on education?”

    In Unit 2, Exceeding the Standards Resource, students practice five different lessons. Within Lesson 8, which has four exercises, students practice Pronoun Cases: The Nominative Case, the Objective Case, and the Possessive Case.” Students, within Exercise 3 practice the following exercise: “For the ‘Local Humor’ column in your student newspaper, write a brief description of an amusing event in which you and your friends were involved. Correctly use at least two examples of pronouns in each of the cases: nominative, objective, and possessive.”

    Unit 4, Expanding Frontiers 1865-1910, includes three Grammar and Style Workshops: Irregular Verbs, Modifiers, and Verbal Phrases. It does not contain any vocabulary and spelling workshops.

    • In the Irregular Verbs Workshop, students read about how to use regular and irregular verbs correctly. They then complete practice exercises such as replacing the irregular verb in parentheses with the correct form of the verb: “1. The dog Andrew Jackson (bite) the hind legs of the other dog last week.”
    • In the Modifiers Workshop students read about using adjectives and adverbs effectively. They then complete practice exercises such as looking at a sentence and underlining the adjectives once and the adverbs twice: “1. Two or three men, conversing earnestly together, ceased as he approached, and exchanged significant glances.”
    • The Vocabulary and Spelling section of The Exceeding the Standards booklet includes practice exercises to support the determining meaning workshop: detonation and connotation, literal vs. figurative language, and homophones.

    In Unit 5 ,Grammar and Style, Understand the Concept, students learn the concept of coordination. In Applying the Skill, students "Identify Coordinating Conjunctions" in sentences. Students "Correct Coordinating Conjunctions" by correcting sentences with the appropriate subordinating conjunction. Students also "Use Coordination in Your Writing" by writing a summary and identifying the coordinating clauses used.

    In Unit 6. Grammar and Style, Understand the Concept, students learn the concept of Possessive Nouns and Pronouns. In Applying the Skill, students "Identify Possessive Nouns and Pronouns" that function as modifiers in a sentence. Students "Improve the Use of Possessive Nouns and Pronouns" by correcting mistaken uses of possessive nouns and pronouns in a paragraph. Students also "Use Possessive Nouns and Pronouns" by writing a paragraph describing your favorite hobbies.

    In Unit 7, Exceeding the Standards Resource, Grammar & Style, students are taught Punctuation and Capitalization. There are four lessons on Punctuation and three on Capitalization.

    • Lesson 45: Semicolons and Colons. A semicolon joins two closely related independent clauses. Examples are provided, and then “Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb or a transitional phrase.” Examples are given and there are two charts provided for students: Common Conjunctive Adverbs and Common Transitional Phrases. Exercise 1, Understanding Semicolons asks students to “Combine each pair of independent clauses by correctly placing a semicolon between them."

    In Unit 8, Exceeding the Standards Resource, Grammar & Style, Lesson 52, reviews Sentence Fragments. “A sentence contains a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. A sentence fragment is a word or word group that does not express a complete thought but that has been punctuated as though it does. Examples are provided, Exercise 1, “Identifying Sentence Fragments in Literature, Identify each of the following items as either a sentence or a sentence fragment.”

    In Unit 9, Grammar & Style, Quotations, Understand the Concept, an explanation is provided for when to use quotations. “Whether writing an essay or a research paper, you should use information from other sources to lend credibility to your ideas.” Examples are provided, and then students Apply the Skill, Improve the Use of Quotations, “Rewrite each of the following sentences to correctly use the quoted text, which is underlined. Consider “the capitalization and use of punctuation (commas and quotation marks) in quoting either a fragment or an entire sentence, as indicated.”

    Gateway Two

    Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks

    Partially Meets Expectations

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    Gateway Two Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria that materials build knowledge through integrated reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language. Materials do not meet the criteria that texts are organized around a topic or theme/topic or themes to build students’ knowledge and their ability to read and comprehend and analyze complex texts proficiently. While there are targeted questions and series of questions for students that promote students’ ability to draw conclusions and cite textual evidence, determine theme, and analyze point of view, they do not promote students' building knowledge of the content and texts. Students are presented with text-dependent and text-specific questions; however, the questions do not require students to build knowledge across the text. Culminating tasks do not require students to demonstrate knowledge of a topic, nor do they integrate skills. Materials include vocabulary over the course of a school-year, but there is no cohesive plan for students to interact with and build key academic vocabulary words in and across texts. Materials include a variety of resources and supports to provide a year-long, cohesive plan of writing instruction and tasks. Materials provide frequent opportunities for students to engage in research activities that support the understanding of texts and topics within texts. Materials meet the criteria that materials provide a design, including accountability, for how students will regularly engage in a volume of independent reading either in or outside of class.

    Criterion 2a - 2h

    18/32
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    Criterion Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria that materials build knowledge through integrated reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language. Materials do not meet the criteria that texts are organized around a topic or theme/topic or themes to build students’ knowledge and their ability to read and comprehend and analyze complex texts proficiently.While there are targeted questions and series of questions for students that promote students’ ability to draw conclusions and cite textual evidence, determine theme, and analyze point of view, they do not promote students' building knowledge of the content and texts. Students are presented with text-dependent and text-specific questions; however, the questions do not require students to build knowledge across the text. Materials include a variety of resources and supports to provide a year-long, cohesive plan of writing instruction and tasks. Materials provide frequent opportunities for students to engage in research activities that support the understanding of texts and topics within texts. Materials meet the criteria that materials provide a design, including accountability, for how students will regularly engage in a volume of independent reading either in or outside of class.

    Indicator 2a

    Texts are organized around a topic/topics or themes to build students' knowledge and their ability to comprehend and analyze complex texts proficiently.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 do not meet the criteria that texts are organized around a topic or theme/topic or themes to build students’ knowledge and their ability to read and comprehend and analyze complex texts proficiently.

    The materials consist of chronological units that follow a timeline. There are no Essential Questions, topics, or themes around which these units are organized. A quote at the beginning of each unit is intended to give insight into the collection of literature in the unit. Along with the quote are guiding questions and commentary that are meant to expand upon the quote. While the quote, questions, and commentary at the beginning set the stage for defining a theme or topic, the texts throughout the unit do not consistently connect back to them. Many of the texts in the unit do not relate to each other with a common theme or topic, and students do not build knowledge to help them better read complex texts. Many of the Mirrors & Windows questions focus on text-to-student understanding, rather than the text, and they are not building the student's textual knowledge.

    The Unit 2 Overview presents the genres that will be discussed via the sections that students will encounter as the title of the unit. The title of the unit stands as New England Renaissance 1800-1850; the three parts that students encounter are as follows: Fireside Poets, Transcendentalism, and American Gothic. In Part 3 of Unit 3, students read Edgar Allan Poe’s canonical poem “The Raven,” as well as his poem “Alone.” The Mirrors & Windows question for “The Raven” is as follows: “Poe believed the death of a beautiful woman to be the most poetic of subjects. What subject or subjects do you believe to be poetic?” The Mirrors & Windows question for “Alone” is as follows: “What do the words stormy, torrent, and thunder suggest about the speaker’s attitude toward his childhood? What words would you use to describe your childhood?” While these questions analyze the author's use of language and its effects, they do not fully support deepening textual knowledge as a whole and focus primarily on text-to-student understanding.

    Unit 6, Depression and World War II 1929-1945 is divided into two sections: Part 1, Hard Times and Part 2, Southern Renaissance. Each section in this unit focuses on the time era and the theme of the Depression and World War II, connecting students with the historical perspectives of the time, The Great Depression and 1930s Radicalism, A New Deal, and World War II. In Part 2, Southern Renaissance, students read, “A Worn Path,” a short story by Eudora Welty. The Mirrors and Windows questions focus on the metaphorical meaning of "worn path": “Before they begin reading, have students consider choices they have made between a familiar path and an unfamiliar one.” The Mirrors & Windows focus questions at the end of the text asks students: “If Phoenix Jackson had taken a new path to Natchez, rather than the 'worn' path, would the meaning of the story change? When have you chosen a familiar path over new path in your own life?” While these questions are engaging, students are not necessarily building knowledge, and the teacher will need to supplement with additional texts and questions to deepen knowledge.

    In the Unit 8, Early Contemporary 1960-1980, Annotated Teacher’s Edition, there are three parts: Part 1, Global Tension; Part 2, Personal Challenges; and Part 3, Confessional Poets. The Anchor Text for Part 1 is the “Inaugural Address,” a speech by John F. Kennedy. The Mirrors & Windows question at the end of the selection is “John F. Kennedy delivered his Inaugural Address in January 1961. Are the issues he spoke about still relevant today?“ The topic or theme of Global Tensions is raised regarding the Arms race. Students read the poem by Stafford is “Traveling Through the Dark.” The Mirrors & Windows question is “If you were the driver in the poem, would you have hesitated? Would you be able to provide help in an emergency? What would be difficult for you?” In the Analyze Literature section, Mood, “The first poem has a mood of fear, appropriate to the subject of nuclear tests. The second poem has a mood of fleeting compassion; after momentary thoughts of trying to rescue the fawn, the speaker returns to a business as usual indifference to humans’ impact on the wilderness; the contradictory feelings of concern and disregard for the subject of people’s broken ties to the natural world." These questions provide ample opportunities for text-to-student connections; however, the teacher will have to supplement with questions in order to facilitate knowledge building.

    Indicator 2b

    Materials contain sets of coherently sequenced higher order thinking questions and tasks that require students to analyze the language (words/phrases), key ideas, details, craft, and structure of individual texts in order to make meaning and build understanding of texts and topics.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria that materials contain sets of coherently sequenced questions and tasks that require students to analyze the language (words/phrases), key ideas, details, craft, and structure of individual texts in order to make meaning and build understanding of texts and topics.

    While there are targeted questions and series of questions for students that promote students’ ability to draw conclusions and cite textual evidence, determine theme, and analyze point of view, they do not promote students' building knowledge of the content and texts. There are few questions that support students in analyzing author’s language and word choice. The questions that do focus on language and structure do not support students to analyze its effect on the text.

    In some selections, there is attention paid to vocabulary as well as content, craft, and style. For example, in Unit 1, Within the Meeting the Standards text, students are presented with different levels of activities. Students read the poem, “Huswifery,” by Edward Taylor and complete the activity: Analyze Literature: Poetry Analysis. Teachers are instructed to “use this chart, in combination with the results of the Formative Survey from the Assessment supplemental guide, to identify activities that are appropriate for [said] students.” The Analyze Literature: Poetry Analysis of “Huswifery” includes questions, such as the following:

    • “In literature, a conceit is an extended comparison of two extremely dissimilar things. Could the figure of speech in ‘Huswifery’ be considered a conceit? Explain.
    • To what extent does the speaker accept responsibility for his behavior as opposed to giving all responsibility to God? Explain, giving examples from the poem.
    • In your opinion, would this poem have been an appropriate addition to The New England Primer? Explain.”

    There are numerous questions within this assignment that support students in making meaning and building understanding of the poem and topic within the poem, encourage students to draw conclusions, articulate evidence-based opinions, and, overall, develop analysis skills.

    In Unit 2, students read “The Devil and Tom Walker,” a short story by Washington Irving. In After Reading Reason with Text, question 1b asks students to find meaning to understand: “When the devil says he has a ‘prior claim’ on the woodland what does he mean?” Question 4b asks students to evaluate by making judgements: “Irving calls Tom’s wife a ‘female scold.’ Evaluate the role she plays in the story.” The informative writing task asks students to “Briefly research the story of Faust, in the play mentioned in the Build Background section. Then in a comparison-and-contrast essay, discuss how ‘The Devil and Tom Walker’ is similar to and different from the play. Include examples from the play and the story to support your comparison.”

    In other selections, the teacher may need to support students with extended work to assure they have opportunities to grow vocabulary and knowledge since the questions and sequences ask students to engage at a surface level as opposed to a deeper level. For example, in Unit 4, students read, “How to Tell a Story” by Mark Twain and answer the following review questions: “List three types of funny stories Twain describes. What is the basis of American art according to Twain?” The Text to Text Connection has students “make two columns on a sheet of paper, list the characteristics of the humorous story. In the other column, list the characteristics of the comic story and witty story. What are the differences between the two?”

    In Unit 7, students read Arthur Miller’s play, The Crucible. Once complete, they read an excerpt from “Why I Wrote The Crucible,” by Arthur Miller. Within the Review Questions section at the close of “Why I Wrote The Crucible,” students are presented with questions. The teacher may need to provide extensions to assure students have a fully rich close-reading experience to understand the craft and style beyond a surface level that the following questions employ:

    • “Approximately how much time had passed between the production of the stage version of The Crucible and the film version? Identify the “biting irony” of the movie being made by a Hollywood Studio.
    • What does Miller mean when he asserts that ‘fear doesn’t travel well’? Analyze the reason why The Crucible still has meaning for people even decades after the McCarthy Era.
    • Identify what Miller states is the main threat to a totalitarian or theocratic regime. Explain why this play seems popular in places where political turmoil is present.”

    In Unit 8, students read “On The Rockpile” by James Baldwin. After Reading, Reason with Text, question 3b asks students to analyze and take apart the question, “Identify the more serious family problem that Roy’s accident reveals.” Question 5b asks students to create and bring ideas together when answering the question, “Propose what the two objects symbolize. Why does Elizabeth ask John to pick up one of the items?” These questions do provide some access to reading the text closely; however, they do not provide deeper knowledge building nor academic vocabulary practice.

    In Unit 9, students read two poems,”Though We May Feel Alone” and “Dream,” and an essay, “My Mother’s Blue Bowl,” all written by Alice Walker. Once students read the texts, they complete the After Reading, Refer to Text and Reason with Text section. For example, question 5a in the Refer to Text section asks, “In ‘My Mother’s Blue Bowl,’ how did Walker feel as a child about her family’s first house on the farm, both inside and outside?” Also, 5b in the Reason with Text section asks, “Explain how Walker’s mother taught her children the value of having beauty and creativity despite being poor.” These questions provide some opportunity for students to engage with the text; however, the teacher will need to supplement the questions and tasks to assure students analyze the craft, structure, and vocabulary beyond a surface read.

    Indicator 2c

    Materials contain a coherently sequenced set of text-dependent and text-specific questions and tasks that require students to build knowledge and integrate ideas across both individual and multiple texts.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria that materials contain a coherently sequenced set of text-dependent and text-specific questions and tasks that require students to build knowledge and integrate ideas across both individual and multiple texts.

    In the curriculum, students are presented with text-dependent and text-specific questions; however, the questions do not require students to build knowledge across the text. S Included are some text-dependent questions for each selection in the form of During Reading questions and After Reading questions. The During Reading questions require only a surface amount of knowledge to complete. The After Reading questions are broken into Refer to Text and Reason with Text questions. The Refer to Text questions require surface knowledge of the text. The Reason with the Text questions are designed to increase in complexity from understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating; however, these questions comprise a small percentage of the questions and tasks that students are required to address.

    Most questions and tasks do not require that students refer to the text, and it is unclear how the questions work to build knowledge across an individual text. Each unit includes two texts that are paired with the intention of teaching literary elements across texts. The individual paired texts have text-dependent questions at the end, but there is only one question that asks the students to compare the texts, and the question does not promote a deep analysis of the texts. There are other text-to-text connections established in the units, but the questions about these connections do not require an analysis of the integration of ideas.

    The Mirrors & Windows questions are mainly text-to-student questions, where students are not required to read the text in order to be able to respond. The Annotated Teacher’s Edition presents verbal questions within the outside band as students are reading, but students are not practicing questions independently or in groups. The Exceeding the Standards and Meeting the Standards supplemental resources offer additional, yet limited, activities within the unit to compare a set of texts. Various texts within the units have student writing, speaking, and researching tasks for evidence of students’ need to perform analysis of texts to complete quality cumulative assignments and tasks.

    In Unit 1, Origins of the American Tradition to 1800, students read and compare two texts: an excerpt from The General History of Virginia by John Smith and an excerpt from Plymouth Plantation by William Bradford. At the end of the second text, students are asked these comparison questions: “What points of view does each writer use? What effect does the writer's choice have on the telling of the story? Consider which story seems more real or compelling.”

    In Unit 2, New England Renaissance 1800-1850, students read the story, “The Devil and Tom Walker” by Washington Irving. At the end of the selection, students are asked text-dependent questions. In order to Refer to the Text, students are asked, “Identify the marks on the trees to which the devil points. What will happen to the trees?” To further “Reason with the text, students are asked “When the devil says he has a ‘prior claim’ on the woodland, what does he mean?”

    In Unit 3, Slavery and The Civil War, students read the anchor text, “from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass An American Slave, Written by Himself,” an autobiography by Frederick Douglass and Literature Connection, “Frederick Douglass,” a poem by Robert Hayden.

    • The Text to Text Connection section asks: “Identify the lines in the poem that refer to the autobiography of Frederick Douglass. Explain what Douglass did to advance the cause of freedom for slaves. How does Hayden say he will be remembered for his efforts? Is that an appropriate tribute? Why or why not?”
    • The Extend the Text, Writing Options, Lifelong Learning, Create a Dialogue section asks: “Write a conversation between Frederick Douglass and Robert Hayden (see page 281), in which they discuss laws that have been passed to advance the legal rights of African Americans.”

    In Unit 4, Expanding Frontiers, students read, “The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County,” a short story by Mark Twain and Primary Source Connection, “How to Tell a Story,” an essay by Mark Twain.

    • The Text to Text Connection section asks students to “Make two columns on a sheet of paper. In one column, list the characteristics of the humorous story. In the other column, list the characteristics of the comic story and witty story. What are the differences between the two? In 'The Notorious Jumping Frog,' how does Twain portray Simon Wheeler as the ideal humorous storyteller?”
    • In the Extend the Text, Writing Options: Collaborative Learning, Prepare an Oral Interpretation section, students are asked to select an excerpt from a piece of fiction by Twain and prepare an oral interpretation of it. Draw inferences from the details to decide what tone, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, language conventions, facial expressions, and gestures you will employ to communicate the characters, theme, and other literary elements? Get tips from “How to Tell a Story" (pages 387 - 389). "Pretending to be Twain, present your work to a classmate. Be sure to make eye contact with your audience as you present.”
    • In the Reading Assessment, Question 8, Constructed Response, students are asked: “What makes ‘The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County’ and ‘How to Tell a Story’ humorous? What literary devices add to the humor of the selections? Identify these devices, and explain how Twain uses them to create humor. Support your opinions with quotations from the selection.”

    In Unit 4, Expanding Frontiers, students read “The Destructive Male” a speech by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, “Women's Right to Suffrage” a speech by Susan B. Anthony, and “Letter to Elizabeth Cady Stanton” by Susan B. Anthony.

    • In the Text to Text Connection, students are given the following questions: “Susan B. Anthony was single-minded in her pursuit of getting women the right to vote, but she died fourteen years before that goal was achieved. How does she determine success or failure in this cause? What gives her satisfaction and hope?”
    • In the Compare Literature: Argument and Rhetoric section, students are asked, “What argument is each speaker making? Identify each argument as inductive or deductive. Analyze the different ways each speaker supports her conclusions. Whose approach is more effective in achieving its aim? Explain your answer. If you had been in the audience when Anthony or Stanton gave her speech, would you have been persuaded by her rhetoric? Would you have agreed or disagreed with each woman's argument? Support your answer.”

    In Unit 5, Early Twentieth Century, in the Annotated Teacher’s Edition, the Scope and Sequence lists information for each text in the unit including Literary Element and Theme. There is no essential question for the Unit. The first selections in Unit 5 are from well-known novels; before reading, in the Teach the Form, Close Reading the Novel, Identify the Point of View section, teachers are guided, “As you lead a discussion on the selections from Hemingway and Fitzgerald, ask students to identify the narrator of each work. Who is telling the story? What is the narrator's relationship to other characters? Is the narrator’s perspective or point of view limited in any way? Is the narrator reliable?"

    • The first text in Part One is from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. Before students read, the Mirrors and Window question is “ask students to consider whether people around them would have an easy or difficult time knowing them well?” After reading, the Mirror & Window question is “The narrator said that Gatsby looked at them in a way that 'understood you just so far as you wanted to be understood.' Do you feel that people around you know you well? Do you want people to know you well?” After reading there is a Refer to Text and a Reason with the Text section with 5 questions for students to answer: “Identify the time and place the novel is set? What details convey the setting? Why is setting important to the story? Who is the narrator? What is his relation to Gatsby?”
    • The second text in Part One is from The Sun Also Rises, a novel by Ernest Hemingway. Before students read, the Mirrors and Window question is “ask students to consider their feelings about watching the sport.” After reading, the Mirrors and Window question is “The narrator says it was not nice to watch if you cared anything about the person who was doing it. Would want to watch a bullfight? Why do some people enjoy watching violent events or movies?” The Analyze Literature section asks students, “why the crowd did not want the bullfight to ever be finished? In what ways do the fans’ desires conflict with the matadors?”

    In Unit 6, Depression and the World, the Annotated Teacher’s Edition, Scope and Sequence lists information for each text in the unit including Literary Element and Theme. There is no essential question for the Unit. The first selections in Unit 6 are “Let Us Praise Famous Men,” a literary nonfiction and Anchor Text from James Agee. The second is from The Grapes of Wrath, a novel by John Steinbeck. Before students read the selection from The Grapes of Wrath, the Mirrors and Window question is “Ask students to consider whether they have ever been skeptical that something could be as desirable as something is advertised?” After reading, the Mirrors and Window question is “Describe a time when you were suspicious of something that sounded unbelievably good. How did it turn out?” The Analyze Literature section, Characterization, asks students, “What might be the reason Ma says she is scared of things so nice?”

    In Unit 7, students read Act I of Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. At the close of Act I, students are presented with the following Mirrors & Windows question: “Afraid that his reputation and ministry will be ruined, Reverend Parris insists that no one mention anything about witchcraft in the village. Think of a modern-day example of a cover-up. In today’s world, is it possible to prevent the truth from being revealed?” Students then read an excerpt from Arthur Miller’s essay “Why I Wrote The Crucible: An Artist’s Answer to Politics.” Students are then presented three review questions, one of which is as follows: “Approximately how much time had passed between the production of the stage version of The Crucible and the film version? Identify the ‘biting irony’ of the movie being made by a Hollywood studio.” Students are then presented with an After Reading section. Within this section, students are presented with Refer to Text questions and Reason with Text questions. Questions are tiered in the following order: “Understand: Find meaning, Apply: Use information, Analyze: Take things apart, Evaluate: Make judgments, and Create: Bring ideas together.” An example of a Reason with Text question is as follows: “3b. What mixed emotions does John have on seeing Abigail again? Support your answer with examples.”

    In Unit 8, students read John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address. At the close of the text, students are presented with the following Mirrors & Windows question: “John F. Kennedy delivered his Inaugural Address in January 1961. Are the issues he spoke about still relevant today?” Students are then presented with an After Reading section. Within this section, students are presented with Refer to Text questions and Reason with Text questions. Questions are tiered in the following order: “Understand: Find meaning, Apply: Use information, Analyze: Take things apart, Evaluate: Make judgments, and Create: Bring ideas together.” An example of a Refer to Text question is as follows: “5a. According to Kennedy, what should citizens ask of their nation?”

    In Unit 9, students read an excerpt from Tim Hamilton’s graphic novel, which is an adaptation of Fahrenheit 451. Students are presented with the following Mirrors & Windows question: “ In the introduction to Hamilton’s adaptation of Fahrenheit 451, Bradbury encourages readers to name the one book they would save from the firemen. He also encourages them to be able to defend their choice as a ‘valuable asset’ for the future. What book would you choose? Why?”

    • Considering this text is identified as an Independent Reading task, students are only presented with Refer and Reason questions and two writing options. The Refer and Reason questions are as follows:
      • Faber tells Montag that books are important for three reasons. What are they?
      • Literary critics have described the tone of Bradbury’s writing in Fahrenheit 451 as oppressive, pessimistic, and menacing. How well does Hamilton’s artwork capture that tone? Evaluate his use of color, line, shadow, and texture.
      • In the futuristic world of the novel, people are consumed with cars, games, and technology. Faber questions whether they have “time to think.” With what activities and devices do people today seem consumed? How might Bradbury’s fictional world be similar to the real world of today?

    Indicator 2d

    The questions and tasks support students' ability to complete culminating tasks in which they demonstrate their knowledge of a topic through integrated skills (e.g. combination of reading, writing, speaking, listening).
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 do not meet the criteria that the questions and tasks support students’ ability to complete culminating tasks in which they demonstrate their knowledge of a topic through integrated skills (e.g. combination of reading, writing, speaking, listening).

    Culminating tasks do not require students to demonstrate knowledge of a topic, nor do they integrate skills. Students complete each workshop independently of each other. Some tasks are loosely connected to unit texts, while others are not connected to texts. Students are often demonstrating mastery of the unit skills rather than demonstrating understanding or knowledge. After every text selection in the After Reading, Refer to Text, Reason with Text section, there are text-dependent questions, and throughout each reading, there are strategies and activities that build students’ skills to complete the end of unit activities. Each unit includes three types of culminating activities: a Speaking and Listening Workshop, Writing Workshop, and Test Practice Workshop. The performance tasks that the students are asked to complete in these culminating activities correspond to the questions, discussions, and writing prompts.

    In Unit 3, tasks are loosely connected to unit texts, while others are not connected to texts. Students demonstrate a mastery of the unit skills rather than demonstrating understanding or knowledge. For example:

    • Speaking and Listening Workshop: Students deliver a Narrative Presentation: “The best topics for an oral presentation are the ones you know about and find interesting. An experience you have had or an event you have attended might make an exciting topic for an oral presentation.” Steps include, choose a suitable experience or event, use narrative techniques employed in writing, practice delivering your narrative. This task does not demonstrate knowledge of a topic, nor does it integrate skills.
    • Writing Workshop: Students write to Solve a Problem. “In this assignment, you will explain and then solve the problem you are dealing with in your own life, proposing one or more reasonable solutions.” This task does not connect to texts and does not demonstrate a building of knowledge of a topic.

    In Unit 6 tasks are loosely connected to unit texts, while others are not connected to texts. Students demonstrate a mastery of the unit skills rather than demonstrating understanding or knowledge. For example:

    • Speaking and Listening Workshop: Deliver a How to Presentation. Knowing how to give a how-to, or process, presentation is one of the most useful things you can learn about speaking. Giving clear directions is important not only in the classroom but also in the world of work. Many people's jobs involve giving this type of presentation. Make certain the steps you provide are complete, accurate, and in the proper sequence.” This workshop focuses on the skills of a How To presentation. It does not connect to a text or demonstrate knowledge of a topic through integrated skills.
    • Writing Workshop, Write a Personal Essay, Narrative Writing. "Write a personal essay that captures an essential aspect of your character. Purpose: To preserve a picture of who you are now and to share your thoughts with others. Audience: A new friend who does not know much about you or perhaps a potential employer or college admissions officer.” This workshop does not demonstrate knowledge of a topic or integrate skills.

    In Unit 8 tasks are loosely connected to unit texts, while others are not connected to texts. Students demonstrate a mastery of the unit skills rather than demonstrating understanding or knowledge. For example:

    • Speaking & Listening Workshop: For this workshop students evaluate a well-known speech or speaker. The instructions for this workshop are as follows: “A good way to learn about effective oral presentations is to observe skilled, experienced speakers in action...Another way to sharpen your oral presentation skills is to read and analyze a well-known speech or address by a respected speaker...Use the following questions as guidelines in analyzing a prominent speech.” The guidelines offered are as follows: “1. How Does the Message Fit the Occasion? 2. What Rhetorical Devices Does the Speaker Use, and How Effective Are They? 3. What Passages in the Speech Are Especially Memorable? 4. How Is the Speech Similar to or Different from Other Speeches of the Same Type? 5. Where Can I Find Other Prominent Speeches to Analyze?” The objectives for this workshop are as follows: “Locate a well-known address by a prominent speaker; evaluate the speech as a reflection of its time, for its use of rhetorical devices, and for its likely listener response; evaluate the speaker’s delivery, if an audiotape or videotape is available.” This workshop focuses on the skills of giving a presentation and does not demonstrate knowledge of a topic through integrated skills.
    • Writing Workshop: Students compose a descriptive poem. The task is defined as follows: “For this assignment, you will write a descriptive poem that portrays an object in a way that conveys your feelings about it.” This workshop does not does not demonstrate knowledge of a topic through integrated skills. This workshop focuses on the skills of descriptive poem. It does not connect to a text or demonstrate knowledge of a topic through integrated skills.

    Indicator 2e

    Materials include a cohesive, consistent approach for students to regularly interact with word relationships and build academic vocabulary/ language in context.
    2/4
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 partially meet the criteria that materials include a cohesive, consistent approach for students to regularly interact with word relationships and build academic vocabulary/language in context.

    Materials include vocabulary over the course of a school year, but there is no cohesive plan for students to interact with and build key academic vocabulary words in and across texts. Vocabulary is repeated in contexts, as seen in the Vocabulary and Spelling lessons which are integrated with two of the literature selections in each unit. These lessons incorporate vocabulary words from the preceding selection to provide context and repetition for students to increase their understanding and vocabulary knowledge. However, academic vocabulary is not repeated sufficiently across units throughout the course of the year.

    The Teacher’s Edition has key terms with definitions, but there is little to no representation of academic vocabulary. When the academic vocabulary is mentioned within a unit or along with a reading, they are not repeated sufficiently through the unit or throughout the course of the year.

    A Language Arts Handbook is provided as a student resource at the back of the text which includes Vocabulary and Spelling, and teachers can direct students to these resources.

    The Meeting the Standards Unit Resources do include cumulative vocabulary lists and the Teacher’s Edition provides a Building Vocabulary which includes an overview of all unit vocabulary words, academic vocabulary, and key terms. The Master word lists cover vocabulary from Common Core Tier One, Tier Two, and Tier Three words. Academic words included and addressed in the Vocabulary Practice Lessons that follow do not appear in other Vocabulary Lessons within the grade level and do not appear within the assessment practice or Writing Workshop within the same unit. Additionally, the Exceeding the Standards resource includes a vocabulary and spelling section that contains lessons and practice on word parts and word origins, borrowed words and informal language, testing vocabulary and choosing words, and working with academic vocabulary.

    In Unit 1, Annotated Teacher’s Edition, Part 1, Native American Traditions, Words in Use, Academic Vocabulary section, words listed are “distinct, diversity, nomadic, consistent, reverence, transmitted, autocracies, exclusive.” Key Terms listed are “myth, legend, oral literature.” These words are defined and discussed to increase students’ vocabulary knowledge.

    In Unit 2, Annotated Teacher’s Edition, Vocabulary & Spelling, Greek and Latin Words, Understand the Concept sections says, “The origins of many English words can be traced to ancient Greece and numerous words used today are derived from Latin, the language of the ancient Roman. As noted earlier, the word Thanatos is based on the Greek word thanatos, meaning ‘death.’” Students apply the skill in two Exercises: “Exercise A: Identify an English word that comes from each of the following Greek or Latin words parts. For each word, also identify the part of speech. Use a dictionary to help you.” There are five Greek and five Latin words listed. There is also a Spelling Practice section: “Recognizing Greek and Latin words and word parts will not only help you determine the meanings of words but will also help you spell them correctly.”

    In Unit 3, students read two anchor texts, both by Walt Whitman: an excerpt from the preface from Leaves of Grass and an excerpt from the poem “I Hear America Singing.” Students are presented with Academic Vocabulary for the two anchor texts (unconventional, organic, enlighten, regenerate, evocative, and blue-collar workers). The Preview Vocabulary (stalwart, teeming, nonchalance, disdain, audacity, prolific, picturesque, novelty, susceptibility, mason, and robust) definitions are included within the text, as students read. The student textbook also identifies where the words are located within the text.

    In Unit 4, Lesson 12, Exceeding the Standards resource, students are presented with an activity on literal vs. figurative language. Students then complete the Try It Yourself section, specifically Exercise A: “Identify each of the following examples as literal or figurative language.” An example of a question within Exercise A is as follows: “1. The leaves fell onto the recently raked lawn.” Within this section students also study the definitions and concept of the following literary devices: Metaphor, simile, and personification. Exercise B pushes students to “Identify each of the following as a metaphor, simile, or personification,” and Exercise C has students explain the following metaphor: “There comes a time when we all must spread our wings and leave the nest.”

    In Unit 5, students take part in a vocabulary and spelling lesson on semantic families. During the lesson they encounter these vocabulary words: carmine, cerise, and matriarch. They also review or learn these key terms: semantic family, connotation, and homophones. Once they understand the key terms, they practice their understanding of these terms by brainstorming a list of words or phrases for shades of a color and explaining how they differ.

    In Unit 6, students take part in a vocabulary and spelling lesson on contractions. During the lesson, they encounter these vocabulary words: informal, formal, and academic. They also review or learn these key terms: contraction, verb phrase, possessives, and tone. Once they understand the key terms, they practice their understanding of these terms by underlining the contractions and circling the possessives in a provided sentence.

    In Unit 7, Annotated Teacher's Edition, Vocabulary and Spelling, Understand the Concept section, students practice using Compound words: “In On The Road, Jack Kerouac's use of words such as countryfolk, hitchhiking, and foglight demonstrates the modern trend toward creating compound words, in which two or more words are joined to create a single meaning. Compound Nouns that are written as one word, with no space or punctuation are called closed compounds. Perhaps the most commonly used compounds are compound adjectives, such as part-time, two-lane, and follow-up.” Students practice Applying the Skill identifying compound nouns and adjectives.

    In Unit 8, Meeting the Standards resource, students complete a vocabulary exercise from the reading selection, “Son,” by John Updike. Students “Build Vocabulary: Adjectives for Character and Mood; Words that describe nouns or adjectives authors use adjectives as tools to establish character and mood and fiction. Find each adjective in the story and read the sentence in which it occurs. Write a definition for the adjective. Then write a sentence explaining what the adjective adds to your understanding of a character or the mood.”

    In Unit 9, Annotated Teacher's Edition, Vocabulary and Spelling, Understand the Concept section, students practice using Homophones: “One of the most confusing things about the English language is that some words sound alike but are spelled differently and have different functions and meanings. For instance, many people have trouble distinguishing between there, their, and they're and to, too, and two. These kind of words, which are called homophones, often are misused by writers who substitute one word for another.” Students Apply the skill by Identifying the Correct Homophones.

    Indicator 2f

    Materials contain a year long, cohesive plan of writing instruction and practice which support students in building and communicating substantive understanding of topics and texts.
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria that materials contain a year long, cohesive plan of writing instruction and practice which support students in building and communicating substantive understanding of topics and texts.

    The materials include a variety of resources and supports to provide a year long, cohesive plan of writing instruction and tasks. Throughout each unit, at the end of each reading selection, informal writing activities are provided. Students are gradually released to perform independent reading and tasks towards the end of each unit; each unit culminates with a Writing Workshop that has a highly scaffolded process toward a writing piece, as well as a scaffolded on-demand writing prompt. The assessments for Units 5 and 6 include an extended writing prompt, increasing the cognitive demand on students toward the end of the year. Throughout the year, both teacher and peers provide feedback to ensure that students' writing skills are increasing. Multiple additional writing supports can be found in the support materials of the curriculum.

    • The Common Core Assessment Practice booklet contains reading selections with occasional short answer questions that refer to the text and constructed response writing prompts covering argument, informational/explanatory, and narrative writing types.
    • The Meeting the Standards booklet has short answer questions that relate to texts and the use of literary elements, and it has worksheets that can be used to scaffold some of the Extend the Text writing prompts.
    • The Exceeding the Standards booklet gives detailed, structured support for the entire writing process for one type of writing per unit.
    • The Assessment Guide has a summative assessment for each of the reading selections in each unit that includes a writing prompt that requires students to reference the text.

    When all of the program resources are used in coordination with each other, teachers can provide a year long, cohesive plan of writing instruction and tasks which support students in building and communicating substantive understanding of topics and texts.

    Examples of a cohesive plan of writing instruction and tasks to meet the criteria for this indicator include, but are not limited to, the following:

    • In Unit 1, Annotated Teacher's Edition, there are three sections: Part One is Native American Traditions. After students read “The Navajo Creation Myth” in the Extend the Text, Writing Options, Creative Writing section, students are asked to “imagine that you have traveled back in time and want to explain to Osage or Navajo how your world is similar to theirs. Choose a 21st Century American novel, play, or film with a theme similar to the two Native American myths you just read. Write an essay relating the characters and text structures of the traditional stories to the characters and text structures of the contemporary work.” In Part Two, students write a letter to the King of Spain recommending an opposing appointment of Cabeza de Vaca to a governorship in South America and consider what Spain stands to gain or lose from the appointment. In Part Three, after students read “Poor Richard’s Almanac” by Benjamin Franklin in the Extend the Text, Writing Options, Creative Writing section, students are given the following prompt: “Imagine that you are Franklin. Write a want ad for the position of apprentice at the New England Courant, detailing the desired qualifications for and duties of the position.”
    • In Unit 2, Annotated Teacher's Edition, there are also three sections:
      • Part One is Fireside Poets. After students read the lyric poem, “Thanatopsis,” by William Cullen Bryant in the Extend the Text, Writing Options, Informative Writing section, students are asked to do the following: “In a one-paragraph literary analysis to be presented to members of a reading club, discuss the theme, or central ideas, of 'Thanatopsis.' To make your analysis credible, give evidence from the poem that supports your choice of theme.”
      • Part Two, Transcendentalism has an author focus on Ralph Waldo Emerson and include the poems, “Nature” and “The Rhodora.” In the Extend the Text, Writing Options, Informative Writing section, student are given the following prompt: “Write a comparison and contrast essay in which you point out the differences and similarities between Nature and 'The Rhodora.' Use examples from each selection to support your ideas."
      • In Part Three, American Gothic, in the Annotated Teacher's Edition, the author focus is on Edgar Allan Poe. After reading several of his writings, there is a Writing Workshop that focuses on setting: “To describe a setting, a writer needs to engage all of a reader’s senses. Assignment: Plan - write and revise a description of a setting. Prewrite - select your topic and gather information, organize your ideas and write an organizing statement, write a rough draft; Revise and Edit - read your paragraph,use the Revision Checklist to evaluate your draft to determine which sections need revising or editing."
    • In Unit 3, students read the poem, “Frederick Douglass,” by Robert Hayden and an excerpt from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, an autobiography by Frederick Douglass. Students are presented with a creative writing option that aims at capturing the emotions and feelings of slaves in early American history: “Write song lyrics about the slaves of Colonel Lloyd’s farm, using Douglass’s analogy of 'a man cast away upon a desolate island' to describe a slave’s feelings. Ask classmates to read your lyrics and identify the tone.” Students are further supported by the Analyze literature task regarding stereotype and tone: “What stereotype about slaves does Douglass reject in his description of the slaves’ singing? Why might some Northerners have believed in the stereotype of the happy slave? What tone does Douglass use at the beginning of the narrative to describe the organization and operation of the plantation? How does the changing tone of the narrative fit the change in topic?”
    • In Unit 3, students are presented with a Writing Workshop where they compose an argumentative essay. For this argumentative essay, students focus on solving a problem: “In this assignment, you will explain and then solve a problem you are dealing with in your own life, proposing one or more reasonable solutions.” This writing prompt is supported from understanding(s) of topics and texts read throughout Unit 3, “In this unit, you read about the Civil War, a tragic era in which issues of slavery, economics, and states’ rights divided the nation. Our understanding of these issues today is enhanced by reading the writing of the period. We can better understand slavery, for instance, by reading the autobiography of Frederick Douglass, who risked his life to publish this work and fight for abolition.”
    • In Unit 4, students read “Keeping the Thing Going While Things Are Stirring” and “Ain’t I a Woman,” both speeches by Sojourner Truth. Once students complete the reading of both texts, they are presented with an informative writing option: “Without changing the message, rewrite Truth’s speech in a formal, academic style, using conventional diction and syntax. Exchange oral readings of both versions with a partner. Together, compare your speeches against Truth’s, evaluating the clarity and coherence of the message in each version, and critiquing the impact of diction and syntax on an audience.”
    • In Unit 5, after reading the poems, “Petals” by Amy Lowell and “Mid-Day” by Hilda Doolittle, students complete a text extension writing activity: “Write a short comparison-and-contrast essay in which you discuss how nature imagery is used to create a mood in ‘Petals’ and ‘Mid-Day.’ Compare the imagery, mood, and ideas each author wants to convey in her poem.” The Meeting the Standards booklet has two supporting activities for this text, including one that supports this prompt where students complete an analysis of the authors’ use of extended metaphor in the poems.
    • At the end of Unit 6, students participate in a writing workshop where they complete a Multimedia Presentation: “Plan, create, and edit a multimedia presentation.” Every aspect of the writing process is detailed for the students, including selecting a topic; gathering information; writing a controlling idea; organizing ideas; drafting an introduction, body and conclusion; and revising, proofreading, and publishing.
    • In Unit 7, Annotated Teacher's Edition, students read The Crucible, Act 4, a drama by Arthur Miller. In the After Reading, Extend the Text, Writing Options, students practice Creative Writing: “Choose a character from The Crucible and write a paragraph that describes, from the character's point of view, his or her position on the events of the play. Include evidence from the play to support your character’s position. Be careful not to name or otherwise directly identify the character. In small groups, take turns reading your paragraphs aloud. As you listen to each reading, identify the position taken and the evidence supporting that position. Try to identify the character using this information.”
    • In Unit 8, Annotated Teacher's Edition, students read “Morning Song” and “Mirror,” lyric poems by Sylvia Plath. In the After Reading, Extend the Text, Writing Options, students practice Informative Writing: “Write a comparison-and-contrast essay in which you discuss the differences and similarities between the speakers and Plath’s poem. You may present your ideas point by point or analyze one poem at a time.”
    • In Unit 9 of the Annotated Teacher's Edition students read independently Fahrenheit 451: The Authorized Adaptation a graphic novel by Tim Hamilton. In Writing Options, question two, students write an Argumentative Essay: “Digital technology has made it possible to read most materials using media other than print. Will printed books become obsolete and ceased to exist? Write an argumentative essay in which you argue for or against the future of printed books.”

    Indicator 2g

    Materials include a progression of focused, shared research and writing projects to encourage students to develop and synthesize knowledge and understanding of a topic using texts and other source materials.
    4/4
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria that materials include a progression of focused, shared research and writing projects to encourage students to develop and synthesize knowledge and understanding of a topic using texts and other source materials.

    The materials provide frequent opportunities for students to engage in research activities that support the understanding of texts and topics within texts. Each selection is followed by at least one opportunity for students to engage in a research task, which includes a variety of individual, partner, and small group projects. Throughout each unit, students are presented with an After Reading section after each text or grouping of texts. Within most After Reading sections, students complete tasks in categories such as: Media Literacy, Lifelong Learning, Critical Literacy, Collaborative Learning, etc. Within these categories, students compose research that is influenced by the topic(s), themes, and genre of the specified reading selection. The textbook offers research opportunities through various writing options also located within the After Reading section. Materials meet the expectations of including a progression of focused research projects to encourage students to develop knowledge in a given area by confronting and analyzing different aspects of a topic using multiple texts and source materials. Research projects are varied throughout the instructional materials and offer tasks that are connected to most texts within a unit.

    In addition to opportunities in the textbook, the Exceeding the Standards resource provides extension activities for several selections that ask the students to engage in a more complex research process with multiple steps. The grade 11 research tasks support the intent and depth of the standards.

    In Unit 1, in the Annotated Teacher’s Edition, students read, “The Osage Creation Account” and “The Navajo Creation Myth,” creation myths. In the After Reading, Extend the Text, Writing Options, Lifelong Learning section, students Learn More About the Osage or Navajo: “As a class, develop a list of aspects of Navajo or Osage life about which you want to learn more, such as what happened to the Osage or Navajo once they encountered European settlers or how they governed themselves. Assign topics to small small groups; have each group research its topic and deliver an oral presentation to the class.”

    In Unit 2, in the Annotated Teacher’s Edition, students read, “from Common Sense” and “from The Crisis, No. 1,” an essay and a pamphlet by Thomas Paine. In the After Reading, Extend the Text, Writing Options, Lifelong Learning section, students Research Life Expectancy: “Conduct research on life expectancy in the United States to determine trends over the last two hundred years and to project trends into the near future. Also identify factors such as gender, race/ ethnicity, disease, and lifestyle that affect individual life expectancy. Summarize this information in a newsletter and intended for someone your age. Offer recommendations for living a long healthy life.”

    In Unit 3, students read “At the Public Market Museum: Charleston, South Carolina,” by Jane Kenyon. At the close of reading in the After Reading section, students participate in a Lifelong

    Learning assignment: Interview a War Veteran. “Interview someone who fought in a war. (You can contact the American Legion or Veterans of Foreign Wars to locate interviewees.) To prepare for the interview, research the war to find out where it was fought and for what purpose. Prepare questions that ask about the veteran’s role in the war and memories of serving. In conducting the interview, be sensitive to the veteran’s feelings. There may be something he or she does not want to discuss. After the interview, write a letter thanking the veteran for his or her service to the country.”

    In Unit 4, students read “The Outcasts of Poker Flat,” by Bret Harte. At the close of the text in the After Reading section students practice Informative Writing: “Write a critical essay that describes how ‘The Outcasts of Poker Flat’ is an example of regional literature. In portraying the American West, how does Harte characterize its landscape, people, values, and lifestyle? What impression does he create of this time and place?”

    In Unit 5, students read an excerpt from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. At the close of the text in the After Reading section, students complete a Media Literacy task: “With two or three classmates, research an aspect of the 1920s, also called the Roaring Twenties and the Jazz Age. You might choose from these topics: Prohibition, music and entertainment, historical events, and the economy. Create a multimedia presentation combining photographs, video, illustrations, and text.”

    In Unit 5, students read two excerpts from Ernest Hemmingway’s canonical novels: The Sun Also Rises and For Whom the Bell Tolls. At the close of the text in the After Reading section, students complete a Lifelong Learning task: “Imagine that you are writing a biography of Ernest Hemingway. Using the Internet, identify places to which you should travel to conduct research. Write an itinerary listing each location and what you should research there.”

    In Unit 6, students complete a Writing Workshop. For this Writing Workshop, students must create a multimedia presentation. The assignment states that students will “create a multimedia presentation that discusses anspect of World War II or the Depression”; the purpose in completing this writing workshop is “To explore a topic related to World War II or the Depression.” For this multimedia presentation, students must complete a Prewrite section that supports students in the following areas: Select Your Topic, Gather Information, Write Your Controlling Idea, and Organize Your Ideas. Students then complete a Draft phase of their research that supports in the following areas: Draft Your Introduction, Draft Your Body, and Draft Your Conclusion. To close the Writing Workshop, students must complete the Revise section that supports students in the following areas: Evaluate Your Draft and Revise for Content, Organization, and Style. Students will then Deliver or Record said presentation. Once the workshop has been completed, students will then complete the Writing Follow-Up section that supports students in the following areas: Publish and Present and Reflect.

    In Unit 7, students read “The Magic Barrel,” a short story by Bernard Malamud. After reading the selection, students complete a Collaborative Learning assignment where they “research the practice of matchmaking in several different cultures. Establish two teams and prepare a debate on the topic. One team will argue the benefits of modern matchmaking, and the other will argue its drawbacks. After the debate, discuss which argument was more persuasive and why.”

    In Unit 8, students read “Letter from Birmingham Jail” by Martin Luther King, Jr. After reading the selection, students complete a Lifelong Learning assignment where they prepare a timeline: “With a partner or a group, prepare a timeline of the events leading up to the writing of King’s letter. Then briefly describe how the eight clerics, the media, and the public reacted to the letter. Illustrate the timeline and description with photographs for the Internet.”

    Indicator 2h

    Materials provide a design, including accountability, for how students will regularly engage in a volume of independent reading either in or outside of class.
    4/4
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    Indicator Rating Details

    The instructional materials reviewed for Grade 11 meet the criteria that materials provide a design, including accountability, for how students will regularly engage in a volume of independent reading either in or outside of class.

    The materials use a gradual release of responsibility model in order to engage, motivate, and challenge students. The selections for Units 1-5 begin as Guided Reading, move to Directed Reading, and end in Independent Reading. Instead of students choosing texts that they would like to read, the textbook provides the independent texts. In the independent reading phase, there is minimal support before and after reading, and students apply the skills they have learned throughout the unit independently. At the close of every Independent Reading, students are held accountable for their independent reading task in their answering of three Refer and Reason questions and two Writing Options.

    At the end of each unit, there is a list of suggested readings that relate to the topics and subject matter in the unit as a reference for students who wish to further their interests. The Program Planning Guide includes a Reading Log for students to keep track of their weekly reading: date, title, author, pages read, summary/reactions, and genre. The Reading Log provides accountability for outside of class reading, and end-of-selection Refer and Reason questions provide accountability for in-class independent reading selections. Additional supports for students are found in several of the curricular resources such as the Meeting the Standards and the Exceeding the Standards resource guides.

    Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:

    In Unit 1, students read “The Head of Humbaba” from Gilgamesh. At the close of the text, students are held accountable for their independent reading task in their answering of three Refer and Reason questions and two Writing Options.

    • An example of a Refer and Reason question is as follows: “3. Recall some of Beowulf's heroic traits. How might Beowulf have handled the battle with Humbaba? How might Gilgamesh have handled the situation with Grendel? Who is the greater hero: Beowulf or Gilgamesh? Explain.
    • An example of a Writing Options question is as follows: “1. The cities and communities surrounding the great cedar forest do not know that Humbaba has been slain. Write a public service announcement proclaiming his death and the facts of how he died and emphasizing that the cedar forest is now safe for humans to visit.”

    In Unit 2, students read, “The Honeysuckle Chevrefoil” by Marie de France. At the close of the text, students are held accountable for their independent reading task in their answering of three Refer and Reason questions and two Writing Options.

    • An example of a Refer and Reason question is as follows: “2. Why does Tristan return to Cornwall? Infer what Tristen's actions reveal about his feelings for the queen.”
    • An example of a Writing Options question is as follows: “1. Imagine that you are the queen. How do you feel about the dangerous double life you are leading as both the king's wife and the true love of his nephew? Write a journal entry from the queen's point of view about being separated from Tristan.”

    In Unit 3, Annotated Teacher’s Edition, Part One: A Nation Divided, there is an overview at the beginning. Under Preview the Literature, Independent Readings, it says, “Independent readings appear at the end of each part of the unit. They provide opportunities for students to use reading and literary analysis strategies and skills independently. Options for independent readings include sustained silent reading, homework, test practice and extra credit.”

    In Unit 4, Annotated Teacher’s Edition, Part 3: Struggling for Equality, students read the Anchor text, “Keeping the Thing Going While Things are Stirring” by Sojourner Truth. At the close of the text, students are held accountable for their independent reading task in their answering of five Refer and Reason questions and two Writing Options. Students also Analyze Literature, Style, and Dialect.

    In Unit 5, Part 1, students read E. E. Cummings’s poem, “Somewhere I Have Never Traveled, Gladly Beyond.” At the close of the text, students are held accountable for their independent reading task in their answering of three Refer and Reason questions and two Writing Options.

    • An example of a Refer and Reason question is as follows: “2. What does the speaker understand about the subject of this poem? Evaluate the effect the subject has on the speaker of that poem.”
    • An example of a Writing Options question is as follows: “2. Imagine that a classmate tells you he or she thinks that Cummings’s unconventional style makes his poetry less valuable as art. Do you agree or disagree? In response to your classmate’s statement, write a brief paragraph in which you explore Cummings’s unconventional style.”

    In Unit 6, Part 2, students read Tennessee Williams’s “Portrait of a Girl,” a short story. At the close of the text, students are held accountable for their independent reading task in their answering of three Refer and Reason questions and two Writing Options.

    • An example of a Refer and Reason question is as follows: “3. How are Tom and his father alike? Explain whether Tom feels he has made the right choice at the end of the story. Could he have realized his own dreams and continued his relationship with his family? Why or why not?”
    • An example of a Writing Options question is as follows: “1. Rewrite the scene when Jim Delaney comes to dinner from Laura’s point of view. Make your version consistent with both the events that occurred and Laura’s character, but reveal more of Laura’s thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.”

    Within the Program Planning textbook, teachers are provided a Reading Log to give students. The Reading Log consists of sections for the date in which the text was read, title, author, pages read, and a section for summary/reactions. At the bottom of the Reading Log, students must select the genre read, which consists of the following: Fiction, Nonfiction, Poetry, Drama, and Folk Literature. This reading log is kept throughout the entirety of the unit.

    In Unit 7, students read the independent reading selection “Once More to the Lake,” an essay by E. B. White. Students answer Refer and Reason questions at the text to check their comprehension and interpretation of the text. Examples of these questions are as follows:

    • “Identify the points at which White is uncertain whether he is his father or he is his son. What about these moments makes White go back in time?
    • How has technology and the passage of time affected the lake? Is White overly nostalgic about the ‘wonderful fuss about trunks’ and the ‘ten-mile haul’? Explain.
    • What does White feel when his son prepares to go swimming? Describe how revisiting a place from your childhood might be as much about loss as it is about making new memories.”

    In Unit 9, students read the independent reading selection “A Story,” a lyric poem by Li-Young Lee. Students answer Refer and Reason questions at the text to check their comprehension and interpretation of the text. Examples of these questions are as follows:

    1. “Describe the setting of the poem and the people involved. Infer the importance of storytelling to their relationship.”

    2. “In stanzas 4 and 5, what is the father envisioning? What does he realize about his son, himself, and their relationship?”

    3. “How does the tone, or emotional attitude, of stanza 6 differ from that of stanza 5? Interpret what the change in tone suggests about the father’s feelings.”

    Gateway Three

    Usability

    Not Rated

    Criterion 3a - 3e

    null
    0/8

    Indicator 3a

    Materials are well-designed (i.e., allows for ease of readability and are effectively organized for planning) and take into account effective lesson structure (e.g., introduction and lesson objectives, teacher modelling, student practice, closure) and short-term and long-term pacing.
    0/2

    Indicator 3b

    The teacher and student can reasonably complete the content within a regular school year, and the pacing allows for maximum student understanding.
    0/2

    Indicator 3c

    The student resources include ample review and practice resources, clear directions, and explanation, and correct labeling of reference aids (e.g., visuals, maps, etc.).
    0/2

    Indicator 3d

    Materials include publisher-produced alignment documentation of the standards addressed by specific questions, tasks, and assessment items.
    0/2

    Indicator 3e

    The visual design (whether in print or digital) is not distracting or chaotic, but supports students in engaging thoughtfully with the subject.
    0/0

    Criterion 3f - 3j

    Materials support teacher learning and understanding of the Standards.
    0/8

    Indicator 3f

    Materials contain a teacher's edition with ample and useful annotations and suggestions on how to present the content in the student edition and in the ancillary materials. Where applicable, materials include teacher guidance for the use of embedded technology to support and enhance student learning.
    0/2

    Indicator 3g

    Materials contain a teacher's edition that contains full, adult-level explanations and examples of the more advanced literacy concepts so that teachers can improve their own knowledge of the subject, as necessary.
    0/2

    Indicator 3h

    Materials contain a teacher's edition that explains the role of the specific ELA/literacy standards in the context of the overall curriculum.
    0/2

    Indicator 3i

    Materials contain explanations of the instructional approaches of the program and identification of the research-based strategies.
    0/2

    Indicator 3j

    Materials contain strategies for informing all stakeholders, including students, parents, or caregivers about the ELA/literacy program and suggestions for how they can help support student progress and achievement.
    0/0

    Criterion 3k - 3n

    Materials offer teachers resources and tools to collect ongoing data about student progress on the Standards.
    0/8

    Indicator 3k

    Materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that genuinely measure student progress.
    0/2

    Indicator 3l

    The purpose/use of each assessment is clear:
    0/0

    Indicator 3l.i

    Assessments clearly denote which standards are being emphasized.
    0/2

    Indicator 3l.ii

    Assessments provide sufficient guidance to teachers for interpreting student performance and suggestions for follow-up.
    0/2

    Indicator 3m

    Materials should include routines and guidance that point out opportunities to monitor student progress.
    0/2

    Indicator 3n

    Materials indicate how students are accountable for independent reading based on student choice and interest to build stamina, confidence, and motivation.
    0/0

    Criterion 3o - 3r

    Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so that they demonstrate independent ability with grade-level standards.
    0/10

    Indicator 3o

    Materials provide teachers with strategies for meeting the needs of a range of learners so the content is accessible to all learners and supports them in meeting or exceeding the grade-level standards.
    0/2

    Indicator 3p

    Materials regularly provide all students, including those who read, write, speak, or listen below grade level, or in a language other than English, with extensive opportunities to work with grade level text and meet or exceed grade-level standards.
    0/4

    Indicator 3q

    Materials regularly include extensions and/or more advanced opportunities for students who read, write, speak, or listen above grade level.
    0/2

    Indicator 3r

    Materials provide opportunities for teachers to use a variety of grouping strategies.
    0/2

    Criterion 3s - 3v

    Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning. Digital materials are accessible and available in multiple platforms.
    0/0

    Indicator 3s

    Digital materials (either included as supplementary to a textbook or as part of a digital curriculum) are web-based, compatible with multiple Internet browsers (e.g., Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, etc.), "platform neutral" (i.e., are compatible with multiple operating systems such as Windows and Apple and are not proprietary to any single platform), follow universal programming style, and allow the use of tablets and mobile devices. This qualifies as substitution and augmentation as defined by the SAMR model. Materials can be easily integrated into existing learning management systems.
    0/0

    Indicator 3t

    Materials support effective use of technology to enhance student learning, drawing attention to evidence and texts as appropriate and providing opportunities for modification and redefinition as defined by the SAMR model.
    0/0

    Indicator 3u

    Materials can be easily customized for individual learners.
    0/0

    Indicator 3u.i

    Digital materials include opportunities for teachers to personalize learning for all students, using adaptive or other technological innovations.
    0/0

    Indicator 3u.ii

    Materials can be easily customized by schools, systems, and states for local use.
    0/0

    Indicator 3v

    Materials include or reference technology that provides opportunities for teachers and/or students to collaborate with each other (e.g. websites, discussion groups, webinars, etc.)
    0/0

    Additional Publication Details

    Report Published Date: Wed Oct 24 00:00:00 UTC 2018

    Report Edition: 2016

    Title ISBN Edition Publisher Year
    Grade 11 Mirrors & Windows Teacher Edition-American Tradition 978-0-82197-397-4 EMC School 2016
    Grade 11 Mirrors & Windows Student Edition-American Tradition 978-0-82197-419-3 EMC School 2016

    About Publishers Responses

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    Once a review is complete, publishers have the opportunity to post a 1,500-word response to the educator report and a 1,500-word document that includes any background information or research on the instructional materials.

    Educator-Led Review Teams

    Each report found on EdReports.org represents hundreds of hours of work by educator reviewers. Working in teams of 4-5, reviewers use educator-developed review tools, evidence guides, and key documents to thoroughly examine their sets of materials.

    After receiving over 25 hours of training on the EdReports.org review tool and process, teams meet weekly over the course of several months to share evidence, come to consensus on scoring, and write the evidence that ultimately is shared on the website.

    All team members look at every grade and indicator, ensuring that the entire team considers the program in full. The team lead and calibrator also meet in cross-team PLCs to ensure that the tool is being applied consistently among review teams. Final reports are the result of multiple educators analyzing every page, calibrating all findings, and reaching a unified conclusion.

    ELA HS Rubric and Evidence Guides

    The ELA review rubrics identify the criteria and indicators for high quality instructional materials. The rubrics support a sequential review process that reflect the importance of alignment to the standards then consider other high-quality attributes of curriculum as recommended by educators.

    For ELA, our rubrics evaluate materials based on:

    • Text Quality and Complexity, and Alignment to Standards with Tasks Grounded in Evidence

    • Building Knowledge with Texts, Vocabulary, and Tasks

    • Instructional Supports and Usability

    The ELA Evidence Guides complement the rubrics by elaborating details for each indicator including the purpose of the indicator, information on how to collect evidence, guiding questions and discussion prompts, and scoring criteria.

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